Chapter 1. From zero to deploy

Welcome to the Ruby on Rails Tutorial! The purpose of this tutorial is to teach you how to develop custom web applications. The resulting skillset will put you in a great position to get a job as a web developer, start a career as a freelancer, or found a company of your own. If you already know how to develop web applications, this tutorial will quickly get you up to speed with Ruby on Rails.

The focus throughout the Ruby on Rails Tutorial is on general skills that are useful no matter which specific technology you end up using. Once you understand how web apps work, learning another framework can be done with much less effort. That being said, the framework of choice in this tutorial—namely, Ruby on Rails—has never been a better choice for learning web development (Box 1.1).

Box 1.1. The many advantages of Rails

Ruby on Rails (or just “Rails” for short) is a free and open-source web development framework written in the Ruby programming language. Upon its debut, Ruby on Rails rapidly became one of the most popular tools for building dynamic web applications. Rails is used by companies as varied as Airbnb, SoundCloud, Disney, Hulu, GitHub, and Shopify, as well as by innumerable freelancers, independent development shops, and startups.

Although there are many choices in web development, Rails stands apart for its elegance, power, and integrated approach to web applications. Using Rails, even novice developers can build a full-stack web application without ever leaving the framework—a huge boon for people learning web development for the first time. Rails also gives you flexibility going forward—for example, serving as a great back end if you want to build a single-page application or mobile app sometime down the line.

One big advantage is that Rails is not prone to the “new hotness” problem that plagues some development communities (notably JavaScript/Node.js), in which a dizzyingly complex set of technologies seems to change every six months. As Rails creator David Heinemeier Hansson once noted:

Back then the complexity merchant of choice was J2EE, but the complaints are uncannily similar to those leveled against JavaScript today… The core premise of Rails remains in many ways as controversial today as it was when it premiered. That by formalizing conventions, eliminating valueless choices, and offering a full-stack framework that provides great defaults for anyone who wants to create a complete application, we can make dramatic strides of productivity.

Due in part to this philosophy, Rails has remained so stable at its core much of this tutorial has been the same since the third edition, launched in 2014. The things you learn here won’t go out of date soon.

And yet, Rails continues to innovate. For example, the Rails 6 release includes major new features for email routing, text formatting, parallel testing, and multiple-database support. A big part of Rails 6 is being “scalable by default”, which means that Rails scales no matter how big your app gets. All this while maintaining rock-solid dependability—indeed, the wildly popular developer platform GitHub, the hugely successful online store-builder Shopify, and the collaboration tool (and very first Rails app) Basecamp all run their sites on the pre-release versions of Rails. This means that new versions of Rails are immediately tested by some of the largest, most successful web apps in existence.

Not bad for a little side project cooked up by a freelance Danish web developer way back in 2004. What was an edgy choice then is an easy choice now: with its proven track-record, productive feature-set, and helpful community, Rails is a fantastic framework for building modern web applications.

There are no formal prerequisites for this book, which contains integrated tutorials for the Ruby programming language, the Unix command line, HTML, CSS, a small amount of JavaScript, and even a little SQL. That’s a lot of material to absorb, though, and if you’re new to software development I recommend starting with the tutorials at Learn Enough, especially Learn Enough Command Line to Be Dangerous and Learn Enough Ruby to Be Dangerous.1 On the other hand, a surprising number of complete beginners have gotten through this tutorial, so don’t let me stop you if you’re excited to build web apps.

1 Adding the rest of the Learn Enough sequence would certainly provide excellent preparation for this tutorial, but if you’re in a hurry you can probably get by with just Command Line and Ruby. Learn Enough Ruby to Be Dangerous in particular has a chapter on building a simple web application using Sinatra, a Ruby-based micro-framework that serves as excellent preparation for Rails. If you get stuck in the present tutorial, I suggest giving Learn Enough Ruby to Be Dangerous and its prerequisites a try, then loop back here to see how it goes the second time.

The principal teaching method of this tutorial is building real working software through a series of example applications of increasing sophistication, starting with a minimal hello app (Figure 1.1, Section 1.2), a slightly more capable toy app (Figure 1.2, Chapter 2), and a real sample app (Figure 1.3, Chapter 3 through Chapter 14). As implied by their generic names, these applications focus on general principles, which are applicable to practically any kind of web application. In particular, the full sample application includes all the major features needed by professional-grade web apps, including user signup, login, and account management. The final version of the sample app, developed in Chapter 14, also bears more than a passing resemblance to Twitter—a website which, coincidentally, was also originally written in Rails.

Images

Figure 1.1: The beginning hello app.

Images

Figure 1.2: An intermediate toy app.

Images

Figure 1.3: The final sample app.

Let’s get started!

