Index

A

Absaroka Thrust

compressional tectonics, 465466

discontinuity of structure with depth, 474475

fault bend folds, 589

fault surface maps, 318, 321

Absolute depth uncertainty

description, 4950

vertical and deviated wells, 5859

Accuracy

delta d/d plots, 787

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 698699

GPS surveys, 50

workstation-based interpretations, 480

Active axial surfaces

backsliding, 663

fault bend folds, 593594, 596

fault propagation folds, 598

growth structures, 701, 711713

hanging wall anticlines, 638641

imbricate structures, 617

interference structures, 632

listric faults, 689

master synthetic faults, 654

pregrowth structures, 696

strike-ramps, 668

strike-slip faults, 765766

uniform growth, 703, 705

Actual relative displacement, 279

Additive property of faults, 299, 408410

Admissible interpretation in structural balancing, 554

Ages

faulted surfaces, 43

intersecting fault patterns, 306

Aguaclara Fault and ramp

compressional tectonics, 470

fault surface maps, 322, 324

Alamitos horizon, 745

Aliasing seismic data, 168

Aliso Canyon disaster, 60

Allan sections in fault-seal analysis, 265, 267

Almond Formation, 258

Along hole depth (AHD)

log measurements, 82

reservoir pressure, 80

vertical wells, 51

Angle assumptions for strike-slip faults, 730731

Angular unconformities

framework horizons, 517

infill strategies, 525

structure maps, 413415

well log correlation, 150151

Animated models in structural balancing, 551

Annotating

log correlation techniques, 150154

well information, 171

Anschutz Ranch Field, 465

Anticlines

compressional tectonics, 465466

contour maps, 361

cross sections, 221

fault bend folds, 592

flat thrust faults, 322

growth faults, 448, 450451

hanging wall. See Hanging wall anticlines

hydrocarbon traps, 452

interference structures, 632

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 389

strike-slip fault tectonics, 462464

Antilistric faults

compaction effects, 672, 680, 687

extensional faulting, 297

fault surface maps, 288

Antithetic direction dips, 649

Antithetic faults

backsliding, 659, 663664

extensional faulting, 295296

master synthetic faults, 656

Anvil Rock Sandstone, 206207

Appalachians

cross-section consistency, 569571

fault bend folds, 592

fault propagation folds, 599600, 613

fold-and-thrust belts, 315

Apparent Coulomb collapse angle, 765766

Apparent relative displacement, 279

Apparent throw

contours, 375

cross-sections across faults, 239240

fault surface sections, 266267

interpretation errors, 279

seismic data, 327330, 411413

Aquifers

perched water, 475477

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 875878

Arbitrary lines

autotracking methodology, 521523

strike-ramps, 670

well projections, 239

Area accountability, 544

Asymmetric folds. See Fault propagation folds

Asymmetric structures, 605

Atwater-Miller sand compaction formula, 686

Austin Chalk, 62

Autogenerated fault gaps, 528

Automatically retrodeform fault bend folds, 594

Autotracking methodology

depth conversion, 533

fault interpretation, 490

fault reconnaissance, 495496, 498

horizon interpretation, 518522

infill strategies, 523, 525

Axial surfaces

active. See Active axial surfaces

backsliding, 663

dip spectral analysis, 623624

hanging wall anticlines, 640641

kink method, 580

tying seismic data, 175176

Azimuth

deviated wells, 146

fault maps, 284

log correlation techniques, 114, 116, 119120

vertical thickness determinations, 849850, 855857

B

B-axes

compressional structures, 221

plunge projections, 228232

Backsliding, 656661, 663

Backthrusts, 628, 630

Backward dips, 621, 625

Balanced cross sections

bed length consistency, 544

compressional tectonics, 466

imbricate structures, 620

Philosophical Doctrine, 6

ramps, 559

strike-slip faults, 748749, 753754

Balanced tangential directional surveys, 69

Balancing

classical techniques. See Classical balancing techniques

compressional structures, 540541

computer-aided, 548, 551559

nonclassical techniques. See Nonclassical balancing techniques

strike-slip faults, 748771

Bally, A. W., 554

Base-of-Unit structure maps

faulted surfaces, 43, 48

multisurface stacking, 33, 3536

Basemaps

contours, 30

directional well plots, 73

fault surface maps, 43, 4546, 291292, 348

fence diagrams, 246

well bores, 70

Basins in chronostratigraphic sections, 272274

Bayou Jean La Croix Field, 203205

Bed boundaries

electric log correlation for horizontal wells, 123125

stratigraphic depth method, 128

TVT correction, 854

Bed dips

calculations, 1314

compressional folding, 756757

discontinuities, 758

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 688

fault traces, 392394, 398, 400, 402

kink method, 575

log correlation pitfalls, 99

MBPA, 798800, 802803

normal faults, 368

strike-slip extensional folding, 760761, 771

structure maps, 371374

vertical faults, 418

vertical thickness determinations, 851, 855

Bed length

compressional structures, 544548

imbricate structures, 617

nonclassical balancing techniques, 587, 594

Bed offsets

bifurcating patterns, 300

fault-seal analysis, 263

Bedding planes

backsliding, 657659, 663

box and lift-off structures, 626

fault bend folds, 592, 594

fault propagation folds, 598

growth faults, 338, 448

master synthetic faults, 656

thrust faults, 315, 571

Bend forward, 598

Bends, 724

extensional folding, 759760

fault bend folds. See Fault bend folds

strike-ramps, 669671

strike-slip faults, 733, 736747

Bethel Dome, 460

Bifurcating fault systems

area accountability, 544

contours, 43

example, 4348

overview, 297301

structure maps, 436441

Bir Zrir fault, 737

Blank paper problem, 587

Blind fault fault-propagation fold models, 565

Blind thrusts, 598

Bocono fault, 739

Boomerang fault, 666

Borehole breakouts, 730

Borehole elongations, 726728

Bottomhole assembly (BHA) for vertical well depth, 52, 54

Bottomhole location (BHL) for directionally drilled wells, 62, 64

Bottomwater reservoirs

isochore maps, 822825

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 877878

top of porosity mapping, 863

top of structure mapping, 863

Bow-and-arrow rule, 568, 572

Bow Valley, 557

Bows in cross structures, 666667

Box structures, 625628

Bradenhead flange (BHF) in vertical wells, 51

Branch normal faults, 763765, 767768

Branch points

fault propagation folds, 598, 602

kink method, 575

strike-slip faults, 770771

Brazos Ridge

backsliding, 657, 662

compaction effects, 672

Coulomb collapse theory, 637

cross structures, 664, 667

delta d/d plots, 789790

dip angles, 680

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 716717

fault origins, 655

hanging wall anticlines, 642644

Bridges, 167

Bright spot analysis, 685

Brunei

backsliding, 663

detachment faults, 338

downward-dying growth faults, 814

Buck Ridge fault, 738

Buckling drill pipe, 57

Build rate for directionally drilled wells, 6162

Bulk rock volume (BRV)

bottomwater reservoirs, 824825

edgewater reservoirs, 832

fault wedges, 867

hydrocarbon wedge contouring, 839

net pay isochore maps, 832834

top of porosity, 865

Burgentine Lake Field, 651652

Busk method, 572574

C

Cactus-Nispero Field, 427429

Calculations

bed dips, 1314

depth-to-detachment, 585586

directional surveys, 6870

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 702704

volumetric reserves, 819

Canadian Rocky Mountains, 554555, 557, 559560

Carpathian Mountains, 451

Central Luzon Valley-Llocos Basins, 734

Central Sumatra Basin

cross structures, 666, 668

half-graben structures, 644645

Cereza Peak, 760

Chaotic zones, 305

Checkshots

converting time to depth, 191

depth projections, 649, 651

fault propagation folds, 601

seismic sections, 163164

tying seismic data, 172173

Cherry Hill Fault, 742745

Chosen references for contour maps, 9, 14, 355

Chronostratigraphic sections, 272274

Chuhuangkeng Anticline, 627

Chutes in cross structures, 666667

Circle method for fault traces, 394404

Classical balancing techniques, 541

area accountability, 544

bed length consistency, 544545

line-length exercise, 546550

overview, 543

pin lines, 546547

volume accountability rule, 543544

Closed structural lows on contour maps, 361

Closely spaced horizons for contour compatibility, 421423

Closest point algorithm, 292295

Cognac “A” Platform in the Mississippi Canyon Block 194 plot, 78

Coherency data for strike-ramps, 669

Collapse folding, 449450

Collisional zones, 465466

Combined vertical separation

fault patterns, 306312

intersecting faults of different ages, 447

Committee on the Nomenclature of Faults, 277

Common extensional growth patterns, 783785

Compaction effects along growth normal faults

Corsair fault, 682684

overview, 672676

prospect example, 676680

sand/shale ratios, 680686

Segno Field, 684687

Compartmental strike-slip fault tectonics, 461

Compensating faults

block models, 304

extensional faulting, 297

origins, 654

patterns, 302304, 430435

Complex growth structures, 808811

Composite logs, 86

Compressional faulting, 313317

Compressional folding, 748758

Compressional growth structures

sequence boundaries, 794795

VS/d plots, 808

Compressional inversion structures, 811

Compressional restraining bends, 733

Compressional structures

classical balancing techniques, 543550

computer-aided structural modeling and balancing, 548, 551559

cross-section consistency, 567572

cross-section construction, 572584

cross sections, 221222

depth-to-detachment calculations, 585586

introduction, 539540

mechanical stratigraphy, 541543

nonclassical balancing techniques. See Nonclassical balancing techniques

strike-slip faults, 725

structural geology and balancing, 540541

thrust faults on dip and strike lines, 557, 560567

Compressional tectonics

overview, 465466

reverse faults, 466469. See also Decollements

thrust faults, 470473

Computer-aided structural modeling and balancing for compressional structures, 548, 551559

