We wish to extend our appreciation to the many persons who provided assistance and encouragement during these three projects. We are grateful to the following persons for their review of the text, either in part or in its entirety. Their corrections, suggestions, and insight proved invaluable during the preparation of the textbook, and their suggestions were liberally incorporated into the text. The reviewers are Bob Bass, petrophysicist; Margaret S. Bishop, professor of geology (University of Houston, retired); Robert Bodziak, geophysicist (Pioneer); William G. Brown, consultant and professor of geology (Baylor University); John C. Crowell, professor emeritus (University of California–Santa Barbara); Wendalin Frantz, professor of geology (Bloomsburg University, retired); James Harris, geological engineering consultant, retired; Frank Harrison, consultant and past president of AAPG (1981–82); Ron Hartman, geophysicist and past president of International Exploration; Martin Link (Core Laboratories, Inc.); Brian Lock, professor of geology (University of Louisiana at Lafayette); Donald Dorn Lopez; Miguel Morales, geophysicist (Chevron); John Mosar, geologist (Geological Survey of Norway); Wayne Orlowski, geoscience applications manager (Silicon Graphics, Inc.); Gary Rapp, manager, offshore exploitation and development (Amerada Hess Corporation); Earl Roberts, geophysicist (Pioneer); Mike Sewell, reservoir engineer (Newfield Exploration Company); John H. Shaw (Harvard University); Emery Steffenhagen, petroleum geologist (retired); Ken Thies; Scott Wilkerson; Hongbin Xiao, structural geologist (Saudi Aramco); and David Watso (Unocal Corp.).
We are grateful to the numerous companies, organizations, professional societies, and especially to our colleagues and friends for their contributions, which have improved the quality of all three editions of this textbook: American Association of Petroleum Geologists; American Geophysical Union; American Journal of Science; Anadarko Petroleum Corporation; Margaret S. Bishop, professor of geology (University of Houston, retired); Wayne Boeckelman Sr., drafting supervisor (Atwater Consultants, Ltd.); Joseph L. Brewton, Subsurface Consultants & Associates, LLP.; William G. Brown, consultant and professor of geology (Baylor University); Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas; Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists; CGG Land; Chinese Petroleum Institute; Colorado School of Mines; Denver Geophysical Society; Earth Resources Foundation (University of Sydney); Eastman Christensen; Elsevier Science Journal of Structural Geology; Gardes Directional Drilling; Geological Society of America; Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies; Gulf Publishing Company; Gyrodata, Inc.; Clay Harmon, geophysicist and principal (Juniper Energy, L.P.); James Harris, geological engineering consultant (retired); Steve Hook, advanced geologist (Texaco USA); Houston Geological Society; IHRDC; Jebco Seismic, Inc.; Journal of Petroleum Technology; Brian Lock, professor of geology (University of Louisiana at Lafayette); Lafayette Geological Society; Don Medwedeff, senior research geologist (Arco Oil and Gas); Merlin Profilers, Inc.; John Mosar, geologist (Geological Survey of Norway); Van Mount, senior research geologist (Arco Oil and Gas); Muzium Brunei; National Research Council of Canada; New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources; New Orleans Geological Society; Petrôleos de Venezuela, S.A.; Harvey Pousson, associate professor of mathematics (University of Louisiana at Lafayette); Friends at Pioneer Natural Resources; Pearson Inc.; Princeton University; Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists; Dietrich Roeder, consultant; Royal Society of London; Sandefer Oil and Gas, Inc.; Seitel Data Ltd.; John Shaw, chaired professor (Harvard University); Ted Snedden, geologist, Basin Systems Research (Texaco E&P Technology Division); Sociedad Venezolana de Geôlogos; Society for Sedimentary Geology; Subsurface Consultants & Associates LLC; John Suppe, Blair professor of geology (Princeton University, University of Houston); Swiss Geological Society; Tectonophysics; Tenneco Oil Company; Texaco USA, Eastern E&P Region; TGS Offshore Geophysical Company; United States Geological Survey; Mike Welborne, reservoir engineer and operations manager (Gas Transportation Corporation); W. H. Freeman and Company; W. W. Norton and Company, Inc.; and Hongbin Xiao, structural geologist (Saudi Aramco).