1.1 Up and running

One advantage of using this tutorial is that you can get up and running fast. In particular, the Rails Tutorial has a long-running partnership with AWS Cloud9, a development environment that runs in your browser. The result is a complete system for developing all the software in this tutorial.

This is important because, even for experienced developers, installing Ruby, Rails, and all the associated supporting software can be quite challenging. Compounding the problem is the multiplicity of environments: different operating systems, version numbers, preferences in text editors, etc.

This is why the recommended solution, especially for newer users, is to sidestep most installation and configuration issues by using a cloud integrated development environment, or cloud IDE (Section 1.1.1). The cloud IDE used in this tutorial runs inside an ordinary web browser, and hence works the same across different platforms. It also maintains the current state of your work, so you can take a break from the tutorial and come back to the system just as you left it.

A second possibility is to set up your native system (Windows, macOS, or Linux) for Rails development. It is definitely recommended that you do this eventually, but it can represent significant overhead, and is likely to require a healthy amount of technical sophistication (Box 1.2). Instructions for setting up your native system can be found in the “Native OS setup” section of Learn Enough Dev Environment to Be Dangerous. (Note in particular that you’ll need Ruby 2.6 or greater to run Rails 6.) If you go this route, be sure to complete the configuration and Rails installation steps in Section 1.1.2 as well.

Box 1.2. Technical sophistication

The Ruby on Rails Tutorial is part of the Learn Enough family of tutorials, which develop the theme of technical sophistication: the combination of hard and soft skills that make it seem like you can magically solve any technical problem (as illustrated in “Tech Support Cheat Sheet” from xkcd).

Knowing how to code is an important component of technical sophistication, but there’s more to it than that—you also have to know how to click around menu items to learn the capabilities of a particular application, how to clarify a confusing error message by googling it, or when to give up and just reboot the darn thing.

Because web applications have so many moving parts, they offer ample opportunities to develop your technical sophistication. In the context of Rails web development, some specific examples of technical sophistication include making sure you’re using the right Ruby gem versions, running bundle install or bundle update, and restarting the local webserver if something doesn’t work. (Don’t worry if all this sounds like gibberish; we’ll cover everything mentioned here in the course of completing this tutorial.)

As you proceed through this tutorial, in all likelihood you will occasionally be tripped up by things not immediately working as expected. Although some particularly tricky steps are explicitly highlighted in the text, it is impossible to anticipate all the things that can go wrong. I recommend you embrace these inevitable stumbling blocks as opportunities to work on improving your technical sophistication. Or, as we say in geek speak: It’s not a bug, it’s a feature!

1.1.1 Development environment

Considering various idiosyncratic customizations, there are probably as many development environments as there are Rails programmers. To avoid this complexity, the Ruby on Rails Tutorial standardizes on the excellent cloud development environment Cloud9, part of Amazon Web Services (AWS). The resulting workspace environment comes pre-configured with most of the software needed for Ruby on Rails web development, including Ruby, RubyGems, Git. (Indeed, the only big piece of software we’ll install separately is Rails itself, and this is intentional (Section 1.1.2).)

The cloud IDE includes the three essential components needed to develop web applications: a command-line terminal, a filesystem navigator, and a text editor (Figure 1.4). Among other features, the cloud IDE’s text editor supports the “Find in Files” global search that I consider essential to navigating any large Ruby or Rails project. Finally, even if you decide not to use the cloud IDE exclusively in real life (and I certainly recommend learning other tools as well), it provides an excellent introduction to the general capabilities of command-line terminals, text editor, and other development tools.

Images

Figure 1.4: The anatomy of the cloud IDE.

Here are the steps for getting started with the cloud development environment:2

1. Because Cloud9 is part of Amazon Web Services (AWS), if you already have an AWS account you can just sign in.3 To create a new Cloud9 workspace environment, go to the AWS console and type “Cloud9” in the search box.

2. If you don’t already have an AWS account, you should sign up for a free account at AWS Cloud9.4 In order to prevent abuse, AWS requires a valid credit card for signup, but the workspace is 100% free (for a year as of this writing), and your card will not be charged. You might have to wait up to 24 hours for the account to be activated, but in my case it was ready in about ten minutes.

3. Once you’ve successfully gotten to the Cloud9 administrative page (Figure 1.5), clicking on “Create environment” and fill in the information as shown in Figure 1.6, including the name “rails-tutorial”.5 fill in the description as shown in Figure 1.6. On the next page, choose Ubuntu Server (not Amazon Linux) (Figure 1.7), and then click “Next step”.

2 Due to the constantly evolving nature of sites like AWS, details may vary; use your technical sophistication (Box 1.2) to resolve any discrepancies.

3 https://aws.amazon.com/

4 https://www.railstutorial.org/cloud9-signup

5 If you’ve previously done this tutorial, you may want to use a fresh environment, with a name like “rails-tutorial-6”.

Images

Figure 1.5: Creating an environment on AWS Cloud9.