Computer-based contouring

conformable geology and multisurface stacking, 29, 3339

faulted surfaces, 3948

indirect technique, 2427

overview, 23

surface modeling, 24

triangulation technique, 2731

Computer-based fault-seal analysis, 269272

Computer-based log correlation, 129

fault identification, 133138

on-screen, 130131

transition from paper-based, 129130

unconformity identification, 131133

Computer-based mapping programs

cross sections, 256262

fault surface maps, 292295, 297, 348

true stratigraphic depth method, 126128

Computer-based technology

fault bend folds, 592

fault interpretation, 490

horizon interpretation, 518

Conformable geology, 29, 3339

Conformable gridding, 36

Conjugate fault systems, 295

Conservation of fault size, 408410

Conservation of vertical separation, 408410

Constant dip domain method, 575577

Constant-thickness folds in kink method, 579581

Contemporaneous intersecting faults, 305306

Contour license, 361

Contour maps and contouring techniques

across reverse faults, 377378

additive property of faults, 408410

bed dip calculations, 1314

bifurcating fault patterns, 436, 439

closely spaced horizons, 421423

compatibility across faults, 423428

compensating fault patterns, 430434

compressional tectonics, 466469

computer-based. See Computer-based contouring

cross sections, 209, 212

depth conversion, 536538

fault gaps, 383, 404405, 528

fault surface maps, 288295

fault traces, 379383, 392, 394400

faulted surfaces, across normal faults, 366369

faulted surfaces, checking structure maps, 371375

faulted surfaces, legitimate contouring of throw, 375376

faulted surfaces, overview, 363365

faulted surfaces, throws across faults, 370371

growth faults, 346, 450451

guidelines, 1417

hand methods, 1723, 362363

hydrocarbon wedge, 837847

intervals, 355356

introduction, 910

isotimes, 192195

lines, 9

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 379380, 382391

net pay isochore maps, 824, 827831, 834837

salt surfaces, 453460

seismic data, 167

spacing, 12, 356

strike-slip fault tectonics, 463

structure maps, 354, 404407

subsurface structure maps, 355362

three-dimensional perspective, 1013

top of porosity maps, 419420

unconformities, 416417

vertical faults, 418

vertical thickness determinations, 855

Control points

contouring, 1618, 21, 3839

fault wedges, 865866

structure maps, 413

three-dimensional reservoir analysis model, 250, 252

Converting time to depth, 191195

Cordilleran belt, 315

Correction factors

deviated wells, 146, 857, 859861

dipping beds, 112120

interval isopach maps, 882885

measured log thickness, 849850

vertical and directionally drilled wells, 107, 110

vertical separation, 351

vertical thickness determinations, 121, 123, 847, 849857

Correlation accuracy in Philosophical Doctrine, 5

Correlation cross sections

computer construction of, 257

guidelines, 215217

Correlation data in delta d/d plots, 788789

Correlation markers in fence diagrams, 248249

Correlation problems

delta d/d plots, 791792

growth faults, 780

log. See Log correlation

MBPA, 798802

Corsair fault

backsliding, 656, 659664

compaction effects, 682684

cross structures, 664666

dips, 656

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 716717

hanging wall anticlines, 642

Coulomb collapse

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 688689, 694696

hanging wall anticlines, 636640, 644646

rollovers, 647648, 652654

strike-slip extensional folding, 764766

Coulomb shear surfaces and forces in backsliding, 656658, 661

Council of the Geological Society of America, 277

Coyanosa Fields, 560565

Coyote Creek fault, 738

Crests

kink method, 578580, 584

projecting large growth faults to depth, 651

tying seismic data, 170

Critical rollover failure angle in backsliding, 657

Cross-fault drainage in cross sections, 221

Cross sections

across faults, 239245

bottomwater reservoirs, 823

chronostratigraphic sections, 272274

compressional structures, 221222

computer construction of, 256262

consistency in compressional structures, 567, 572584

correlation sections, 215217, 257

correlation type logs, 86, 89

description, 7

design, 217222

deviated wells, 235239, 858

diapiric salt structures, 219221

directional well plots, 77

edgewater reservoirs, 825826

extensional structures, 219220

fault-seal analysis, 262272

faults, 288

fence diagrams, 245249

finished illustration, 207215

growth structures, 805

introduction, 197

isometric projections, 250

log maps, 245246

planning, 198

plunge projections, 228231

problem-solving, 206, 208

projection of wells, 227238

seismic lines, 239

strike projections, 231234

strike-slip faulted structures, 221223

structural, 199204

three-dimensional reservoir analysis model, 250256

three-dimensional views, 245256

true vertical depth, 123125

vertical exaggeration, 223227

vertical thickness determinations, 847848

Cross structures in three-dimensional effects, 664668

Crossing contour lines, 14

Crosslines

autotracking methodology, 521523

infill strategies, 525526

three-dimensional space, 480, 482

Crystal deformation, 542

Curved dip domain method, 573

Cutoff angles

box and lift-off structures, 626

fault bend folds, 594596

fault propagation folds, 598, 603

fold-thrust belts, 543

imbricate structures, 617, 619

interference structures, 632

strike-slip faults, 752, 755

Cylindrical folds, 228230

D

Dahlstrom’s rule

fault bend folds, 567, 589

fault-propagation fold models, 565

nonclassical balancing techniques, 588

thrust faults, 557

Dakota Formation

cross sections, 225227

sandstone, 555557

Dasht-e Bayaz fault, 737

Data extraction

converting time to depth, 191195

data types, 188190

picking and posting, 188191

Data-first, models-second approach for strike-slip faults, 773

Data inclusiveness in Philosophical Doctrine, 4

Data optimization for three-dimensional seismic data, 480481

Data points

computer-based gridding contouring, 27

contours, 2223

cross sections, 209, 212

Data sets for computer-based triangulation contouring, 2932

Databases for surface location uncertainty, 50

Dead Sea Rift, 737

Decollements

bed dips, 630

box and lift-off structures, 625626

compressional faulting, 315

compressional structures, 542, 588, 590, 630

correlation type logs, 90

fault bend folds, 592, 594, 596

fault propagation folds, 598, 604

growth faults, 338

imbricate structures, 616

MBPA, 798

pin lines, 546

Deep marker beds, 649

Deep-water Nigeria fold-thrust belt

fault bend folds, 610611

fault propagation folds, 615

Deepwater Horizon Macondo well, 60

Deformation

causes, 541

compaction effects, 680

contouring, 30

cross structures, 666

dip spectral analysis, 623625

fault bend folds, 592594

fault propagation folds, 598

hanging wall anticlines, 637, 643

imbricate structures, 617620

interference structures, 632

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 606

retrodeformation, 553556

strike-slip extensional folding, 763, 769770

triangle zones, 630

Delaunay triangles in computer-based gridding contouring, 2629

Delta d/d plots, 780781

accuracy, 787

common extensional growth patterns, 783785

generic example, 787789

log correlation problem, 791792

method, 781783

sequence boundaries, 794795

stratigraphic interpretation, 793794

strike-slip timing growth structures, 795797

unconformities, 785787

Dependent geometric properties for folds, 602603

Depth

dip data extrapolation, 572

dip data extrapolation, Busk method, 572574

dip data extrapolation, kink method, 575584

faults, 9497

growth structures, 804814

projecting large growth faults to, 647654

stratigraphic depth method, 126129

vertical wells. See Vertical wells

Depth conversion

contouring, 536538

final steps, 533534

methodology, 530533

quality control, 533

three-dimensional seismic data, 530534

from time, 191195

Depth position (Z)

importance, 4950

vertical wells, 5153

Depth-to-detachment calculations, 585586

Derrick floor (DF)

