Appendix A

Conversion Factors and Constants

Conversion Factors

Energy

1 Joule (J)

=

1 kg m2 s−2

1 British thermal unit (Btu)

=

1055 J

1 calorie (cal)

=

4.185 J

1 Foot-pound (ft-lb)

=

1.356 J

1 Watt-hour (Wh)

=

3600 J

1 Electron-volt (eV)

=

1.602 × 10−19 J

1 Volt-Coulomb (V·C)

=

1 J

1 Ton of oil equivalent (toe)

=

11.63 MWh

 

=

41.87 GJ

1 Quad (quadrillion Btu)

=

1 × 1015 Btu

 

=

1.055 × 1018 J

 

=

1.055 EJ (exajoules)

 

=

25.22 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent)

 

=

293 TWh (Terawatt-hour)

1 Barrel of oil equivalent (boe)

=

0.14 toe

 

=

5.862 GJ

1 Therm (thm)

=

100,000 Btu

 

=

105.6 MJ

1 Ton hard coal (t SKE)

=

29.31 GJ

1 Billion m3 of natural gas (Gm3 NG)

=

0.0357 Quad

 

=

37.66 PJ (petajoules)

 

=

10.47 TWh

Power

1 Watt (W)

=

1 J s−1

1 Btu s−1

=

1.055 kW

1 Horsepower (hp)

=

745.7 W

 

=

550 ft-lb s−1

 

=

33,000 ft-lb min−1

1 Foot-pound per second (ft-lb s−1)

=

1.356 W

1 Ton of refrigeration

=

3.517 kW

Pressure

1 pascal (Pa)

=

1 N m−2

 

=

1 kg m−1 s−2

 

=

1.45 pounds-force per square inch (psi)

 

=

1.0197 × 10−5 kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg cm−2)

1 bar

=

1 × 105 Pa

 

=

100 kPa

1 atm

=

101.325 kPa

 

=

14.696 psia (absolute)

 

=

76 cm of mercury (cm Hg)*

 

=

29.92 inches of mercury (in Hg)*

 

=

760 torr*

 

=

760 mm Hg*

 

=

33.96 feet of water (ft H2O)**

 

=

10.33 m of water (m H2O)**

(* at 0°C; ** at 68°F, 20°C)

Volume

1 U.S. gallon (gal)

=

3.785 liters (L)

1 Barrel (bbl)

=

42 gal

1 MMb

=

1 Million bbl

1 Cubic feet (ft3)

=

7.48 Gallons

1 Acre-feet

=

325,581 Gallons

1 Tcf

=

1 Trillion cubic feet

1 Tmcft or 1 TMC

=

1 Thousand million cubic feet

Volumetric Flow Rate

1 gallon per minute (gpm)

=

0.06309 L s−1

 

=

0.2272 m3 h−1

1 cusec

=

1 ft3 s−1

1 million gallons per day (mgd)

=

694.4 gpm

Important Constants

Avogadro Number

NA

6.023 × 1023

Boltzmann Constant

k

1.38042 × 10−23 J K−1

Elementary Charge on Electron

e

1.602176634 × 10−19 C

Faraday Constant

F

96,485 C eq−1

 

 

(Coulomb per equivalent or Coulomb per mol electrons)

Planck’s Constant

h

6.626 × 10−34 J s

Stefan–Boltzmann Constant

σ

5.6704 × 10−8 W m−2 K−4

Universal Gas Constant

R

8.314 J mol−1 K−1

Velocity of Light

c

3 × 108 m s−1

..................Content has been hidden....................

You can't read the all page of ebook, please click here login for view all page.
Reset