Images

Figure 1.6: Naming a new work environment at AWS Cloud9.

Images

Figure 1.7: Selecting Ubuntu Server.

clicking the confirmation buttons to accept the default settings until AWS starts provisioning the IDE (Figure 1.9). You may run into a warning message about being a “root” user, which you can safely ignore at this early stage. (We’ll discuss the preferred but more complicated practice, called an Identity and Access Management (IAM) user, in Section 13.4.4.)

Images

Figure 1.8: The final step before provisioning the IDE.

Images

Figure 1.9: The default cloud IDE.

Because using two spaces for indentation is a near-universal convention in Ruby, I also recommend changing the editor to use two spaces instead of the default four. As shown in Figure 1.10, you can do this by clicking the gear icon in the upper right and then clicking the minus sign in the “Soft Tabs” setting until it reaches 2. (Note that this takes effect immediately; you don’t need to click a “Save” button.)

Images

Figure 1.10: Setting Cloud9 to use two spaces for indentation.

1.1.2 Installing Rails

The development environment from Section 1.1.1 includes all the software we need to get started except for Rails itself. This is by design, as installing the exact version of Rails used in this tutorial is important for getting predictable results.

First, we’ll do a little preparation by adding configuration settings to prevent the time-consuming installation of local Ruby documentation, as shown in Listing 1.1.6 Note that this step needs to be done only once per system. (For more information on the command-line and other conventions in this book, see Section 1.6.)

6 This uses the echo and >> (append) commands covered in Section 1.3 and Section 2.1 of Learn Enough Command Line to Be Dangerous. Note that if the file being appended to doesn’t exist, >> is smart enough to create it.

Listing 1.1: Configuring the .gemrc file to skip the installation of Ruby documentation.

$ echo "gem: --no-document" >> ~/.gemrc

To install Rails, we’ll use the gem command provided by the RubyGems package manager, which involves typing the command shown in Listing 1.2 into your command-line terminal. (If developing on your local system, this means using a regular terminal window; if using the cloud IDE, this means using the command-line area shown in Figure 1.4.)

Listing 1.2: Installing Rails with a specific version number.

$ gem install rails -v 6.0.0

Here the -v flag ensures that the specified version of Rails gets installed. You can confirm that the installation succeeded by passing the -v flag to the rails command itself:

$ rails -v
Rails 6.0.0

The version number output by this command should match the version installed in Listing 1.2.

There’s one more configuration step, which is to install Yarn, a program to manage software dependencies. If you’re using your native OS, you should follow the Yarn installation instructions for your platform. If you’re on the cloud IDE, you can run this command, which downloads and executes the necessary commands from the Learn Enough CDN:

$ source <(curl -sL https://cdn.learnenough.com/yarn_install)

From time to time, you’ll probably get a warning message that looks like this:

========================================
  Your Yarn packages are out of date!
  Please run `yarn install --check-files` to update.
========================================

All you need to do if this happens is execute the suggested yarn command:

$ yarn install --check-files

That’s it! You’ve now got a system fully configured for Ruby on Rails web development.

1.2 The first application

Following a long tradition in computer programming, our goal for the first application is to write a “hello, world” program. In particular, we will create a simple application that displays the string “hello, world!” on a web page, both on our development environment (Section 1.2.4) and on the live web (Section 1.4).

Virtually all Rails applications start the same way, by running the rails new command. This handy command creates a skeleton Rails application in a directory of your choice. To get started, users not using the Cloud9 IDE recommended in Section 1.1.1 should make a environment directory for your Rails projects if it doesn’t already exist (Listing 1.3) and then change into the directory.7

7 This step is designed to unify the treatment of native systems and the cloud IDE by using identical directory structures. If you are confident in your technical sophistication, feel free to omit this step, and use a directory of your choice.

Listing 1.3: Making an environment directory for Rails projects.

# These steps are not needed on the cloud IDE.
$ cd                    # Change to the home directory.
$ mkdir environment     # Make an environment directory.
$ cd environment/       # Change into the environment directory.

Listing 1.3 uses the Unix commands cd and mkdir; see Box 1.3 if you are not already familiar with these commands.

Box 1.3. A crash course on the Unix command line

For readers coming from Windows or macOS, the Unix command line may be unfamiliar. Luckily, if you are using the recommended cloud environment, you automatically have access to a Unix (Linux) command line running a standard shell (command-line interface) known as Bash.

The basic idea of the command line is simple: by issuing short commands, users can perform a large number of operations, such as creating directories (mkdir), moving and copying files (mv and cp), and navigating the filesystem by changing directories (cd). Although the command line may seem primitive to users mainly familiar with graphical user interfaces (GUIs), appearances are deceiving: the command line is one of the most powerful tools in the developer’s toolbox. Indeed, you will rarely see the desktop of an experienced developer without several open terminal windows running command-line shells.