A textbook is enhanced by the quality of the figures contained in it. We are indebted to several outstanding drafts people for their understanding, cooperation, and especially their conscientiousness in the preparation of the hundreds of line drawings contained in this text. Sharon Light (Chevron USA) has superior drafting skills and did an outstanding job in the preparation of numerous figures; she was responsible for the special illustrations. Steve Nelson (independent draftsman) was extremely patient with our many changes; the figures he prepared illustrate his exceptional drafting talent. Thank you both.
From the first edition to the second, we went from ink and graph paper to powerful computer programs for drafting many of the new figures. We wish to extend our appreciation to Oanh Nguyen for his talent and dedication in the preparation of the figures and the layout of the book in the second edition.
We are grateful to the many individuals who provided support in the form of typing, word processing, reproduction, data collection, organization, and secretarial assistance: Elsie Bischke, Karen Davis, Susie Melacen, Nicole Tearpock-McMorris, Danielle Tearpock-Hitt, Paula Hebert, and Laura Washispack.
For several reasons, this second edition was more difficult to prepare than the first edition. Dr. Larry Walker served as our internal editor for this second edition. But Larry was much more than an editor. He helped us improve our ideas, made many sound recommendations to both the text and figures, provided guidance in frustrating circumstances, and brought a calm, steady organized plan to the development of the second edition. Much thanks goes out to Larry Walker.
We owe a special thanks to Karen Hundl for her diligent work in the conversion of files, word processing, proofreading, reproduction, and many other important services she has provided to us in the preparation of the second edition. Karen has been an inspiration and a great person with whom to work. Thanks, Karen.
We greatly expanded the depth and scope of this second edition, calling on the expertise of several of our friends in the industry, who are experts in their own right, to contribute to the writing of certain sections.
We wish to thank David Metzner, geophysicist, for his hard work, knowledge, dedication, and contributions to Chapter 9, Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data. David is an exceptionally talented geophysicist. He not only understands the philosophical doctrine presented in Chapter 1 and throughout the book, but is dedicated to its rigorous application. His contribution provides a significant enhancement to the textbook. Thank you, Dave.
Geologists have lagged in their use of computers for several reasons, including the lack of digital log databases, limited computer proficiency, and primitive software design. This is all changing. William C. Ross is one of the true pioneers in sound log correlation software. With the advances that Bill and others are making, geologists stand on the brink of a significant increase in productivity with the use of the computer.
Bill Ross and Nancy Ash-Shofner, of A2D Technologies, are contributing authors to several sections of this second edition. Their contribution centers around computer-based log correlation in Chapter 4 and computer-generated cross sections in Chapter 6. Bill has developed software that closely adheres to the hand-correlation procedures presented in this text. His contribution should provide the impetus for all geologists to take advantage of the efficiency of computers. Computer log correlation captured in a digital database allows both the geologist and geophysicist to share a single database, in effect moving toward a true Shared Earth Model. Thank you, Bill and Nancy, for your contributions.
Richard Banks was, and still is, a trailblazer when it comes to computer-based mapping. Dick has written mapping programs and worked with many of the programs in use today. The goal of computer-based mapping is to use the correct methods that must fulfill the needs of the users. In general, a computer-generated map should not only look like a hand-contoured map, but must be both geologically and geometrically valid in three dimensions. Richard Banks and Dr. Joseph K. Sukkar, of Scientific Computer Applications, have provided a wealth of knowledge as contributing authors to the computer-based contouring section in Chapter 2. We thank you for your insight and contribution.