log measurements, 82

vertical wells, 51

Detachment faults, 338

Detail requirements in Philosophical Doctrine, 45

Deviated wells

correlation with vertical wells, 105107

cross sections, 218, 235239

faults, 290

repeated sections from normal faults, 138143

restored tops, 146149

vertical thickness and fluid contacts in, 857862

Deviation angle in directional surveys, 69

Deviation surveys, 553. See also Directional surveys

Dewatering process compaction effects, 674

Diapiric salt structures

correlation type logs, 86, 8990

cross sections, 219221

Diapiric salt tectonics

contouring salt surfaces, 453454

hydrocarbon traps, 452453

overview, 451452

salt/fault intersections, 456

salt/sediment intersections, 456458

Dickinson method for intersecting fault patterns, 441445

Dip angles

box and lift-off structures, 626

compaction effects, 685

delta d/d plots, 787

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 688, 691, 695

horizontal wells, 122

imbricate structures, 617, 619

multibend model, 711

strike-slip faults, 765, 769771

tangent method, 394

triangles, 701702

vertical exaggeration, 223224

Dip data in compressional folding, 752753

Dip data to depth extrapolation, 572

Busk method, 572574

kink method, 575584

Dip domain procedure, 647654

Dip lines

migration mis-ties, 183185

thrust faults on, 557, 560567

Dip panels

fault bend folds, 592, 595

triangle zones, 630

Dip profiles

line-length balancing, 546550

strike-ramps, 670

Dip sections

cross sections, 219221, 226227

description, 197

Dip slip

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 606

strike-slip faults, 796

Dip spectral analysis, 620625

Dipping beds

faults, 289

missing sections, 112120

nonclassical balancing techniques, 588

well log data, 286

Dipping planes in contours, 1011

Dips

bed. See Bed dips

box and lift-off structures, 626

combined vertical separation, 309

compaction effects, 672, 677682, 685

compressional faulting, 314315

compressional folding, 756757

contour maps, 2021, 355362

cross sections, 201

cross structures, 664

depth conversion, 537

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 708712

fault bend fold models, 566

fault interpretation, 491492

fault-propagation fold models, 565

fault surface maps, 291292

fault traces, 392395, 398402

growth faults, 343344, 449

imbricate structures, 619620

interference structures, 632

normal faults, 366, 368369

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 607

reverse faults, 377

seismic data, 327

step-up angle, 543

structural balancing, 553, 557

structural vs. stratigraphic, 567

throw contouring, 375

unconformities, 150, 413

vertical faults, 418

Direct computer-based contouring, 24, 2731

Direction of deviation in directional surveys, 69

Directional survey frequency, 68

Directional surveys

calculations, 6870

fault surface maps, 346351

uncertainties, 7173

wells without, 7980

Directional tools

magnetic surveys, 68

nonmagnetic surveys, 68

overview, 65

Directional well plots, 7378

Directionally drilled wells, 60

application, 60

correlation with vertical wells, 105120

electric log correlation, 102105

horizontal wells, 6264

pitfalls, 348349

plans, 6467

terminology, 62

types, 6062

vertical separation, 351

Disconformities

delta d/d plots, 788789, 793795

MBPA, 780781, 785

structure maps, 414

Discontinuities

bed dips, 758

fault bend fold models, 566

fault-propagation fold models, 565

growth faults, 783787

MBPA, 802, 804

reconnaissance, 495

strike-slip faults, 725, 729731

structure with depth, 473475

Discontinuous reflections in compressional folding, 757

Discovery wells, 677

Displacements

cross-section consistency, 568570

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 607

stratigraphic units in strike-slip faults, 729730

strike-slip faults, 733747

Distortion

cross sections, 580581

fault surfaces, 265

isometric projections, 250

missing sections, 138

retrodeformation, 554

seismic sections, 164

vertical exaggeration, 223

Documentation

log correlation techniques, 150153

Philosophical Doctrine, 67

strike-slip faults, 746

three-dimensional seismic data, 490

Dolomite in hydrocarbon traps, 453

Domal structures

contour maps, 361

hydrocarbon traps, 452

Down building diapiric salt tectonics, 451

Down-dip faults, 400401

Downlaps, 517, 786

Downlines, 177

Downthrown blocks

compensating fault patterns, 430434

contouring across normal faults, 366, 368369, 373

cross-sections across faults, 240, 243

deviated wells, 146

electric log correlation, 92

expansion index, 777778

fault maps, 328329

fault surface maps, 290

fault traces, 392, 398, 404

growth faults, 448451, 777778

linear growth, 692

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 378388

normal faults, 366, 382, 384385

repeated sections, 138, 142

restored tops, 143149, 338339

reverse faults, 467

strike-slip extensional folding, 763764

tangent method, 398

throws across faults, 371

velocity problems, 192

vertical wells, 144

Downthrown stratigraphic section prediction

accuracy, 698699

calculations and examples, 694696

growth axial surface, 708711

growth sedimentation, 705

growth structure and calculations, 699702

growth variations, 705707

large growth, multibend structures, 711713

linear growth, 692694

overview, 687688

pregrowth structure and calculations, 696698

real structures, 713720

shale basins, 719720

syndepositional growth models, 702705

topics, 688692

uniform growth model, 703705

well log data, 719

Downward-dying growth faults, 811814

Drain hole wells, 62

Drift indicator tools, 6870

Driller’s depth, 5153

Drop rate for directionally drilled wells, 62

Dry Creek Thrust, 759

Dunlap fault propagation folds, 613

Duplex in imbricate structures, 617618, 620

Dying with depth, 333

E

Eagle Ford

autotracking methodology, 520522

dip lines, 491

fault gaps, 528530

fault interpretation strategy, 502510

horizon interpretation, 517520

strike lines, 493

three-dimensional seismic data, 481483, 485

East Cameron Block 270 Field, 450

East Painter Reservoir Fields, 221222

East Texas Oil Field, 414, 416

Eastern Condillera, 322, 324

Echelon faults and offsets

compression faults, 317

fold-thrust belts, 571

strike-ramps, 666, 669671

strike-slip faults, 729, 736

Edgewater reservoirs

isochore maps, 822, 825837

perched contacts, 878

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 878

El Furrial Fault-Bend Fold

description, 610611

dip lines, 609

fault bend fold example, 589590

El Pilar fault, 739

Elastic dislocation models for strike-slip faults, 729

Electric logs

correlation, concepts, 9294

correlation, cross sections, 257

correlation, directionally drilled wells, 102105

correlation, horizontal wells, 122128

correlation, procedures and guidelines, 8386

correlation, vertical wells, 90101

cross sections, 198, 202204, 215

cross-sections across faults, 240

deviated wells, 235236

faults, 289

growth faults, 346

log maps, 245, 248

reverse faults, 313

seismic data, 327

throw data, 285

type logs, 86

Elevations on contour maps, 16

Elliot’s rule for cross-section consistency, 568

Elsinore fault, 738

En echelon structures

strike-ramps, 666, 669671

strike-slip faults, 729731, 733734, 736, 745

Equal-spaced contouring, 2022, 363365

Equivalent points for restored tops, 144146

Error analysis for structure maps, 371375

Evenly distributed impermeable rock in hydrocarbon wedge contouring, 837839

Expansion faults in VS/d plots, 806

Expansion index for growth faults, 777780

Extensional faulting, 295, 297298

Extensional folding along strike-slip faults, 758772

Extensional releasing bends, 733

Extensional structures

backsliding, 656661

compaction effects along growth normal faults, 672687

cross sections, 219220

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction. See Downthrown stratigraphic section prediction

hanging wall anticlines. See Hanging wall anticlines

introduction, 635636

origins, 654656

projecting large growth faults to depth, 647654

strike-ramp pitfalls, 666672

three-dimensional effects and cross structures, 664668

Extensional tectonics

bifurcating fault patterns, 436441

combined vertical separation, 447

compensating fault patterns, 430435

compressional tectonics, 465473

diapiric salt tectonics, 451461

growth faults, 448451

intersecting fault patterns, 440447

overview, 428430

strike-slip fault tectonics, 461465

Extensional terranes in line-length balancing, 548

F

Failure to loop-tie fault surfaces, 167

Fast velocity function, 327

Fatigue Wash fault, 666

Fault bend folds

compressional faulting, 315

compressional folding, 752

fault propagation data, 610612

imbricate structures, 616620

models, 566567

overview, 589597

triangle zones, 630

Fault data

seismic data, 322337

well logs, 284288

Fault dips. See Dips

Fault displacement

definition, 279280

mapping, 329331

problems, 327

Fault gaps

bifurcating fault patterns, 436, 439

compensating fault patterns, 431

vs. fault heaves, 404

fault traces, 392395, 398399

logs, 135

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 383386, 388, 527530

normal faults, 368

structure maps, 391404

three-dimensional seismic data, 527530

volume accountability rule, 544

Fault heave

definition, 278

vs. fault gaps, 404

measurement limitations, 280

normal faults, 368369

well logs, 280, 287288

Fault identification (ID)

computer-based log correlation, 133138

fault data, 322

seismic data, 322

Fault interpretation

introduction, 490494

reconnaissance, 494498

strategies, 501513

synthetic seismograms, 499500

well control, 499501

Fault maps

bifurcating fault patterns, 299301

combined vertical separation, 306312

compensating fault patterns, 302305

compressional faulting, 313318

directional surveys, 346351

extensional faulting, 295, 297298

fault displacement, 279280

fault surface map construction, 288295

growth faults, 338346

intersecting fault patterns, 305306

introduction, 275277

manual integration with structure maps, 378391

ramp and flat thrust faults, 318322

relationship of throw to vertical separation, 280284

seismic data, 322337

seismic pitfalls, 331337

structure maps, 391

terminology, 277279

vertical separation, 351352

well logs, 284288

Fault overlaps

fault traces and gaps, 391

reverse faults, 377378, 388391

strike-ramps, 666, 668670

structure maps, 527530

volume accountability rule, 544

Fault patterns

bifurcating, 297301

combined vertical separation, 306312

compensating, 302304

compressional faulting, 313318

extensional faulting, 295, 297298

intersecting, 305306

ramp and flat thrust, 318322

Fault polygons for faulted surfaces, 4042

Fault propagation data

fault bend folds, 610612

fault propagation folds, 612614

Fault propagation folds, 589

box and lift-off structures, 626

fault propagation data, 612614

kink method, 578, 580, 584, 601

model, 565567

overview, 598605

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 608

structural styles, 605606

Fault ramps

imbricate structures, 619

seismic data, 167

Fault-seal analysis

computer-based, 269272

cross sections, 262272

hand construction, 265269

Fault shape in fault bend folds, 596

Fault slicing in fault-seal analysis, 265

Fault surface maps, 275

characteristics, 288289

compressional folding, 748

cross structures, 666667

directional surveys, 346351

hand construction, 265269

overview, 288291

seismic and well data integration, 329, 499501

seismic data, 167, 169171, 173

strike-slip faults, 725, 746

techniques, 292297

Fault surfaces

computer-based contouring, 3948

contouring, 363378

seismic interpretation and mapping, 501511

VS/d plots, 806

Fault traces

bifurcating fault patterns, 436

circle method, 394404

compensating fault patterns, 431

compressional tectonics, 466

contouring, 366

cross sections, 221

intersecting fault patterns, 440447

rule of 45, 393394

seismic data, 166

structure maps, 391404

Fault traps from strike-ramps, 671

Faults

additive property, 408410

compressional tectonics, 467473

contour compatibility across, 423428

cross-sections across, 239245

depth and missing section, 9497

gaps. See Fault gaps

nonsealing, 868873

origins, 654

overlap. See Fault overlaps

plunge projections, 230

slip. See Slip

strike projections, 234

structural balancing, 551

structural cross sections, 259263

terminology, 277279

tying seismic data, 175176, 501506

vs. variations in stratigraphy, 94

wedges. See Wedge zones

Fence diagrams, 245249

Field production history in reservoir engineering, 881882

Fingerprints in growth faults, 777

Finished illustration cross sections, 207215

Flanks

fault bend fold models, 567

fault-propagation fold models, 565

Flap maps, 473

Flat-lying structures

fractures, 542

static mis-ties, 181

stratigraphic thickness, 883

TVD logs, 851

vertical separation, 327

Flat thrust faults, 318322

Flats in compressional faulting, 315

Floor thrusts, 628

Fluid contacts. See Hydrocarbon/water contact

Fluvial channel sands, 63

Fold-and-thrust belts

compressional faulting, 315

compressional tectonics, 465466

plunge projections, 228

Folds

compressional, 748758

contour maps, 359360

deformation from, 541542

extensional, 758772

fault bend. See Fault bend folds

fault propagation. See Fault propagation folds

growth faults, 449450

plunge projections, 229231

structural balancing, 551

tying seismic data, 177

Footwall blocks. See Upthrown blocks

Footwall restored tops, 143149

Forcing correlations in tying seismic data, 174175

Formation tops in depth conversion, 530534, 537

Formation volume factor (FVF) in gas reserves estimation, 880881

Forward dips in dip spectral analysis, 621

Forward model for imbricate structures, 616618

Fossil Basin

compressional tectonics, 466

fault surface maps, 318, 320321

Fossil triangle zones, 628

Four-dimensional problem, strike-slip deformation as, 723

Four-way closures in hanging wall anticlines, 644

Fractional recovery in gas reserves estimation, 880881

Fracture porosities

fault bend folds, 594

interference structures, 632

Framework horizons, 518520, 523

Framework horizons, selecting, 511

Framework interpretation and mapping, 487488

Frazier Mountain Thrust, 759

Free gyros, 68

Frictional deformation, 541542

Frictional failure in backsliding, 656

Frictional stress in strike-slip faults, 730

Full-thickness areas

net pay isochore maps, 827828, 831832

walking wells, 840

G

Gamma ray (GR) curves in electric log correlation, 85

Gamma ray (GR) logs

correlation sections, 215

three-dimensional seismic data, 488

true vertical depth cross sections, 124, 128

Garden Banks 191 Field, 477

Garlock Fault, 734735, 738

Gas/oil contact, 876877

Gas reserves estimation, 880881

Gas/water contact. See Hydrocarbon/water contact

Gas wells

cross sections, 201

net effective sand, 822

Geodesy, 50

Geometric properties in nonclassical methods balancing, 602603

Geophysical maps, 23, 159

Geoscientist role in three-dimensional seismic data, 488489

Glenwood Syncline, 749750, 752753

Goguel’s law of volume conservation, 762

Golden Meadow Field

combined vertical separation, 310

net sand isochore maps, 819821

Good Hope Field, 88

GPS survey accuracy, 50

Graben structures

diapiric salt tectonics, 452

growth sedimentation, 640642

hydrocarbon traps, 452

intersecting fault patterns, 306

lateral displacements, 737739

rollovers, 644645, 762

Grand Isle Ash, 458

Grand Isle Block 16 Field, 458

Grane Field, 475

Graphic scales on contour maps, 16

Graphs for downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 702704

Gravitational collapse

hanging wall anticlines, 636640

rollovers, 647648

Grayburg Formation, 793794

Great Glen Fault, 734

Grid intersections in three-dimensional reservoir analysis model, 252255

Grid nodes in computer-based gridding contouring, 2427

Grid size in computer-based gridding contouring, 27

Gridding algorithms

fault surface maps, 292, 295

horizon interpretation, 525526

Gridding technique in computer-based contouring, 2427

GRNAV program, 126128

Ground level (GL) in vertical wells, 51

Ground truth, 173

Groups of contour lines, 1617, 357358

Growth axial surfaces

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 708716

growth sedimentation, 641646

syndepositional growth models, 702703

uniform growth, 703704

Growth compressional style in delta d/d plots, 795

Growth faults, 297

characteristics, 448449

directional surveys, 346351

extensional tectonics, 448451

fault surface maps, 292

overview, 338

projecting to depth, 647654

surface map construction, 345346

vertical separation, 338345

VS/d plots, 806808

Growth inversion structures, 776

Growth model study for downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 712

