In the 14 years since the first edition of this book, RF IC design has experienced a dramatic metamorphosis. Innovations in transceiver architectures, circuit topologies, and device structures have led to highly-integrated “radios” that span a broad spectrum of applications. Moreover, new analytical and modeling techniques have considerably improved our understanding of RF circuits and their underlying principles. A new edition was therefore due.
The second edition differs from the first in several respects:
1. I realized at the outset—three-and-a-half years ago—that simply adding “patches” to the first edition would not reflect today’s RF microelectronics. I thus closed the first edition and began with a clean slate. The two editions have about 10% overlap.
2. I wanted the second edition to contain greater pedagogy, helping the reader understand both the fundamentals and the subtleties. I have thus incorporated hundreds of examples and problems.
3. I also wanted to teach design in addition to analysis. I have thus included step-by-step design procedures and examples. Furthermore, I have dedicated Chapter 13 to the step-by-step transistor-level design of a dual-band WiFi transceiver.
4. With the tremendous advances in RF design, some of the chapters have inevitably become longer and some have been split into two or more chapters. As a result, the second edition is nearly three times as long as the first.
The material in this book is much more than can be covered in one quarter or semester. The following is a possible sequence of the chapters that can be taught in one term with reasonable depth. Depending on the students’ background and the instructor’s preference, other combinations of topics can also be covered in one quarter or semester.
Chapter 2: Basic Concepts in RF Design
The following sections should be covered: General Considerations, Effects of Nonlinearity (the section on AM/PM Conversion can be skipped), Noise, and Sensitivity and Dynamic Range. (The sections on Passive Impedance Transformation, Scattering Parameters, and Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems can be skipped.) This chapter takes about six hours of lecture.
Chapter 3: Communication Concepts
This chapter can be covered minimally in a quarter system—for example, Analog Modulation, Quadrature Modulation, GMSK Modulation, Multiple Access Techniques, and the IEEE802.11a/b/g Standard. In a semester system, the concept of signal constellations can be introduced and a few more modulation schemes and wireless standards can be taught. This chapter takes about two hours in a quarter system and three hours in a semester system.
Chapter 4: Transceiver Architectures
This chapter is relatively long and should be taught selectively. The following sections should be covered: General Considerations, Basic and Modern Heterodyne Receivers, Direct-Conversion Receivers, Image-Reject Receivers, and Direct-Conversion Transmitters. In a semester system, Low-IF Receivers and Heterodyne Transmitters can be covered as well. This chapter takes about eight hours in a quarter system and ten hours in a semester system.
Chapter 5: Low-Noise Amplifiers
The following sections should be covered: General Considerations, Problem of Input Matching, and LNA Topologies. A semester system can also include Gain Switching and Band Switching or High-IP2 LNAs. This chapter takes about six hours in a quarter system and eight hours in a semester system.
Chapter 6: Mixers
The following sections should be covered: General Considerations, Passive Downconversion Mixers (the computation of noise and input impedance of voltage-driven sampling mixers can be skipped), Active Downconversion Mixers, and Active Mixers with High IP2. In a semester system, Active Mixers with Enhanced Transconductance, Active Mixers with Low Flicker Noise, and Upconversion Mixers can also be covered. This chapter takes about eight hours in a quarter system and ten hours in a semester system.
Chapter 8: Oscillators
This is a long chapter and should be taught selectively. The following sections should be covered: Basic Principles, Cross-Coupled Oscillator, Voltage-Controlled Oscillators, Low-Noise VCOs. In a quarter system, there is little time to cover phase noise. In a semester system, both approaches to phase noise analysis can be taught. This chapter takes about six hours in a quarter system and eight hours in a semester system.
Chapter 9: Phase-Locked Loops
This chapter forms the foundation for synthesizers. In fact, if taught carefully, this chapter naturally teaches integer-N synthesizers, allowing a quarter system to skip the next chapter. The following sections should be covered: Basic Concepts, Type-I PLLs, Type-II PLLs, and PFD/CP Nonidealities. A semester system can also include Phase Noise in PLLs and Design Procedure. This chapter takes about four hours in a quarter system and six hours in a semester system.
Chapter 11: Fractional-N Synthesizers
This chapter is likely sacrificed in a quarter system. A semester system can spend about four hours on Randomization and Noise Shaping. The remaining sections may be skipped.
Chapter 12: Power Amplifiers
This is a long chapter and, unfortunately, is often sacrificed for other chapters. If coverage is desired, the following sections may be taught: General Considerations, Classification of Power Amplifiers, High-Efficiency Power Amplifiers, Cascode Output Stages, and Basic Linearization Techniques. These topics take about four hours of lecture. Another four hours can be spent on Doherty Power Amplifier, Polar Modulation, and Outphasing.
Chapter 13: Transceiver Design Example
This chapter provides a step-by-step design of a dual-band transceiver. It is possible to skip the state-of-the-art examples in Chapters 5, 6, and 8 to allow some time for this chapter. The system-level derivations may still need to be skipped. The RX, TX, and synthesizer transistor-level designs can be covered in about four hours.
A solutions manual is available for instructors via the Pearson Higher Education Instructor Resource Center web site: pearsonhighered.com/irc; and a set of Powerpoint slides is available for instructors at informit.com/razavi. Additional problems will be posted on the book’s website (informit.com/razavi).