The general subject is deep, but for the purposes of this tutorial we will need only a few of the most common Unix command-line commands, as summarized in Table 1.1. For a more thorough introduction to the basics of the command line, see the first Learn Enough tutorial, Learn Enough Command Line to Be Dangerous.

Images

Table 1.1: Some common Unix commands.

The next step on both local systems and the cloud IDE is to create the first application using the command in Listing 1.4. Note that Listing 1.4 explicitly includes the Rails version number as part of the command. This ensures that the same version of Rails we installed in Listing 1.2 is used to create the first application’s file structure.

Listing 1.4: Running rails new (with a specific version number).

$ cd ~/environment
$ rails _6.0.0_ new hello_app
      create
      create  README.md
      create  Rakefile
      create  .ruby-version create config.ru
      create  .gitignore create Gemfile
         run  git init from "."
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/ubuntu/environment/hello_app/.git/
      create  package.json
      create  app
      create  app/assets/config/manifest.js
      create  app/assets/stylesheets/application.css
      create  app/channels/application_cable/channel.rb
      create  app/channels/application_cable/connection.rb
      create  app/controllers/application_controller.rb
      create  app/helpers/application_helper.rb
      .
      .
      .

Notice how many files and directories the rails command creates. This standard directory and file structure (Figure 1.11) is one of the many advantages of Rails: it immediately gets you from zero to a functional (if minimal) application. Moreover, since the structure is common to all Rails apps, you can immediately get your bearings when looking at someone else’s code.

Images

Figure 1.11: The directory structure for a newly created Rails app.

A summary of the default Rails files appears in Table 1.2. We’ll learn about most of these files and directories throughout the rest of this book. In particular, starting in Section 5.2.1 we’ll discuss the app/assets directory, part of the asset pipeline that makes it easy to organize and deploy assets such as Cascading Style Sheets and image files.

Images

Table 1.2: A summary of the default Rails directory structure.

1.2.1 Bundler

After creating a new Rails application, the next step is to use Bundler to install and include the gems needed by the app. Bundler is run automatically (via bundle install) by the rails command in Listing 1.4, but in this section we’ll make some changes to the default application gems and run Bundler again. This involves opening the Gemfile with a text editor. (With the cloud IDE, this involves clicking the arrow in the file navigator to open the sample app directory and double-clicking the Gemfile icon.) Although the exact version numbers and details may differ slightly, the results should look something like Figure 1.12 and Listing 1.5. (The code in this file is Ruby, but don’t worry at this point about the syntax; Chapter 4 will cover Ruby in more depth.)

If the files and directories don’t appear as shown in Figure 1.12, click on the file navigator’s gear icon and select “Refresh File Tree”. (As a general rule, you should refresh the file tree any time files or directories don’t appear as expected.)8

Images

Figure 1.12: The default Gemfile open in a text editor.

8 This is a typical example of technical sophistication (Box 1.2).

Listing 1.5: The default Gemfile in the hello_app directory.

source 'https://rubygems.org'
git_source(:github) { |repo| "https://github.com/#{repo}.git" }

ruby '2.6.3'

# Bundle edge Rails instead: gem 'rails', github: 'rails/rails'
gem 'rails', '~> 6.0.0'
# Use sqlite3 as the database for Active Record
gem 'sqlite3', '~> 1.4'
# Use Puma as the app server
gem 'puma', '~> 3.11'
# Use SCSS for stylesheets
gem 'sass-rails', '~> 5'
# Transpile app-like JavaScript. Read more: https://github.com/rails/webpacker
gem 'webpacker', '~> 4.0'
# Turbolinks makes navigating your web application faster.
# Read more: https://github.com/turbolinks/turbolinks
gem 'turbolinks', '~> 5'
# Build JSON APIs with ease. Read more: https://github.com/rails/jbuilder
gem 'jbuilder', '~> 2.7'
# Use Redis adapter to run Action Cable in production
# gem 'redis', '~> 4.0'
# Use Active Model has_secure_password
# gem 'bcrypt', '~> 3.1.7'

# Use Active Storage variant
# gem 'image_processing', '~> 1.2'

# Reduces boot times through caching; required in config/boot.rb
gem 'bootsnap', '>= 1.4.2', require: false

group :development, :test do
  # Call 'byebug' anywhere in the code to stop execution and get a
  # debugger console
  gem 'byebug', platforms: [:mri, :mingw, :x64_mingw]
end

group :development do
  # Access an interactive console on exception pages or by calling 'console'
  # anywhere in the code.
  gem 'web-console', '>= 3.3.0'
  gem 'listen', '>= 3.0.5', '< 3.2'
  # Spring speeds up development by keeping your application running in the
  # background. Read more: https://github.com/rails/spring
  gem 'spring'
  gem 'spring-watcher-listen', '~> 2.0.0'
end

group :test do
  # Adds support for Capybara system testing and selenium driver
  gem 'capybara', '>= 2.15'
  gem 'selenium-webdriver'
  # Easy installation and use of web drivers to run system tests with browsers
  gem 'webdrivers'
end

# Windows does not include zoneinfo files, so bundle the tzinfo-data gem
gem 'tzinfo-data', platforms: [:mingw, :mswin, :x64_mingw, :jruby]

Many of these lines are commented out with the hash symbol # (Section 4.2); they are there to show you some commonly needed gems and to give examples of the Bundler syntax. For now, we won’t need any gems other than the defaults.