Growth normal faults, compaction effects along. See Compaction effects along growth normal faults

Growth reverse faults

growth structures, 776

VS/d plots, 808809

Growth sedimentation

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 705

overview, 641646

Growth strike-slip faults, 776

Growth structures and calculations

analysis accuracy, 787

analysis methods, 780787

conclusions, 814815

delta d/d plot examples, 787797

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 699702

expansion index, 777780

introduction, 775776

MBPA, 797804

strike-slip timing, 795797

unconformities, 785787

VS/d plots, 804814

Growth thrust faults, 776

Growth variations in downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 705707

Guadalupe Mountains, 793

Gulf of Elat, 737

Gulf of Mexico

backsliding, 663

bifurcating fault patterns, 439, 441

bows, 666

compaction effects, 672, 674675

computer-based log correlation, 130131

contour compatibility across faults, 424, 426

Coulomb collapse angle, 688689

delta d/d plots, 789790

detachment faults, 338

diapiric salt tectonics, 454, 458459

dip angles, 680

directional well plots, 78

directionally drilled wells, 62

downward-dying growth faults, 814

fault identification, 133138

fault-seal analysis, 263264

fault surface maps, 348

growth sedimentation, 641

hanging wall anticlines, 642644

intersecting fault patterns, 306

listric growth faults, 647

MBPA, 802803

normal faults, 288

perched water, 475, 477

rollover structures, 651

salt domes, 451

seismic data, 161

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 875, 878

vertical separation, 327329

VS/d plots, 807808

wireline and LWD logs, 53

Gyroscope surveys

tools, 68

uncertainties, 71

H

Hachured lines on contour maps, 16, 357

Half-graben structures, 644645

Hand construction

contouring, 1723

fault surface sections, 265269

Hanging wall anticlines

Coulomb collapse theory, 636640

growth sedimentation, 641646

origins, 636646

Hanging wall blocks. See Downthrown blocks

Hanging wall restored tops, 145149

Haynesville

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 717718

fault interpretation strategy, 512513

fault reconnaissance, 494496

Height in surface modeling, 24

Helical buckling drill pipe, 57

High-angle faults

reverse, 465

strike-slip, 461, 731

thrust, 315

Hogsback ramp

fault surface maps, 323

flat thrust faults, 318

Holstein Field, 475

Hope Fault, 737739

Horizon dips

cross-sections across faults, 243244

fault-propagation fold models, 565

Horizon interpretation

autotracking methodology, 518522

framework horizons, 511

infill strategies, 525527

interpretation strategy, 518523

three-dimensional seismic data, 517527

Horizons

autotracking methodology, 519

backsliding, 659

bifurcating fault patterns, 436

combined vertical separation, 306, 309

compensating fault patterns, 431432

compressional folding, 755757

compressional tectonics, 469470

contour compatibility, 421423

converting time to depth, 191192

cross sections, 212214

depth conversion, 530

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 687, 696704, 708709, 711717

fault bend fold models, 566567

fault interpretation, 494

fault propagation folds, 601602

fault reconnaissance, 494496

fault-seal analysis, 270272

fault traces, 392395, 398

growth faults, 338340, 343, 780781

intersecting fault patterns, 305, 441

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 378380, 384387

MBPA, 799803

multisurface stacking, 3739

nonclassical balancing techniques, 605607

normal faults, 369

Philosophical Doctrine, 6

reverse faults, 290

strike-ramps, 668

strike-slip extensional folding, 762

strike-slip faults, 745746

structural balancing, 554

structure maps, 354, 473

three-dimensional seismic data, 487488

tying seismic data, 176181, 511, 517518

uniform growth model, 703707

Horizontal beds

fault data, 286

missing sections, 107112

Horizontal crests, 651

Horizontal displacements

horizontal wells, 62

strike-slip faults, 723725, 733, 736, 746

vertical faults, 418

Horizontal distance

bed dips, 14, 356357

fault gaps, 368, 391, 404

heave, 278

Horizontal resolution of seismic sections, 163

Horizontal scales

cross sections, 198, 201

three-dimensional seismic data, 481

Horizontal slice method for reservoir volume, 874

Horizontal velocity gradients in converting time to depth, 192

Horizontal wells

directionally drilled wells, 102103

electric log correlation, 122128

overview, 6264

planning and drilling in 3D, 484

Hornelen Basin, 771772

Horses

dip spectral analysis, 624625

imbricate structures, 617620

retrodeformation, 556557

Hungry Valley Fault

geometry, 765766

strike-slip extensional folding, 759760, 762, 766771

Huntington Beach Field Anticline, 794795

Hybrid fault bend folds, 601

Hydrocarbon/water contact

bottomwater reservoirs, 823825

deviated wells, 857862

fault wedges, 866

horizontal wells, 123

net pay isochore maps, 827828, 832833

perched water, 475477

survey errors, 73, 75

tilted, 875878

TVT of net pay, 862

Hydrocarbon wedge contouring

limited well control, 837839

reservoirs with shale intervals, 843847

walking wells, 839843

Hydrodynamic aquifers, 875877

Hydrostatic aquifers, 876877

I

Idealized fold shapes, 594

Illusions of geometry in seismic data, 337

Imbricate structures, 616620

Imperial fault, 738

Implied fault strike, 333, 435

Implied fault surface maps, 333, 336

Inactive axial surface

growth sedimentation, 641642

hanging wall anticlines, 639640, 643

Inadmissible interpretation in structural balancing, 554

Incorrect assumptions in seismic sections, 161163

Index contours, 16, 357

Indigo Bayou area, 295

Indirect technique for computer-based contouring, 2427

Indonesia, 688

Inference in fault recognition, 289

Infill strategies

depth conversion, 530

horizon interpretation, 525527

Inner limit of water (ILW)

deviated wells, 862

fault wedges, 867

net pay isochore maps, 827828, 831832

walking wells, 840

Inner oil wedges, 833837

Integration of geophysical data

assumptions and limitations, 157

data extraction, 188196

introduction, 155156

Philosophical Doctrine, 6, 480

structure maps, 411413

subsurface interpretations, 156

validation and interpretation, 160188

Interference structures, 632634

Interpolation

horizon interpretation, 525526

surface modeling, 24

triangulation, 27

Interpretation

contours, 22

delta d/d plots, 793794

fault maps, 276, 279

fault surface maps, 290291, 295

horizons, 518523

intersecting fault patterns, 305

Philosophical Doctrine requirements, 46

seismic data for, 156157

seismic sections, 160165

strike-slip faults, 725726, 728730

structural balancing, 540541, 554

structure maps, 353354, 473475

three-dimensional seismic data, 481490

tying seismic data. See Tying seismic data

Waha Field, 560565

Interpretive contouring, 21, 363

Intersecting faults, 297

combined vertical separation, 308309

compressional, 316

horst-graben, 306

overview, 305306, 440447

Intersecting seismic displays, 503

Intersection in bifurcating patterns, 299

Intersection lines in compressional faulting, 317

Interval isopach maps, 882

seismic data, 885886

true stratigraphic thickness, 882885

Intervals on contour maps, 16

Inverse models

compaction effects, 680682

imbricate structures, 616

Inversion structures in VS/d plots, 808811

Inverted MBPs, 797798

Inverting fault dips for compaction effects, 680682

Isochore maps

bottomwater reservoirs, 822824

constructing, 822837

contouring hydrocarbon wedge, 837847

depth conversion, 533

edgewater reservoirs, 825826

fault-seal analysis, 270

fault wedges, 865868

introduction, 817822

multisurface stacking, 3337

net pay, 824837

nonsealing faults, 868873

reservoir engineering, 879882

sand–shale distribution, 822

three-dimensional seismic data, 487

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 875878

top of structure mapping, 862865

vertical thickness and fluid contacts in deviated wells, 857862

vertical thickness determinations, 847857

volumetric configuration of reservoirs, 873874

Isochron maps

depth conversion, 533

three-dimensional seismic data, 487

Isometric projections, 250

Isopach maps

interval, 882886

introduction, 817822

sand–shale distribution, 822

Isotime contours, 192195

Ivanhoe Field, 297

J

Jean d’Arc Basin, 441

Jura Mountains

box and lift-off structures, 625

depth-to-detachment calculations, 585

fold-and-thrust belts, 315

Jurassic Louann Salt, 778

Juxtaposition in fault-seal analysis, 270271

K

Keystone blocks in backsliding, 661, 663664

Kick-off points (KOPs) for directionally drilled wells, 62, 64

Kinks and kinks method

dip data to depth extrapolation, 575584

dip spectral analysis, 623

fault maps, 176

fault propagation folds, 578, 580, 584, 602

interference structures, 617, 632

strike-ramps, 669671

strike-slip faults, 725

L

L-shaped holes for directionally drilled wells, 6061, 102103

Lacustrine sediments in strike-slip extensional folding, 762

Large growth faults, projecting to depth, 647654

Large growth, multibend structures, 711713

Lateral displacements in strike-slip faults, 733746

Lateral ramps

fault bend fold models, 566

three-dimensional models, 565567

thrust faults, 562, 564565

Lateral uncertainty in directional surveys, 71, 7475

Lateral velocity changes in converting time to depth, 192

Latitude position (X)

importance, 49

vertical wells, 50

Least squares gridding algorithm, 292

Lewis Formation

cross sections, 258

unconformity identification, 131133

Lift-off structures, 625628

Light Well, 796

Limestones

fractures, 542

hydrocarbon traps, 453

volume pressure, 543

Limitations on restoring faulted surfaces, 4344

Limited data, maps based on, 2

Limited well control in hydrocarbon wedge contouring, 837839

Line-length exercise in classical balancing, 546550

Linear growth in downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 692694

