Book Description

Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging aims to equip anyone studying geriatric nutrition or working with aging adults with the latest scientific reviews of critical topics. The major objective of this book is to review, in detail, the health problems of the aged and how normal food, lifestyle, or nutritional and dietary supplements can help treat them.

Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems are often quite distinct from those required for young people. The special nutrition problems of the aged are intensively researched and tested, especially as the elderly become a larger percentage of the population. Many chronic diseases and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged, and it is also widely known that many elderly people use foods and nutrients well above the recommended daily allowance, which can be detrimental to optimal health.

  • Explains the evidence supporting nutritional interventions relevant to age-related diseases
  • Reviews the macro- and micro-nutrient requirements of aging adults and their variables
  • Describes how alcohol, drugs, and caffeine can impact deficiencies, also exploring functional food and dietary supplements that can be used for prevention and treatment

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Part I: Overview Health and Aging
    1. Chapter 1. Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Dietary Fiber
      4. GI and Gut Microbiota
      5. The Role of SCFAs in Health and Disease
      6. Ongoing and Future Directions
      7. References
    2. Chapter 2. Aging and the Recovery of Skin Function and Appearance
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Skin Aging
      4. Diet and Skin Aging
      5. The Mediterranean Diet
      6. References
    3. Chapter 3. Changes in Nutritional Needs With Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Age-Related Changes Affect Nutrition
      4. Changes in Nutritional Needs
      5. Using Supplements
      6. Assessing Nutritional Status
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    4. Chapter 4. Sugars, Glucocorticoids, and the Hypothalamic Controls of Appetite
      1. Abstract
      2. Overview
      3. The Lipogenesis Hypothesis
      4. Sugar Solutions and the Hypothalamus
      5. Sugars and the Hypothalamus: Evidence from Humans
      6. Conclusions and Summary
      7. References
    5. Chapter 5. Appetite Regulation in Healthy Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Reduced Appetite and Energy Intake During Aging
      4. Less Suppression of Appetite and Energy Intake in Older People
      5. Gastrointestinal Regulation of Appetite and Energy Intake
      6. Appetite Regulation in Healthy Older Subjects
      7. Appetite Regulation in Malnourished Older Subjects
      8. Loss of Body Weight During Aging
      9. Loss of Muscle Mass During Aging
      10. Conclusion
      11. References
    6. Chapter 6. Human Microbiome and Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Human Microbiome
      4. Microbiome Through the Human Life Cycle
      5. Microbiome and the Immune Response
      6. Impact of Diet on Microbiota
      7. Therapeutic Interventions for Microbial Manipulation
      8. Implications for Health and Disease
      9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
      10. Anxiety and Depression
      11. Conclusion
      12. Acknowledgment
      13. References
    7. Chapter 7. Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Role of Obesity and Nutrients
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Pathophysiology of Fibromyalgia
      4. Fibromyalgia and Obesity
      5. Symptoms of FMS and Obesity
      6. Role of Diet and Micronutrients in Fibromyalgia
      7. Summary
      8. References
    8. Chapter 8. Aging and Gait
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Mechanics of Changes in Gait
      4. Changes in Body Structure and Physiological Functions
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    9. Chapter 9. Assessment of Nutritional Status in the Elderly
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Medical History With a Particular Emphasis on the Nutritional History and Physical Examination
      4. Anthropometric Tests
      5. Biochemical Tests
      6. Survey Methods
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    10. Chapter 10. Eating Capability Assessments in Elderly Populations
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Eating Capability: Definition and Constituents
      4. Hand Force Assessments
      5. Actions in the Oral Cavity: Mastication and Swallowing
      6. Tongue Capability Assessment
      7. Swallowing Capability Assessment
      8. Assessing Sensing Capability
      9. The Eating Capability Concept in Use
      10. Conclusions
      11. References
  9. Part II: Nutrients (Vitamins and Minerals) in Health in Aging Adults
    1. Chapter 11. Healthy Food Choice and Dietary Behavior in the Elderly
      1. Abstract
      2. Why Do We Eat What We Eat?
      3. Determinants of Dietary Behavior
      4. Design and Methods
      5. Discussion and Applications
      6. References
    2. Chapter 12. Vitamin D and Diabetes in Elderly People
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Potential Mechanisms and Pathways for an Effect of Vitamin D in Diabetes
      4. Epidemiological Evidence of Hypovitaminosis D as a Risk Factor for Diabetes
      5. Vitamin D and Diabetes in the Elderly
      6. Conclusions
      7. References
    3. Chapter 13. Vitamin D and the Elderly Orthopedic Patient
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Vitamin D
      4. References
    4. Chapter 14. Vitamins and Minerals in Older Adults: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Deficiency
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Needs
      4. Causes of Deficiency
      5. Diagnosis of Deficiency
      6. Treatment
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    5. Chapter 15. The Role of B Group Vitamins and Choline in Cognition and Brain Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Role of B Group Vitamins and Choline in Normal Brain Functioning and Neuroprotection
      4. The Homocysteine Cycle: Biochemistry and Clinical Implications
      5. Conclusions
      6. References
    6. Chapter 16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Vitamin B12 Absorption
      4. Vitamin B12 Metabolism and Function
      5. Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly
      6. Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
      7. Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
      8. Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in the Institutionalized Elderly
      9. Therapeutic Management
      10. Screening for Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly
      11. References
    7. Chapter 17. Vitamin E Isoform-Specific Functions in Allergic Inflammation and Asthma
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Vitamin E Isoforms, Sources, and Functions
      4. Asthma and Allergic Lung Inflammation
      5. Clinical Studies of Asthma and Tocopherol Isoforms
      6. Comparing Tocopherol Doses in Humans and Preclinical Mouse Studies
      7. Alpha-Tocopherol and Gamma-Tocopherol Regulate Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyper-Responsiveness in Preclinical Adult Animal Studies
      8. Tocopherol Regulation of Leukocyte Recruitment
      9. Maternal Tocopherols and Offspring Development of Allergy
      10. Alpha-Tocopherol and Gamma-Tocopherol: Opposing Functions in Other Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
      11. Conclusions
      12. References
  10. Part III: Dietary Supplements and Herbs, Functional Foods, in Health in Aging Adults
    1. Chapter 18. Polyphenols and Intestinal Health
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Role of Gut Microbiota in Intestinal and Systemic Health
      4. Classes, Subclasses, Examples, and Sources of Dietary Polyphenols
      5. Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Properties of Polyphenols
      6. Influence of Polyphenols on Macro- and Micronutrient Bioavailability
      7. Polyphenol Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization
      8. Polyphenol–Microbe Interactions
      9. Intestinal Health Benefits of Polyphenols
      10. Conclusions and Implications
      11. References
    2. Chapter 19. Nootropics, Functional Foods, and Dietary Patterns for Prevention of Cognitive Decline
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Dietary Patterns and Complete Nutritional Plans With Cognitive Implications
      4. Micronutrients With Possible Effects on Cognition
      5. Foods, Herbs, Spices, and Dietary Complements With Functional Properties in Terms of Neuroprotection and Possible Cognitive Enhancement
      6. Medical Foods
      7. Conclusions
      8. References
    3. Chapter 20. Chalcones Target the Tumor Necrosis Factor–Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Signaling Pathway for Cancer Chemoprevention
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Characteristics of TRAIL and Apoptosis Induced by TRAIL
      4. Characteristics of Chalcones
      5. Chalcone Potential for Enhancing TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in Cancer Cells
      6. References
    4. Chapter 21. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Ingredients, Medicinal Plants, and Herbs Exert Beneficial Health Effects in Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Renal Function
      4. Cognitive Function
      5. Conclusion
      6. Conflict of Interest
      7. References
    5. Chapter 22. Calorie Restriction Mimetics From Functional Foods: Impact on Promoting a Healthy Life Span
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction: Calorie Restriction
      3. CRMS in Mediating Metabolic Pathways of Calorie Restriction
      4. Targeting SIRT-1 for CRM Discovery and Development
      5. Concluding Remarks and Perspectives
      6. References
    6. Chapter 23. Nutraceuticals for Healthy Skin Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Oxidative Stress
      4. Beta-Carotene
      5. Biotin
      6. Coenzyme Q10 or Ubiquinone
      7. Citrulline–Arginine
      8. Isoflavone Soy Beans
      9. L-carnosine
      10. Lycopene
      11. Lutein
      12. Melatonin
      13. Omega-3
      14. Polyphenols
      15. Prebiotics
      16. Probiotics
      17. Selenium
      18. Silicon
      19. Vitamin C
      20. Vitamin E
      21. Zinc
      22. Conclusions
      23. References
      24. Further Reading
    7. Chapter 24. Effects of Resveratrol on Cognitive Functions
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Background: Sources and Pharmacokinetics of Resveratrol
      4. Animal Studies
      5. Human Studies
      6. Mechanisms
      7. Limitations and Challenges for Future Studies
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
    8. Chapter 25. North American Natural Health Products and Sexual Function in Aging Adults
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Kingdom Animalia
      4. Kingdom Plantae
      5. Kingdom Bacteria
      6. Kingdom Fungi
      7. Kingdom Protista
      8. Discussion
      9. Acknowledgments
      10. References
  11. Part IV: Protein and Energy in Health and Growth of Elderly
    1. Chapter 26. Physiological Aspects of Coenzyme Q10 in Plasma in Relationship with Exercise and Aging
      1. Abstract
      2. Overview
      3. Do Levels of CoQ Decrease During Aging?
      4. Importance of CoQ in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
      5. CoQ10 Levels Can Be Modified by Physical Activity and Lifestyle
      6. Plasma CoQ10 and Obesity
      7. Regulation of CoQ10 Levels in Plasma
      8. Effect of Statins on CoQ10 Levels
      9. Concluding Remarks
      10. Acknowledgments
      11. References
    2. Chapter 27. Cellular and Physiological Effects of Arginine in Seniors
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Sources of Arginine
      4. Biochemistry of Arginine
      5. Arginine Physiology and Biological Importance
      6. Arginine Dosing and Supplementation
      7. References
    3. Chapter 28. Late-Onset Caloric Restriction Alters Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Mechanisms from Animal and Human Studies
      1. Abstract
      2. Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
      3. Skeletal Muscle Metabolism Changes with Aging
      4. Impacts of the Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
      5. Mechanisms of Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
      6. Caloric Restriction Alters Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
      7. Mechanisms of the CR-Induced Alteration in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
    4. Chapter 29. Healthy Foods for Healthy Aging: The Case for Protein
      1. Abstract
      2. Recommendations: An Instruction Manual for Eating to Achieve Healthy Aging
      3. Dietary Protein: The Foundation of a Healthy Body and Healthy Aging
      4. Milk: A Natural Functional Food for a Strong and Healthy Body
      5. Eggs: A Nutritious Food with Big Health Benefits
      6. Seafood: Powerful Help for Healthy Aging
      7. Meat and Poultry: A Juicy Issue
      8. Food Choices for the Elderly: Are These Good for Healthy Aging?
      9. Social Influences, Values, Attitudes, and Meat: Behind the Scenes of Food Choices
      10. Culture, Perceptions of Food Choices, and Eating Habits: Perception Is Reality
      11. The Mediterranean Diet: Fast-Food Advice
      12. Conclusions
      13. References
  12. Index