Unless you specify a version number to the gem command, Bundler will automatically install the latest requested version of the gem. This is the case, for example, in the code

gem 'sqlite3'

There are also two common ways to specify a gem version range, which allows us to exert some control over the version used by Rails. The first looks like this:

gem 'capybara', '>= 2.15'

This installs the latest version of the capybara gem (which is used in testing) as long as it’s greater than or equal to version 2.15—even if it’s, say, version 7.2.

The second method looks like this:

gem 'rails', '~> 6.0.0'

This installs the gem rails as long as it’s version 6.0.0 or newer but not 6.1 or newer. In other words, the >= notation always installs the latest gem, whereas the ~> 6.0.0 notation will install 6.0.1 (if available) but not 6.1.0.9

9 Similarly, ~> 6.0 would install version 6.9 of a gem but not 6.0. This is especially useful if the project in question uses semantic versioning (also called “semver”), which is a convention for numbering releases designed to minimize the chances of breaking software dependencies.

Unfortunately, experience shows that even minor point releases can break Rails applications, so for the Ruby on Rails Tutorial we’ll err on the side of caution by including exact version numbers for all gems. You are welcome to use the most up-to-date version of any gem, including using the ~> construction in the Gemfile (which I generally recommend for more advanced users), but be warned that this may cause the tutorial to act unpredictably.

Converting the Gemfile in Listing 1.5 to use exact gem versions results in the code shown in Listing 1.6.10 Note that we’ve also taken this opportunity to arrange for the sqlite3 gem to be included only in a development or test environment (Section 7.1.1), which prevents potential conflicts with the database used by Heroku (Section 1.4). Finally, we’ve removed the line from Listing 1.5 specifying the exact Ruby version number; as noted in Section 7.5.4, it’s recommended to keep this line in a mission-critical app, but keeping it in a tutorial of this nature introduces potential errors and complexity. (That said, if your app fails to work without that line, you should definitely restore it.)

10 You can determine the exact version number for each gem by running gem list <gem name> at the command line, but Listing 1.6 saves you the trouble.

Important note: For all the Gemfiles in this book, you should use the version numbers listed at gemfiles-6th-ed.railstutorial.org instead of the ones listed below (although they should be identical if you are reading this online).

Listing 1.6: A Gemfile with an explicit version for each Ruby gem.

source 'https://rubygems.org'
git_source(:github) { |repo| "https://github.com/#{repo}.git" }

gem 'rails',      '6.0.0'
gem 'puma',       '3.12.1'
gem 'sass-rails', '5.1.0'
gem 'webpacker',  '4.0.7'
gem 'turbolinks', '5.2.0'
gem 'jbuilder',   '2.9.1'
gem 'bootsnap',   '1.4.4', require: false

group :development, :test do
  gem 'sqlite3', '1.4.1'
  gem 'byebug',  '11.0.1', platforms: [:mri, :mingw, :x64_mingw]
end

group :development do
  gem 'web-console',           '4.0.1'
  gem 'listen',                '3.1.5'
  gem 'spring',                '2.1.0'
  gem 'spring-watcher-listen', '2.0.1'
end

group :test do
  gem 'capybara',           '3.28.0'
  gem 'selenium-webdriver', '3.142.4'
  gem 'webdrivers',         '4.1.2'
end

# Windows does not include zoneinfo files, so bundle the tzinfo-data gem
gem 'tzinfo-data', platforms: [:mingw, :mswin, :x64_mingw, :jruby]

Once you’ve placed the contents of Listing 1.6 into the application’s Gemfile, install the gems using bundle install:11

11 As noted in Table 3.1, you can even leave off install, as the bundle command by itself is an alias for bundle install.

$ cd hello_app/
$ bundle install
Fetching source index for https://rubygems.org/
.
.
.

The bundle install command might take a few moments, but when it’s done our application will be ready to run.

By the way, when you run bundle install it’s possible that you’ll get a message saying you need to run bundle update first. In this case you should… run bundle update first! (Learning not to panic when things don’t go exactly as planned is a key part of technical sophistication, and you’ll be amazed at how often the “error” message contains the exact instructions you need to fix the problem at hand.)