Lines, tying for seismic data, 176181

Lines of bifurcation

contours, 4344

fault merges, 298301, 436

strike-slip faults, 764

Lines of intersection

compensating faults, 302

compressional faulting, 316

contouring, 375

intersecting fault patterns, 440442

reverse faults, 469

salt/fault intersections, 456459

strike-slip faults, 765

three-dimensional perspective, 1112

Lines of termination

compensating faults, 302303, 430432

salt/fault intersections, 456

Listric faults

compaction effects, 677680

seismic data, 166, 170

Listric growth faults, 338

backsliding, 656

hanging wall anticlines, 647648

Listric normal faults

contour compatibility across faults, 424

contour maps, 360

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 688

hanging wall anticlines, 636, 640

Listric shape for growth faults, 448449

Lithology logs in structural balancing, 553

Little Sulphur Creek Basin, 771772

Local restoration for strike-slip faults, 736739

Log correlation

annotation and documentation, 150154

computer-based, 129138

correlation type logs, 8690

delta d/d plots, 791792

electric log correlation, directionally drilled wells, 102105

electric log correlation, horizontal wells, 122128

electric log correlation, procedures and guidelines, 8386

electric log correlation, vertical wells, 90101

introduction, 81

log measurement terminology, 82

pitfalls, 99101

repeated sections, 138143

restored tops, 143149

thickness intervals, 120122

unconformities, 149152

vertical and directionally drilled wells, 105120

Log correlation plans

directionally drilled wells, 102105

vertical wells, 9092

Log maps, 245246

Log sections, 202204

Logger’s depth, 51

Logging while drilling (LWD)

absolute depth uncertainty, 5859

bed boundaries, 122123

pressure, 878

relative depth uncertainty, 5657

true vertical depth cross sections, 125

vertical well depth, 5355

Loma Prieta epicentral zone, 748751

Long Beach Anticline, 742743, 745

Long-radius horizontal wells, 62

Longitude position (Y)

importance, 49

vertical wells, 50

Loop-tied fault surface maps, 745746

Loop-tied profiles, 724

Loop tying

fault surfaces maps for strike-ramps, 672

seismic data, 165170

Los Angeles Basin, 794795

Louisiana, growth faults in, 777778

M

Magnetic surveys

description, 68

uncertainties, 71

Manual processes

integration of fault and structure maps, 378391

interpretation methodology, 518523

line picking for horizon interpretation, 525526

Marcellus

fault interpretation strategy, 514516

fault reconnaissance, 497498

Marchand-Timbalier-Caillou Island Salt Massif, 451, 453

Marker beds

depth-to-detachment calculations, 585586

projecting large growth faults to depth, 649

Master faults

extensional faulting, 295, 297

listric faults, 338

strike-slip faults, 731

Master synthetic faults

backsliding, 657

origins, 654, 656

Maximum control areas in fault surface maps, 292

Mean sea level (MSL) for vertical wells, 5152

Measured depth (MD)

directional surveys, 69

log measurements, 82

uncertainties, 7273

vertical thickness determinations, 851

vertical wells, 51

Measured log thickness (MLT)

conversion to TVT, 111122, 847, 857

dipping beds, 117120

directionally drilled wells, 105

isochore maps, 847853

log correlation techniques, 120122

Measured values in downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 702703

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) surveying, 68

Mechanical contouring

Delaunay triangles, 2729

overview, 1720, 362363

triangulation, 2728

Mechanical stratigraphy, 541543

Medina Anticline, 470

Melin Anticline, 614

Mentors and mentoring, 7

Merging

contour lines, 14

faults, 408, 439, 492, 568

Metamorphic belts, 541

Mid-trace method for fault wedges, 867868

Midland Basin

depth conversion, 531532, 534536

synthetic seismograms, 500

three-dimensional seismic data, 481, 484487

velocity models, 534536

Migration mis-ties in tying seismic data, 183188

Minimum distance projection method, 228, 235, 239

Miocene Middle Cruse Sand Member, 245246

Mirador Formation, 470, 472

Mis-picked horizons in tying seismic data, 176

Mis-ties in tying seismic data, 181188

Miscorrelations in three-dimensional seismic data, 488

Missing section

cross-sections across faults, 240241

definition, 278279

fault determinations, 9497, 287

fault maps, 290

growth faults, 338339, 343, 785

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 384

MBPA, 802803

normal faults, 105120, 369

seismic data, 327

stratigraphic cross sections, 259

structure maps, 371

unconformities, 150

Modeled lateral ramps in fault-propagation fold models, 565

Moose Mountain sheet, 557

Morrowan Sandstones, 204

Motagua fault, 737

Mount Tobin Thrust Fault, 470

Multibend models and structures

growth structures, 700

large growth, 711713

Multilobed reservoirs in horizontal wells, 63

Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis (MBPA)

accuracy, 787

common extensional growth patterns, 783785

correlation problems, 798802

method, 781783

overview, 780781, 797798

stacked, 802804

unconformities, 150, 785787

Multiple horizon mapping

Philosophical Doctrine, 6

structure maps, 473

Multishot surveys, 68

Multisurface stacking in computer-based contouring, 29, 3339

N

National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), 52

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 52

Natural neighbors in computer-based gridding contouring, 26

Navarro Formation, 528

Nearest “n” neighbors in computer-based gridding contouring, 2526

Neighbors

computer-based gridding contouring, 2426

computer-based triangulation contouring, 27

Neogene fold axes, 726728, 730

Neotectonic fold axes, 730

Net gas isochore maps

constructing, 833837

nonsealing faults, 870874

reservoirs with shale intervals, 843847

walking wells, 840842

Net hydrocarbon isochore maps

constructing, 833834, 846

reservoirs with shale intervals, 843844

Wharton method, 826827

Net oil isochore maps

bottomwater reservoirs, 823

constructing, 833837

edgewater reservoirs, 825831

fault wedges, 866

Net pay isochore maps, 819

constructing, 824825

oil and gas reservoirs, 832837

sand–shale distribution, 822

single-phase reservoirs, 827832

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 878

vertical thickness determinations, 853

volume of reservoirs, 873874

walking wells, 839847

Net sand isochore maps

hydrocarbon wedge contouring, 836837

overview, 819821

single-phase reservoirs, 827828

walking wells, 840843

Net sand to gross interval ratio, 837839, 845846

Newport-Inglewood Trend

sequence boundaries, 794

strike-slip faults, 463, 742

Niger Delta, 338

Nigeria

fault bend folds, 610611

fault propagation folds, 614615

normal faults, 288

Niobrara, 557

Nodosaria Marker, 439

Nonclassical balancing techniques

box and lift-off structures, 625628

dip spectral analysis, 620625

fault bend folds, 589597

fault propagation data, 610615

fault propagation folds, 598605

imbricate structures, 616620

interference structures, 632634

introduction, 587588

qualitative and quantitative techniques, 602609

risk reduction, 602605

structural balancing, 541

structural styles, 605609

Suppe’s assumptions and Dahlstrom’s rules, 588

triangle zones and wedge structures, 628631

Nongrowth faults, 295

vertical separation, 351

VS/d plots, 806807

Nonmagnetic surveys, 68

Nonreservoir-quality rock in top of porosity maps, 419420

Nonsealing faults, 868873

Normal faults

contouring faulted surfaces across, 366369

cross-sections across, 240243

fault surface maps, 288289

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 378383

missing sections, 107112

repeated sections, 138142

throw and vertical separation, 280281

well logs, 285286

Normal-to-the-line projection method for seismic lines, 239

North American Vertical Datum (NAVD), 52

North Anatolian fault, 738

North Sea

directional surveys, 71

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 875

Northeast Flank Fault, 742743, 745

Nosings in contour maps, 358, 361

O

Oblique sections, 197

Offset zoned diapirs, 734

Oil and gas reservoirs

estimation, 881

net pay isochore maps, 832837

Oil fields with gas caps, 876877

Oil/water contact. See Hydrocarbon/water contact

Oil wells

cross sections, 201

reservoir pressure, 80

Olinghouse fault, 739

On-screen computer-based log correlation, 130131

One-way times in converting time to depth, 191

Onlaps

stratigraphic cross sections, 258, 260

unconformities, 785786

well log correlation, 151

Open-ended contours, 291

Optimistic contouring, 358

Optimization

three-dimensional seismic data, 480487

workstation-based interpretations, 480

Orientation in cross sections, 198

Orinoco heavy oil belt, 62

Osito Canyon, 760

Out-of-sequence thrusts in imbricate structures, 616

Outer oil wedges, 833837

Overhangs

contour maps, 1415

salt surfaces, 453, 458, 460

Overthrust faults, 315

Overthrust paradox, 541

P

Pacific Plate compressional folding, 749

Pads, description, 488

Painter Reservoir Field

compressional tectonics, 465

discontinuity of structure with depth, 474475

Panel diagrams, 245249

Parallel contouring, 1921, 363365

Parallel folds in kink method, 579

Paran fault, 737

Parasequence correlations in delta d/d plots, 787788

Passive back thrusts, 628

Pay logs, 86

Peace Valley formation, 759

Pecos Country, 758

Pencils for contour maps, 358

Pennsylvanian Anvil Rock Sandstone, 206207

Perched water and contacts

edgewater reservoirs, 878

structure maps, 475477

Peripheral cross sections, 219

Peripheral faults, 452, 458

Permeable intervals in fault-seal analysis, 265, 269

Permo-Pennsylvanian strata, 555556

Perpendicular orientation assumptions for seismic sections, 165

Pessimistic contouring, 358359

Phantom horizons, 517

Phantoming, 161

Philippine Fault, 727, 730732, 734735

Philosophical Doctrine of accurate subsurface interpretation and mapping

autotracking methodology, 523

documentation, 490

key points, 37

multiple horizons, 487

subsurface data, 523

workflows, 489

workstations, 480

Picking in data extraction, 188191

Pierce Field, 876

Pierce Well, 796797

Piercing points in strike-slip faults, 733734

Pin lines in classical balancing, 546547

Pine Mountain thrust region, 592

Pipe-conveyed logs (PCL) for vertical well depth, 53, 55

Pitfalls

directional wells, 348

fault traces and gaps, 391404

log correlation techniques, 99101

seismic, 331337

strike-ramps, 666672

Planimeters, 874

Plans and planning

cross sections, 198

directionally drilled wells, 6467

log correlation, 9092

log correlation in directionally drilled wells, 102105

Philosophical Doctrine, 4

three-dimensional seismic data, 488490

vertical well depth, 52

Pleistocene Pico Formation, 794

Pliocene Lower Wilber horizon, 745

Pliocene sediments, 760

Plunge projections, 228231

Points on contour lines, 14

Polochic fault, 737

Porosity in compaction effects, 673675

Porous caprocks in hydrocarbon traps, 453

Post-depositional faults and folds

fault displacement mapping, 331

kink method, 580

pregrowth structures, 697698

vertical separation, 338

VS/d plots, 805807

Postage stamp maps, 14

Posting

in data extraction, 188191

subsurface map process, 158159

Prealps box and lift-off structures, 626

Pregrowth structure and calculations

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 688692, 694698

piercing point evidence, 733734

Pressure, reservoir, 80

Pressure measurement precision, 878

Prestack depth migration (PSDM), 188, 190

Prestack time migration (PSTM), 188

Principal plane of stress in strike-slip faults, 730

Problem-solving cross sections, 206, 208

Projected slope algorithm in fault surface maps, 295

Projecting large growth faults to depth, 647654

Projection of wells, 226227

cross sections, 227238

deviated wells, 235239

plunge projections, 228231

seismic lines, 239

strike projections, 231234

Proof of correctness, loop-tying as, 167170

Pull-apart maps

compressional tectonics, 473

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 390391

Pure-time maps, 192

Q

Qualitative and quantitative techniques for nonclassical methods balancing risk reduction, 602610

