B. Ideal Gas Constant and Conversion Factors

See www.onlineconversion.com.

Ideal Gas Constant

R=0.73ft3atmlb mol °RR=1.987Btulb mol °R R=8.314kPadm3molKR=8.3144JmolKR=0.082dm3atmmolK=0.082m3atmkmolKR=1.987calmolK

Boltzmann’s constantkB=1.381×1023Jmolecule K=1.381×1023kg m2/s2/molecule/K

Volume of Ideal Gas

1 lb-mol of an ideal gas at 32°F and 1 atm occupies 359 ft3 (0.00279 lb-mol/ft3).

1 mol of an ideal gas at 0°C and 1 atm occupies 22.4 dm3 (0.0446 mol/dm3).

CA=PART=yAPRT

where

CA = concentration of A, mol/dm3

T = temperature, K

P = pressure, kPa

yA = mole fraction of A

R = ideal gas constant, 8.314 kPa·dm3/mol·K

1M = 1 molar = 1 mol/liter = 1 mol/dm3 = 1 kmol/m3 = 0.062 lb-mol/ft3

Volume

1 cm3

= 0.001 dm3

1 in3

= 0.0164 dm3

1 fluid oz

= 0.0296 dm3

1 ft3

= 28.32 dm3

1 m3

= 1000 dm3

1 U.S. gal

= 3.785 dm3

1 liter (L)

= 1 dm3

Length

1 Å

= 10–8 cm

1 dm

= 10 cm

1 μm

= 10–4 cm

1 in.

= 2.54 cm

1 ft

= 30.48 cm

1 m

= 100 cm

(1ft3=28.32dm3×1gal3.785dm3=7.482gal)

Pressure

1 torr (1 mmHg)

= 0.13333 kPa

1 in. H2O

= 0.24886 kPa

1 atm

101.33 kPa

1 psia

= 6.8943 kPa

1 megadyne/cm2

= 100 kPa

1 bar = 100 kPa

Energy (Work)

1 kg·m2/s2

= 1 J

1 Btu

= 1055.06 J

1 cal

4.1868 J

1 L·atm

101.34 J

1 hp·h

= 2.6806 = 106 J

1 kWh

= 3.6 × 106 J

(1bar =100 kpa×1atm101.37 kpa=0.987?atm)

Temperature

°F

= 1.8 × °C + 32

°R

= °F + 459.69

K

= °C + 273.16

°R

= 1.8 × K

°Réamur

= 1.25 × °C

Mass

1 lbm

= 454g

1 kg

= 1000 g

1 grain

= 0.0648 g

1 oz (avoird.)

= 28.35 g

1 ton

= 908000 g

Viscosity

1 poise = 1 g/cm/s = 0.1 kg/m/s

1 centipoise = 1 cp = 0.01 poise = 0.1 micro Pascal · second

Force

1 dyne= 1 g · cm/s2

1 Newton= 1 kg · m/s2

Pressure

1 Pa= 1 Newton/m2

Work

A. Work = Force × Distance

1 Joule = 1 Newton · meter = 1 kg m2/s2 = 1 Pa · m3

B. Pressure × Volume = Work

(1 Newton/ m2) · m3 = 1 Newton · m = 1 Joule

Time Rate of Change of Energy with Time (Power)

1 Watt= 1 J/s

1 hp= 746 J/s

Gravitational Conversion Factor

Gravitational constant

g = 32.2 ft/s2

American Engineering System

gc=32.174(ft)(lbm)(s2)(lbf)

SI/cgs System

gc = 1 (Dimensionless)

TABLE B-1 TYPICAL PROPERTY VALUES

  Liquid
(water)
Gas
(air, 77°C, 101 kPa)
Solid
Density 1000 kg/m3 1.0 kg/m3 3000 kg/m3
Concentration 55.5 mol/dm3 0.04 mol/dm3
Diffusivity 10–8 m2/s 10–5 m2/s 10–11 m2/s
Viscosity 10–3 kg/m/s 1.82 × 10–5 kg/m/s
Heat capacity 4.31 J/g/K 40 J/mol/K 0.45 J/g/K
Thermal conductivity 1.0 J/s/m/K 10–2 J/s/m/K 100 J/s/m/K
Kinematic viscosity 10–6 m2/s 1.8 × 10–5 m2/s
Prandtl number 7 0.7
Schmidt number 200 2

TABLE B-2 TYPICAL TRANSPORT VALUES

  Liquid Gas
Heat transfer coefficient, h 1000 W/m2/K 65 W/m2/K
Mass transfer coefficient, kc 10–2 m/s 3 m/s

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