1.2.2 rails server

Thanks to running rails new in Section 1.2 and bundle install in Section 1.2.1, we already have an application we can run—but how? Happily, Rails comes with a command-line program, or script, that runs a local webserver to assist us in developing our application: rails server.

Before running rails server, it’s necessary on some systems (including the cloud IDE) to allow connections to the local web server. To enable this, you should navigate to the file config/environments/development.rb and paste in the two extra lines shown in Listing 1.7 and Figure 1.13.

Images

Figure 1.13: Allowing Cloud9 to connect to the Rails server.

Listing 1.7: Allowing connections to the local web server.

config/environments/development.rb

Rails.application.configure do
  .
  .
  .
  # Allow connections to local server.
  config.hosts.clear
end

The rails server command appears in Listing 1.8, which I recommend you run in a second terminal tab so that you can still issue commands in the first tab, as shown in Figure 1.14 and Figure 1.15. Note from Listing 1.8 that you can shut the server down using Ctrl-C.12

Images

Figure 1.14: Opening a new terminal tab.

Images

Figure 1.15: Running the Rails server in a separate tab.

12 Here “C” refers to the character on the keyboard, not the capital letter, so there’s no need to hold down the Shift key to get a capital “C”.

Listing 1.8: Running the Rails server.

$ cd ~/environment/hello_app/
$ rails server
=> Booting Puma
=> Ctrl-C to shutdown server

To view the result of rails server on a native OS, paste the URL http://localhost:3000 into the address bar of your browser. On the cloud IDE, go to Preview and click on Preview Running Application (Figure 1.16), and then open it in a full browser window or tab (Figure 1.17). In either case, the result should look something like Figure 1.18.

Images

Figure 1.16: Sharing the local server running on the cloud workspace.

Images

Figure 1.17: Opening the running app in a full browser window or tab.

Images

Figure 1.18: The default Rails page served by rails server.

Exercises

The Ruby on Rails Tutorial contains a large number of exercises. Solving them as you proceed through the tutorial is strongly recommended.

In order to keep the main discussion independent of the exercises, the solutions are not generally incorporated into subsequent code listings. (In the rare circumstance that an exercise solution is used subsequently, it is explicitly solved in the main text.) This means that over time your code may diverge from the code shown in the tutorial due to differences introduced in the exercises. Learning how to resolve such discrepancies is a valuable exercise in technical sophistication (Box 1.2).

Solutions to the exercises are available to all Rails Tutorial purchasers here. To see other people’s answers and to record your own, subscribe to the Rails Tutorial course or to the Learn Enough All Access Bundle.

Many of the exercises are challenging, but we’ll start out with some easy ones just to get warmed up:

1. According to the default Rails page, what is the version of Ruby on your system? Confirm by running ruby -v at the command line.

2. What is the version of Rails? Confirm that it matches the version installed in Listing 1.2.

1.2.3 Model-View-Controller (MVC)

Even at this early stage, it’s helpful to get a high-level overview of how Rails applications work, as illustrated in Figure 1.19. You might have noticed that the standard Rails application structure (Figure 1.11) has an application directory called app/, which includes subdirectories called models, views, and controllers (among others). This is a hint that Rails follows the model-viewcontroller (MVC) architectural pattern, which enforces a separation between the data in the application (such as user information) and the code used to display it, which is a common way of structuring a graphical user interface (GUI).

When interacting with a Rails application, a browser sends a request, which is received by a webserver and passed on to a Rails controller, which is in charge of what to do next. In some cases, the controller will immediately render a view, which is a template that gets converted to HTML and sent back to the browser. More commonly for dynamic sites, the controller interacts with a model, which is a Ruby object that represents an element of the site (such as a user) and is in charge of communicating with the database. After invoking the model, the controller then renders the view and returns the complete web page to the browser as HTML.

If this discussion seems a bit abstract right now, don’t worry; we’ll cover these ideas in more detail later in this book. In particular, Section 1.2.4 shows a first tentative application of MVC, while Section 2.2.2 includes a more detailed discussion of MVC in the context of the toy app. Finally, the full sample app will use all aspects of MVC: we’ll cover controllers and views starting in Section 3.2, models starting in Section 6.1, and we’ll see all three working together in Section 7.1.2.

1.2.4 Hello, world!

As a first application of the MVC framework, we’ll make a wafer-thin change to the first app by adding a controller action to render the string “hello, world!” to replace the default Rails page from Figure 1.18. (We’ll learn more about controller actions starting in Section 2.2.2.)

As implied by their name, controller actions are defined inside controllers. We’ll call our action hello and place it in the Application controller. Indeed, at this point the Application controller is the only controller we have, which you can verify by running

$ ls app/controllers/*_controller.rb

to view the current controllers. (We’ll start creating our own controllers in Chapter 2.) Listing 1.9 shows the resulting definition of hello, which uses the render function to return the HTML text “hello, world!”. (Don’t worry about the Ruby syntax right now; it will be covered in more depth in Chapter 4.)