Quality control for depth conversion, 533

Quality of subsurface structural and mapping methods, 23

Quantitative relationship for vertical separation and throw, 283284

Quantum increase in dip in imbricate structures, 619620

Queen Formation, 793794

R

Rabbit Island fault, 812814

Rabbit Island Field, 719

Rabbit Island Salt Spine, 451452

Radial cross sections, 219

Radial faults, 451452

Ram-Powell Field, 477

Ramp angle for directionally drilled wells, 62

Ramp faults

overview, 318322

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 606

Ramp wells for directionally drilled wells, 6061, 102103

Ramping thrusts, 623624

Ramps

compressional faulting, 315

contour compatibility across faults, 424

fault bend fold models, 566

fault surface maps, 323

flat thrust faults, 318

fractures, 542543

imbricate structures, 617, 619

interference structures, 632

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 609

seismic data, 167

strike-ramp pitfalls, 666672

three-dimensional models, 565567

thrust faults, 562, 564565

Rangely Dome, 226

Rate gyros, 68

Raton Basin, 629

Realism in contour maps, 359

Realistic interpretation in contouring, 22

Reasonable interpretation in contouring, 22

Reasonableness tests for faulted surfaces, 42

Reconnaissance

fault interpretation, 494498

three-dimensional interpretation, 481, 484

Recovery factor in gas reserves estimation, 880881

Reference horizons

fault displacement, 279

multisurface stacking, 3739

Reference lines for static mis-ties, 181182

Reference planes

fence diagrams, 246247, 249

structure maps, 52

Reference wells

MBPA, 781782, 797803

vertical wells, 146

References in contour maps, 14

Reflections

compressional folding, 757

migration mis-ties, 186

seismic data, 171

seismic sections, 161

Regional dips in contour maps, 358

Regional restoration in strike-slip faults, 734736

Related dips in dip spectral analysis, 622

Relative age principle for growth structures, 775

Relative depth uncertainty

description, 4950

vertical wells, 5657

Relative displacement in faults, 279

Releasing bends

compressional folding, 748

extensional faulting, 758759, 763764

lateral displacements, 745

scaling factors, 746747

strike-slip faults, 724, 733, 736741

Relief in top of porosity maps, 420

Repeated sections

compressional faulting, 313

contouring, 3940

definition, 278279

fault surface maps, 349351

faults, 289290

log correlation techniques, 83, 138143

nonclassical balancing techniques, 605609

reverse faults, 377378

seismic data, 327

Repeated values on contour lines, 1415

Reserves estimation, 879881

Reservoir engineering, 879

field production history, 881882

reserves estimation, 879881

reservoir characterization, 879

Reservoir pressures, 80

Reservoir rock

backsliding, 659

fault-seal analysis, 270

net sand isochore maps, 819

Reservoirs

hydrocarbon wedge contouring, 843847

isochore maps, 822824

volumetric configuration, 873874

Resistivity log for vertical well depth, 53

Resource plays, 488

Restoration for strike-slip faults, 734737

Restore commands for faulted surfaces, 43

Restored surface method for faulted surfaces, 4041

Restored tops

computer mapping, 388

deviated wells, 146149

growth faults, 338339, 343344

log correlation techniques, 143149

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 384388

vertical wells, 144146

Restraining bends

compressional structures, 748752

extensional faulting, 758759, 763764

extensional folding, 759

scaling factors, 747

strike-slip faults, 724, 736739, 741746

Retrodeformation

fault bend folds, 594

strike-slip extensional folding, 769

structural balancing, 553557

Reverse faults

combined vertical separation, 309

compressional faulting, 313317

compressional tectonics, 466469

contour compatibility across faults, 427

contouring across, 377378

cross-sections across, 243244

definition, 313

growth, 808809

horizons, 289290

hydrocarbon traps, 462464

intersecting fault patterns, 305, 309311

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 388391

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 607

repeated sections, 138139

VS/d plots, 804806

Revisions in cross sections, 204

Ridge Basin

geology, 765

strike-slip extensional folding, 758763, 765772

Rig floor (RF)

log measurements, 82

vertical wells, 51

Rise in contouring, 1314

Risk reduction, 602605

Rn/Tn data, 696698, 703705

Rocky Mountain thrust front, 628

Rollover anticlines

Coulomb collapse theory, 636640

growth sedimentation, 641646

origins, 636646

Rollovers

Coulomb collapse angles, 652654

cross structures, 664666

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 687688

extensional folding, 759

formation of, 688690

geometry features, 647648

growth axial surface, 708

growth faults, 338, 676678

pregrowth structures, 694695

projecting large growth faults to depth, 647654

Ridge Basin, 759, 762764

seismic, 713716

Romania, 451

Roof thrusts, 628, 630

Rosecrans Oil Field, 463464

Rotary table (RT)

log measurements, 82

vertical wells, 51

Rotation in strike-slip extensional folding, 763

Rule of 45, 393394

Rules in contouring, 1417

Run in contouring, 1314

Ryckman Creek Field, 465

S

“S” Fault, 295296

S-shaped holes for directionally drilled wells, 6162, 102103

S vergences, 632

Sabine Uplift, 414

Saddles, 666668

Sag correction for directional surveys, 73

Salient offsets, 734

Salt domes and diapirs

area accountability, 544

contouring, 441, 446, 453454, 456457

cross sections, 212

diapiric salt tectonics, 451452

dipping beds around, 372, 374

fault traces, 221

log correlation problem, 791792

MBPA, 802804

piercement, 398399

unconformities, 414, 787

Salt/fault intersections in diapiric salt tectonics, 456

Salt occurrences and structures

correlation type logs, 86, 8990

cross sections, 212214, 219221

diapiric salt tectonics, 451461

Salt/sediment intersections in diapiric salt tectonics, 456458

Sample data sets for computer-based triangulation contouring, 2932

San Andreas Fault

characteristics, 738

compressional folding, 748753

restraining bends, 731, 742

stress measurements, 730

strike-slip extensional folding, 760, 762

strike-slip faults, 726727, 734

San Gabriel Fault

overview, 759763

strike-slip extensional folding, 766769, 771

San Jacinto fault, 738739

Sand

backsliding, 659

compaction effects, 677678

cross sections, 212213, 215217

deviated wells, 857

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 687

electric log correlation, 9294

fault-seal analysis, 263264, 270271

fault surface sections, 265268

horizontal wells, 63

log maps, 245

net pay isochore maps, 827831, 835836

net sand isochore maps, 819821

reservoirs with shale intervals, 843847

three-dimensional reservoir analysis model, 252255

vertical thickness determinations, 851, 853

walking wells, 840843

Sand/shale ratios

compaction effects, 680686

isochore maps, 822

Sandstone

compaction effects, 674678

stratigraphic cross sections, 204207

Savanna Creek Duplex, 552

Scales

contour maps, 16

cross sections, 198, 201

depth conversion, 530534

directionally drilled wells, 65, 67

fault surface sections, 265

strike-slip displacements, 746747

three-dimensional seismic data, 481

true stratigraphic depth method, 126127

Second-order tensors in strike-slip faults, 728729

Section lines in bifurcating patterns, 300

Sediments

diapiric salt tectonics, 454

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 693

growth faults, 782

growth structures and changes in growth, 775776. See also Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis (MBPA)