Joe Brewton has been a colleague and friend for many years. He is a co-author of our 1994 book entitled Quick Look Techniques for Prospect Evaluation. Joe was kind enough to tackle two key subjects for this second edition: fault seal analysis and horizontal wells. Joe is an expert in both areas of study. His presentation of these subjects will be of great benefit to geologists, geophysicists and engineers. Thanks, Joe.
Randy Etherington is well known for his technical skills in structural geology and structural balancing software. Like many other aspects of geologic work, the computer is now playing a major role in allowing us to conduct structural geologic analysis and to evaluate alternative solutions rapidly. We thank Randy for his contribution of the section on computer-based fault seal analysis in Chapter 7.
I would especially like to thank Emery Steffenhagen for his continued support and encouragement during the preparation of this manuscript. He has served as an exceptional reviewer and mentor. I thank my friend and colleague Dick Bischke for agreeing to co-author this book, and for his many contributions throughout the text, especially his mathematical derivation of the equations relating vertical separation to throw. I wish to thank Margaret S. Bishop for her excellent reviews and her contributions to the text from her previously published textbook on subsurface mapping; Clay Harmon for his conscientious contributions to Chapter 5 (Integration of Geophysical Data in Subsurface Mapping); Jim Harris for his critical reviews, suggestions, extensive help, and preparation of a number of the figures; and Jeff Sandefer and the entire staff of Sandefer Oil and Gas, Inc., for their extensive support during the preparation of the manuscript.
I want to thank the great staff at Subsurface Consultants & Associates LLC (SCA), and especially Hines Austin, who continuously provided encouragement and support throughout the preparation of this second edition. A special thanks goes out to my daughters Nicole and Danielle and my grandsons Justin, Jonathan, Tyler, and Jesse for their understanding and patience with their busy dad and “Pappy.” Finally, to my parents John (deceased) and Laura Tearpock who sacrificed much in their lives to make sure that I received a college education, which without this geoscience education, this book would not have become a reality. Thank you, both.
I would like to thank Ron Hartman, who, through his compassion and wisdom, has acted as an excellent reviewer and mentor. Particular thanks go to John Suppe and Hongbin Xiao for all their help and for allowing us to publish critical portions of their unpublished data. Thanks to Don Medwedeff, Steve Hook, Van Mount, and Ted Snedden for allowing us to publish portions of their unpublished work. Lastly, I would like to thank Dan Tearpock and my wife Elsie for their friendship and hard work over the years.
I would like to thank John Suppe, Peter Verrall, Jeffrey Milnes, Joe Brewton and Dan Tearpock for helping me to understand how the earth works. I also thank Larry Walker for his meticulous review of this manuscript.
I would like to thank Dan Tearpock who introduced me to the concept that “geometric impossibilities on subsurface maps creates mapping errors and probable mistakes in the generation of prospects.” Also, I thank Joe Brewton, whose practical knowledge of subsurface mapping techniques was an inspiration to many geologists and geophysicists who worked with him. Lastly, my thanks go to David Metzner and Jim Brenneke, whose practical knowledge of 3D workstation methods and horizontal drilling techniques and methods made the updated version of the text possible.
I wish to thank Dan Tearpock and Dick Bischke for the opportunity to be part of the second edition by contributing Chapter 9, and Dick Bischke especially for his friendship and confidence in asking me to update Chapter 9 for the third edition. I would also like to thank my wife, Marcia, for her support and understanding throughout the extended period of long days at the office. I also wish to thank the management team at Pioneer Natural Resources who gave permission for me to use my workstation after hours to compose text and figures and for their review of the completed chapter. I couldn’t have done it without a support team at Pioneer. Thank you, Cindy, Shi Chen, and David, for all you did to help me. Finally, I wish to thank my professors, mentors, and coworkers who helped feed my desire to know more about Earth and how to apply geoscience to finding oil and gas.
I would like to thank Bob Bass and Gary Rogers, who first taught me the Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping class, along with Sia Agah and Bob Shoup, who worked with me through many sessions of the Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping class until I was finally ready to teach the class on my own. I would also like to thank Sia and Bob for their many discussions of how the third edition might be updated.