Images

Figure 1.19: A schematic representation of the model-view-controller (MVC) architecture.

Listing 1.9: Adding a hello action to the Application controller.

app/controllers/application_controller.rb

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base

  def hello
    render html: "hello, world!"
  end
end

Having defined an action that returns the desired string, we need to tell Rails to use that action instead of the default page in Figure 1.18. To do this, we’ll edit the Rails router, which sits in front of the controller in Figure 1.19 and determines where to send requests that come in from the browser. (I’ve omitted the router from Figure 1.19 for simplicity, but we’ll discuss it in more detail starting in Section 2.2.2.) In particular, we want to change the default page, the root route, which determines the page that is served on the root URL. Because it’s the URL for an address like http://www.example.com/ (where nothing comes after the final forward slash), the root URL is often referred to as / (“slash”) for short.

As seen in Listing 1.10, the Rails routes file (config/routes.rb) includes a comment directing us to the Rails Guide on Routing, which includes instructions on how to define the root route. The syntax looks like this:

root 'controller_name#action_name'

In the present case, the controller name is application and the action name is hello, which results in the code shown in Listing 1.11.

Listing 1.10: The default routing file (formatted to fit).

config/routes.rb

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  # For details on the DSL available within this file,
  # see https://guides.rubyonrails.org/routing.html
end

Listing 1.11: Setting the root route.

config/routes.rb

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  root 'application#hello'
end

With the code from Listing 1.9 and Listing 1.11, the root route returns “hello, world!” as required (Figure 1.20).13 Hello, world!

Images

Figure 1.20: Viewing “hello, world!” in the browser.

13 The base URL for the Rails Tutorial Cloud9 shared URLs has changed from rails-tutorial-c9-mhartl.c9.io to one on Amazon Web Services, but in many cases the screenshots are identical, so the browser address bar will show old-style URLs in some figures (such as Figure 1.20). This is the sort of minor discrepancy you can resolve using your technical sophistication (Box 1.2).

Exercises

Solutions to the exercises are available to all Rails Tutorial purchasers here.

To see other people’s answers and to record your own, subscribe to the Rails Tutorial course or to the Learn Enough All Access Bundle.

1. Change the content of the hello action in Listing 1.9 to read “hola, mundo!” instead of “hello, world!”.

2. Show that Rails supports non-ASCII characters by including an inverted exclamation point, as in “¡Hola, mundo!” (Figure 1.21).14 To get a ¡ character on a Mac, you can use Option-1; otherwise, you can always copy-and-paste the character into your editor.

3. By following the example of the hello action in Listing 1.9, add a second action called goodbye that renders the text “goodbye, world!”. Edit the routes file from Listing 1.11 so that the root route goes to goodbye instead of to hello (Figure 1.22).

14 Your editor may display a message like “invalid multibyte character”, but this is not a cause for concern. You can Google the error message if you want to learn how to make it go away.

Images

Figure 1.21: Changing the root route to return “¡Hola, mundo!”.

Images

Figure 1.22: Changing the root route to return “goodbye, world!”.

1.3 Version control with Git

Now that we have a working “hello, world” application, we’ll take a moment for a step that, while technically optional, would be viewed by many experienced software developers as practically essential: placing our application source code under version control. Version control systems allow us to track changes to our project’s code, collaborate more easily, and roll back any inadvertent errors (such as accidentally deleting files). Knowing how to use a version control system is a required skill for every professional-grade software developer.

There are many options for version control, but the software development community has largely standardized on Git, a distributed version control system originally developed by Linus Torvalds to host the Linux kernel. Git is a large subject, and we’ll only be scratching the surface in this book; for a more thorough introduction to the basics, see Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous.

Putting your source code under version control with Git is strongly recommended, not only because it’s nearly a universal practice in the Rails world, but also because it will allow you to back up and share your code more easily (Section 1.3.3) and deploy your application right here in the first chapter (Section 1.4).

1.3.1 Installation and setup

The cloud IDE recommended in Section 1.1.1 includes Git by default, so no installation is necessary in this case. Otherwise, Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous includes instructions for installing Git on your system.

First-time system setup

Before using Git, you should perform a few one-time setup steps. These are system setups, meaning you only have to do them once per computer.

The first (and required) step is to configure your name and email address, as shown in Listing 1.12.

Listing 1.12: Configuring the name and email fields for Git.

$ git config --global user.name "Your Name"
$ git config --global user.email [email protected]

Note that the name and email address you use in your Git configuration will be available in any repositories you make public.