hanging wall anticlines, 641646

strike-slip faults, 731

unconformities from, 413

Segno Field, 684687

Seismic data

assumptions, 157, 322

benefits, 156

data extraction, 188195

delta d/d plots, 789791

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 701702

fault data, 285, 322337

fault propagation folds, 602

interpretation. See Interpretation

interval isopach maps, 885886

introduction, 155156

limitations, 157

multisurface stacking, 3739

pitfalls, 331337

projecting large growth faults to depth, 649

strike-ramps, 666

structural balancing, 551

structure maps, 411413

subsurface interpretations, 156157

subsurface map process, 158160

summary, 195

three-dimensional. See Three-dimensional seismic data

throw, 375

tying. See Tying seismic data

well data integration, 329

Seismic lines in cross sections, 239

Seismic reflection analysis for box and lift-off structures, 626

Seismic sections

examining, 160165

faults, 288289

triangle zones and wedge structures, 628629

Semangko Fault, 727, 730

Sequence boundaries

compressional growth structures, 794795

cross sections, 577

growth structures, 775776

linear growth, 693

MBPA, 780781, 783, 785

seismic data, 171

stratigraphic interpretation, 793794

Setchell's equation

derivation, 115117

discussion, 854857

measured log thickness, 849

vertical thickness determinations, 854857

Shales

area accountability, 544

compaction effects, 675, 678, 680686

cross sections, 215

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 687, 719720

electric log correlation, 85

fractures, 542

geoscientist role, 488

hydrocarbon wedge contouring, 843847

three-dimensional reservoir analysis model, 255

Shear

backsliding, 656658

hanging wall anticlines, 638, 640, 642643

interference structures, 632633

lift-off folds, 626

strike-slip faults, 726, 728, 730

Shear fault bend folds, 606, 610612

Short-radius horizontal wells, 62

Show cross sections, 207215

Show logs, 86, 88

Sideswipe, 159

cross structures, 664

description, 156

Signal Hill Promontory, 742, 744745, 795

Single compressional faults, 316

Single-phase reservoirs in net pay isochore maps, 827832

Single-shot magnetic surveys, 68

Single-well method for growth faults, 339345

Sinusolidal buckling drill pipes, 57

Sliding

backsliding, 656661, 663

growth sedimentation, 641, 643644

hanging wall anticlines, 637, 640

TVD effects, 68

Slip

backsliding, 656657, 659, 663664

cross-section consistency, 567568

definition, 279280

dip spectral analysis, 624

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 690, 695

fault bend folds, 567, 594, 597

fault propagation folds, 598, 601

imbricate structures, 616617, 619

interference structures, 632633

line-length balancing, 548

master synthetic faults, 656

measurement limitations, 279

pregrowth structures, 694695

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 606607

strike-slip faults. See Strike-slip faults

Slow velocity function, 327

Smooth contouring, 1718

Snakehead structures, 598

Sole thrusts, 628, 630

Soledad Basin

strike-slip extensional folding, 770

strike-slip faults, 734

Sonic logs, 174, 499500, 553

South Marsh Island (SMI), 329

Southern Appalachians, 599600

Southern Louisiana rollover, 713716

Southern Permian Basin, 451, 456

Space sections, 163

Sparse data sets in computer-based gridding contouring, 27

Speed of workstation-based interpretations, 480

Splicing method for compaction effects, 675

Split logs, 135, 259

Spontaneous potential (SP) curves, 85

Spontaneous potential (SP) logs

compaction effects, 675679, 682683

correlation sections, 215

Spraberry-Wolfcamp play, 499

St. Charles Ranch, 671

Stacked Multiple Bischke Plots, 797, 802804

Stacks

computer-based contouring, 29, 3339

faulted surfaces, 43

Static mis-ties, 181182

Step-up angle for ramps, 543

Stepovers

releasing bends, 739

restraining bends, 741742

strike-ramps, 666

strike-slip faults, 729, 731, 736

Straight-line method

directional well plots, 73, 76

fault surface maps, 346347

Straight-line segment models, 689

Straight reverse fault segments, 313

Strain ellipse model for strike-slip faults, 726728

Strain in strike-slip faults, 724726, 729731

Straley, H. W., 277

Stratigraphic cross sections

computer construction of, 257262

correlation sections, 215

overview, 204206

vertical exaggeration, 223

Stratigraphic depth method, 126129

Stratigraphic dips, 567

Stratigraphic fence diagrams, 248249, 251

Stratigraphic interpretation in delta d/d plots, 788, 793794

Stratigraphic intervals

correlation sections, 215

growth faults, 448

growth sedimentation, 641643

isochore maps, 817819

isopach maps, 882, 885

kink method, 577

missing sections, 111, 117

seismic time profiles, 579

stratigraphic depth method, 126

Stratigraphic relationships

strike projections, 232

vertical well log correlation, 101

Stratigraphic sections

bed boundaries and fluid contacts, 123

chronostratigraphic, 272274

compressional faulting, 315

downthrown. See Downthrown stratigraphic section prediction

faults, 289

growth faults, 338

missing sections, 111112, 278

repeated sections, 138

restored tops, 338

single-well method, 339

TVD cross sections, 124

vertical well log correlation, 99101

Stratigraphic thickness

contouring, 421

correlation sections, 215

cross sections, 579

growth faults, 338

isopach maps, 817819

lateral displacements, 734

TST. See True stratigraphic thickness (TST)

variations, 94

vertical exaggeration, 226227

vertical well log correlation, 99101

Stratigraphic type logs, 8688

Stratigraphic units

cross sections, 226227, 572

isochore maps, 818819

mapping techniques, 414

Stratigraphic variations

electric log correlation, 9798

vs. faults, 94

Stress in strike-slip faults, 724, 728731

Strike

bifurcating fault patterns, 439440

contour maps, 359360

fault surface maps, 291292

fault traces, 400402, 404

intersecting fault patterns, 442

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 378383

normal faults, 368

structure maps, 371

throw contouring, 375

throws across faults, 370

vertical faults, 418

Strike lines

cross structures, 664

fault bend folds, 589

fault interpretation, 492493

migration mis-ties, 185189

seismic data, 171

thrust faults on, 557, 560567

Strike projections

cross sections, 231234

well projections, 228, 231

Strike-ramp pitfalls, 666672

Strike sections

cross sections, 219222

description, 197

Strike-slip faults

balancing, 748771

compressional folding, 748758

conclusions, 772773

contour compatibility across faults, 424

criteria, 731733

cross sections, 221223

displacements, 746747

extensional folding along, 758772

growth, 776

growth structures, 795797

interpretation, 725726, 728730

introduction, 723724

lateral displacements, 733746

mapping, 724731

piercing points, 733734

regional restoration, 734736

releasing bends, 736741

restraining bends, 736739, 741746

scaling factors, 746747

strain ellipse model, 726728

stress, 728731

surface features, 733

tectonics, 461465

Structural cross sections

computer construction of, 259262

electric log sections, 202204

overview, 198202

strike sections, 204

Structural dips

contouring, 537

dip spectral analysis, 622, 624

vs. stratigraphic, 567

strike projections, 233

vertical wells, 101

Structural geology and balancing in compressional structures, 540541

Structural highs and lows in contour maps, 361

Structural interpretation in fault surface maps, 288

Structural noses in contour maps, 361

Structural relief

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction. See Downthrown stratigraphic section prediction

fault bend folds, 610, 612

nonclassical balancing techniques, 605609

Structural styles

qualitative observations for determining, 605606

quantitative methods for determining, 607609

Structure maps

additive property of faults, 408410

checking, 371375

compressional tectonics, 465473

contour, 14

contour compatibility across faults, 423428

contour compatibility with closely spaced horizons, 421423

contouring across normal faults, 366376

contouring across reverse faults, 377378

contouring guidelines, 355362

contouring hand methods, 362363

discontinuity of structure with depth, 473475

edgewater reservoirs, 825826

extensional tectonics. See Extensional tectonics

fault traces and gaps, 391404

fault wedges, 866

faulted surfaces, 363378

generic case study, 404407

integration of seismic and well data, 411413

interpreting, 473475

introduction, 353355

legitimate contouring of throw, 375376

manual integration with fault maps, 378391

mapping across vertical faults, 418

multiple stacking, 2939

multisurface mapping, 473

net pay isochore maps, 827829

nonsealing faults, 870873

perched water, 475477

tectonic habitats overview, 427428

three-dimensional seismic data, 527530

top of porosity, 419420, 862865

top of structure mapping, 862865

top of structure vs. top of porosity, 419420, 862865

unconformities, 413417

Subfault deformation, 666

Subnormal stress, 730

Subsea true vertical depth (SSTVD)

directionally drilled wells, 62

log measurements, 82

MBPA, 781

reservoir pressure, 80, 477

Subsurface interpretations

Philosophical Doctrine, 37

seismic data, 156157

Subsurface maps

compressional structures. See Compressional structures

contouring. See Contour maps and contouring techniques

cross sections. See Cross sections

description, 7

directionally drilled wells. See Directionally drilled wells

electric logs, 83

extensional structures. See Extensional structures

fault maps. See Fault maps

growth structures. See Growth structures and calculations

isochore maps. See Isochore maps

isopach maps. See Isopach maps

log correlation techniques. See Log correlation

mentors and mentoring, 7

overview, 13

Philosophical Doctrine of accurate subsurface interpretation and mapping, 37

seismic data. See Seismic data

strike-slip faults. See Strike-slip faults

structure maps. See Structure maps

three-dimensional seismic data. See Three-dimensional seismic data

types, 7

vertical wells. See Vertical wells

Subthrusts, 473, 620625

Sun Schmidt Well, 770

Superposition principle for growth structures, 775

Suppe’s assumptions, 588

Surface bed dips

kink method, 581, 584

strike-slip compressional folding, 751

strike-slip extensional folding, 760761

Surface dip data in compressional folding, 752

Surface location uncertainty in vertical wells, 5051

Surface modeling in computer-based contouring, 24

Symmetric folds. See Fault bend folds

Synclinal axial surfaces

fault propagation folds, 600601

strike-slip faults, 752

thrust faults, 560

triangle zones, 630

Synclinal folds, 763, 765

Synclines

contour maps, 20, 361

fault bend folds, 592

mis-ties, 195

strike-slip faults, 749, 752

Syndepositional faults

electric log correlation, 92

growth faults, 338, 448

Syndepositional growth models, 702705

Synthetic direction dips, 649

Synthetic faults, 654658

Synthetic seismograms

horizon interpretation, 517518

seismic sections, 161162

tying seismic data, 173175

tying wells, 499500

T

Tadpole dips, 584

Tangent method for fault traces, 394400

Tangential directional surveys, 6869

Taranaki Basin, 590

Target maps in depth conversion, 536538

Techniques in Philosophical Doctrine, 56

Tectonic habitats

extensional. See Extensional tectonics

overview, 427428

Templates for three-dimensional seismic data, 490

Tenneco Oil Company directional survey uncertainties study, 72

Thick-skinned strike-slip environments, 731

Thick-skinned vertical faults, 746

Thickness

contour lines, 16

MLT. See Measured log thickness (MLT)

stratigraphic. See Stratigraphic thickness

vertical. See Vertical thickness

Thickness downthrown and upthrown in expansion index, 777

Thickness intervals in log correlation techniques, 120122

Thin-limb folds, 579, 581

Thin-skinned compressional environments, 424, 731

Thin-skinned deformations, 592

Thin-skinned extensional environments, 424

Thin-skinned low-angle faults, 746

Three-dimensional analysis for strike-slip faults, 746

Three-dimensional coherency data for strike-ramps, 669

Three-dimensional correction factor for dipping beds, 115120

Three-dimensional effects for cross structures, 664668

Three-dimensional interpretation for Waha Field, 560565

Three-dimensional models

fault-seal analysis, 269270

lateral ramps, 565567

Three-dimensional perspective for contouring, 1013

Three-dimensional reservoir analysis model for cross sections, 250256

Three-dimensional seismic data

data optimization, 480481

depth conversion, 530534

documenting, 490

fault interpretation, 490511

framework interpretation and mapping, 487488

geoscientist role, 488489

horizon interpretation, 517527

interpretation optimization, 481487

interpretation workflow, 489

introduction, 479480

philosophical doctrine relative to workstations, 480

structure maps, 527530

subsurface interpretations, 156157

tying loops for, 165170

work environment, 481

workstation projects, 489

Three-dimensional spherical coordinate systems for dipping beds, 116117

Three-dimensional validity in Philosophical Doctrine, 4

Three-dimensional views for cross sections, 245256

Throw

across faults, 370371

combined vertical separation, 306

compressional faulting, 314

contouring, 375376

definition, 278279

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction. See Downthrown stratigraphic section prediction

fault bend folds, 610, 612

fault data, 286288

mathematical relationship to vertical separation, 280284

measurement limitations, 280

normal faults, 368369

seismic data, 327, 329

vertical faults, 418

Throw maps, 329, 331

Thrust faults

compressional faulting, 315

compressional tectonics, 470473

contour compatibility across faults, 424

on dip and strike lines, 557, 560567

dip spectral analysis, 621, 623624

fault-propagation folds, 565, 598, 600

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 609

Thunder Horse North Field, 458

Tied vertical sections, 501

Tiehchanshan Anticline, 610

Tight zones

sand–shale distribution, 822

top of porosity maps, 419420

top of structure mapping, 862863, 865

Tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 875878

Time-depth pairs, 551

Time-depth tables, 191

Time profiles in kink method, 580

Time requirements in Philosophical Doctrine, 4

Time sections, 163165

Time-stratigraphic correlations

correlation sections, 215

growth faults, 780

unconformities, 131

Time-to-depth conversion, 191195, 322

Top of porosity maps, 419420, 862865

Top of structure maps

isochore, 862865

vs. top of porosity, 419420

Top-of-Unit structure maps

faulted surfaces, 43, 4548

multisurface stacking, 3336

Totco tools

fault surface maps, 348

nonmagnetic surveys, 6869

Tough logging conditions logs, 53

Trace faults, 3940

Traces. See Fault traces

Transfer structures in cross-section consistency, 567568

Transfer zones in compressional faulting, 317

Transpressional deformation, 742

Transverse Ranges, 742, 759

Transverse structures, 664668

Trapezoidal directional surveys, 6869

Triangle zones, 628631

Triangles

constructing, 701702

dip, 708709

Triangulation technique in computer-based contouring, 24, 2731

True along hole depth (TAH), 51, 82

True dip lines, 185

True stratigraphic depth (TSD)

electric log correlation for horizontal wells, 126128

relationships, 126

TVD cross sections, 125

True stratigraphic thickness (TST)

interval isopach maps, 882886

isochore maps, 847851

isopach maps, 817819

log correlation pitfalls, 99101

log correlation techniques, 120122

relationships, 126

TVD cross sections, 125

TVD method, 127

True vertical depth thickness (TVDT)

isochore maps, 849851

log correlation techniques, 120122

True vertical depth (TVD)

cross sections, 123125

depth uncertainty, 49

directional surveys, 69, 72

directionally drilled wells, 105

interval isopach maps, 882

isochore maps, 849851

log correlation techniques, 121122

log measurements, 82

relationships, 126

TSD method, 125128

vertical wells, 51

True vertical thickness (TVT)

conversion to MLT, 112113

correction factors, 851857

deviated wells, 146148, 858862

dipping beds, 117120

fault-seal analysis, 267

interval isopach maps, 882885

isochore maps, 817819, 847851

log correlation pitfalls, 99101

log correlation techniques, 120122

missing sections, 111112

multisurface stacking, 30, 33

relationships, 126

TSD method, 125128

TVD cross sections, 125

vertical wells, 146, 351

2D Conformal Mapping (2DCM), 3739

Two-dimensional correction factor for dipping beds, 114115, 117120

Two-dimensional data in subsurface interpretations, 156159

Two-way time-to-depth conversion, 191194, 322

Tying seismic data

annotating well information, 171

checkshot information, 172173

data contemplation, 170171

faults, 175176

lines and horizons, 176181

loops, 165170

mis-ties, 181188

picking reflections, 171

synthetic seismograms, 173175

Tying wells

autotracking methodology, 521523

synthetic seismograms, 499500

U

Uinta Basin, 224226

Uncertainties in directional surveys, 7173

Unconformities

computer-based log correlation identification, 131133

correlation type logs, 86

framework horizons, 517

growth faults, 783787

hydrocarbon traps, 413417, 453

log correlation techniques, 149152

MBPA, 802, 804

shale basins, 719720

structure maps, 413417

Undulated contouring, 1718

Unevenly distributed impermeable rock, 839843

Uniform growth model, 703705

Uniform sedimentary loading, 693

Uniform thicknesses

kink method, 575, 577578

quantitative methods for determining structural styles, 607

Unit isochore maps, 3337

Up-dip pinchouts, 453

Up-dips

compensating fault patterns, 431

fault traces, 401

Uplifts

contour maps, 358

depth-to-detachment calculations, 585586

domal structures, 361

linear growth, 693

unconformities from, 413

Upper Triassic Nugget Sandstone, 221222

Upthrown blocks, 145

compensating fault patterns, 430, 432434

contouring across normal faults, 366, 368369

cross-sections across faults, 240, 243

deviated wells, 146147

directional wells, 349

electric log correlation, 92

expansion index, 777

fault maps, 327, 329

fault surface maps, 173, 290

fault traces, 392, 398399, 404

growth faults, 338340, 777778

lateral displacements, 739

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 378388

normal faults, 366, 378379, 382

repeated sections, 138. See also Decollements

restored tops, 143149, 338, 384385

reverse faults, 467

structure maps, 406

throws across faults, 370

Upthrown traces

compensating faults, 430431

contours, 366, 368369, 382

fault gaps, 404

normal faults, 379380

reverse faults, 388, 467, 469

throws across faults, 370

Upward-listric fault surfaces, 548

V

Valencia fault, 739

Variations in stratigraphy

electric log correlation, 9798

vs. faults, 94

Velocity function

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 697

seismic data, 326327

seismic lines, 239

Velocity maps, 533, 537

Velocity models, 530537

Velocity problems in converting time to depth, 191193

Velocity trends in synthetic seismograms, 499

Venezuela

inversion structures, 810811

MBPA, 798799

VERTCON program, 52

Vertical displacements in strike-slip faults, 733

Vertical distance in deviated wells, 146

Vertical exaggeration (VE)

cross sections, 198, 201, 223227

three-dimensional seismic data, 481, 485

Vertical faults in structure maps, 418419

Vertical planes

fault-propagation fold models, 565

fault-seal analysis, 265

Vertical points for directionally drilled wells, 62

Vertical resolution in seismic sections, 161163

Vertical scales

cross sections, 198, 201

fault surface sections, 265

three-dimensional seismic data, 481

Vertical sections

fault interpretation, 501

seismic sections, 163

Vertical seismic displays (VSD), 481

Vertical seismic profiles (VSPs)

depth conversion, 530

diapiric salt tectonics, 453454

tying seismic data, 175

Vertical separation

bifurcating fault patterns, 300, 440

compensating fault patterns, 302303, 430431

compressional faulting, 314, 316317

contouring, 366

contours across fault, 423, 427

cross-sections across faults, 240, 243

definition, 278279

directionally drilled wells, 351

extensional tectonics, 447

fault additive property, 408410

fault data, 285287

fault patterns, 306312

fault surface maps, 295

fault traces, 393, 399

faulted surfaces, 39, 4244

growth faults, 338346, 450

growth structures, 804814

manual integration of fault and structure maps, 382, 384

mathematical relationship to throw, 280284

nonclassical balancing techniques, 605608

reverse faults, 377378

seismic data, 327328, 331332

strike-slip fault tectonics, 463

structure maps, 371373

throw contouring, 375

vertical faults, 418

Vertical separation maps, 329, 331332

Vertical slice method for reservoir volume, 874

Vertical thickness

correction factors, 851857

deviated wells, 857862

isochore maps, 817819, 847857

kink method, 579

multisurface stacking, 30

TVT. See True vertical thickness (TVT)

Vertical uncertainty in directional surveys, 7172

Vertical wellbores in log measurements, 82

Vertical wells, 50

absolute depth uncertainty, 5859

correlation with directionally drilled wells, 105120

electric log correlation, 90101

log correlation pitfalls, 99101

LWD depth measurements, 5455

pipe-conveyed logs, 53, 55

relative depth uncertainty, 5657

repeated sections, 139

restored tops, 144146

surface location uncertainty, 5051

well depth, 5153

wireline depth measurements, 54

without directional surveys, 7980

Violin Breccia, 760, 762

Visualization techniques in fault-seal analysis, 269270

Volume accountability rule, 543544

Volume-balanced models for fault bend folds, 594

Volume conservation in strike-slip extensional folding, 765

Volumetric configuration

reservoirs, 873874

tilted hydrocarbon/water contacts, 877878

Volumetric reserve calculations, 819, 879881

VS/d plots

complex growth structures, 808811

downward-dying growth faults, 811814

generic and real examples, 806814

growth faults, 806808

method, 805806

overview, 804805

post-depositional faults, 806807

W

Waha Field, 560565

Walkaways, 453

Walking wells method

hydrocarbon wedge contouring, 839845

net pay isochore maps, 824

Water coning in horizontal wells, 63

Wedge zones

contouring, 837847

isochore maps, 865868

net pay isochore maps, 827828, 832837

nonclassical balancing techniques, 628631

nonsealing faults, 869873

top of structure mapping, 863

unconformities, 414, 416417

walking wells, 840842

Weight on bit (WOB) for vertical well depth, 5455, 57

Well control in fault interpretation, 499501

Well data

integration in structure maps, 411413

seismic data integration, 329

South Marsh Island, 329

Well depth for vertical wells, 5153

Well logs

compressional faulting, 314

computer-based, 129130

cross sections, 198

downthrown stratigraphic section prediction, 719

fault data, 284288

growth faults, 338

three-dimensional seismic data, 488

true stratigraphic thickness, 883885

Well planning, 488

West Cameron Block 192 Field, 236, 238

Wharton method for net hydrocarbon isochore maps, 826837

Wheeler diagrams, 272274

Wheeler Ridge, 631

White Castle dome, 458

Whitney Canyon Field, 465

Wilcox sands, 684, 686

Wilcox strata, 259, 262, 264

Wilmington Field, 463465

Wireline depth measurements for vertical wells, 54

Wireline logs for vertical well depth, 53

Woodbine Sandstones, 414, 416

Work environment for three-dimensional seismic data, 481

Workflows for three-dimensional seismic data, 489

Workstations

Philosophical Doctrine relative to, 480

three-dimensional seismic data, 489490

Wyoming-Utah backarc, 465

X

X-Y graphic scale on contour maps, 356

XYZ data for faulted surfaces, 42

Y

Y-O Buckle, 758

Yegua sands, 684, 686

Yucca Mountains, 666, 669

Z

Z vergences, 632

Zagros Mountains

compressional structures, 465466

salt domes, 451

Zayante Fault, 796

Zero contour lines, 824, 827828

Zero depth in vertical wells, 51

Zigzag sections, 217, 219

Zone of combined throw, 306

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