If you’re using the cloud IDE, the next step is to configure a default editor for the times when Git needs one (such as editing, or “amending” changes to projects). We’ll use the nano editor, which is relatively friendly to beginners and is the default on the cloud IDE. As of this writing, the default editor gets reset on logout, and the path is also incorrect, so we need to execute Listing 1.13, which creates a symbolic link (or “symlink”) to the correct location of the nano executable.15 (The command in Listing 1.13 is a little advanced, so certainly don’t worry about understanding it if it looks confusing.)

15 Vim is actually my Git preferred editor in this context, and is recommended for people who have Minimum Viable Vim™ or better (as described in Learn Enough Text Editor to Be Dangerous). To use vim in Listing 1.13, just replace `which nano` with `which vim`

Listing 1.13: Configuring the default editor on the cloud IDE.

$ sudo ln -sf `which nano` /usr/bin

Next, we’ll take an optional but convenient step and set up an alias, or synonym, for the commonly used checkout command, as shown in Listing 1.14.

Listing 1.14: Setting up git co as a checkout alias.

$ git config --global alias.co checkout

In this tutorial, I’ll always use the full git checkout command for maximum compatibility, but in practice I almost always use git co for short.

The final step is to prevent Git from asking for your password every time you want to use commands like push or pull (Section 1.3.4). The options for doing this are system-dependent; see the article “Caching your GitHub password in Git” if you’re using anything other than Linux (including the cloud IDE). If you are using Linux (including of course the cloud IDE), you can simply set a cache timeout as shown in Listing 1.15.

Listing 1.15: Configuring Git to remember passwords for a set length of time.

$ git config --global credential.helper "cache --timeout=86400"

Listing 1.15 configures Git to remember any passwords you use for 86,400 seconds (one day).16 If you’re highly security-conscious, you can use a shorter timeout, such as the default 900 seconds, or 15 minutes.

16 In theory, you could use a longer timeout, but on the cloud IDE the timer seems to gets reset every day or so, so entering a timeout of more than 86,400 seconds appears to have little effect in this case.

First-time repository setup

Now we come to some steps that are necessary each time you create a new repository (sometimes called a repo for short). The first step is to navigate to the root directory of the hello app and initialize a new repository:

$ cd ~/environment/hello_app    # Just in case you weren't already there
$ git init
Reinitialized existing Git repository in
/home/ubuntu/environment/hello_app/.git/

Note that Git outputs a message that the repository has been reinitialized. This is because, as of Rails 6, running rails new (Listing 1.4) automatically initialize a Git repository (a strong indication of how ubiquitous Git’s use is in tech). Thus, the git init step isn’t technically necessary in our case, but this won’t hold for general Git repositories, so always running git init is a good habit to cultivate.

The next step is to add all the project files to the repository using git add -A:17

17 Many developers use the nearly equivalent git add ., where . (“dot”) represents the current directory. In the rare cases where the two differ, what you usually want is git add -A, and this is what’s used in the official Git documentation, so that’s what we go with here.

$ git add -A

This command adds all the files in the current directory apart from those that match the patterns in a special file called .gitignore. The rails new command automatically generates a .gitignore file appropriate to a Rails project, but you can add additional patterns as well.18

18 Although we’ll never need to edit it in the main tutorial, an example of adding a rule to the .gitignore file appears in Section 3.6.2, which is part of the optional advanced testing setup in Section 3.6.

The added files are initially placed in a staging area, which contains pending changes to our project. We can see which files are in the staging area using the status command:

$ git status
On branch master

No commits yet

Changes to be committed:
  (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage)

        new file:   .browserslistrc
        new file:   .gitignore
        new file:   .ruby-version
        new file:   Gemfile
        new file:   Gemfile.lock
        .
        .
        .

To tell Git we want to keep the changes, we use the commit command:

$ git commit -m "Initialize repository"
[master (root-commit) df0a62f] Initialize repository
.
.
.

The -m flag lets us add a message for the commit; if we omit -m, Git will open the system’s default editor and have us enter the message there. (All the examples in this tutorial will use the -m flag.)

It is important to note that Git commits are local, recorded only on the machine on which the commits occur. We’ll see how to push the changes up to a remote repository (using git push) in Section 1.3.4.

By the way, we can see a list of the commit messages using the log command:

$ git log
commit b981e5714e4d4a4f518aeca90270843c178b714e (HEAD -> master)
Author: Michael Hartl <[email protected]>
Date:   Sun Aug 18 17:57:06 2019 +0000

    Initialize repository

Depending on the length of the repository’s log history, you may have to type q to quit. (As explained in Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous, git log uses the less interface covered in Learn Enough Command Line to Be Dangerous.)

1.3.2 What good does Git do you?

If you’ve never used version control before, it may not be entirely clear at this point what good it does you, so let’s look at just one example. Suppose you’ve made some accidental changes, such as (D’oh!) deleting the critical app/controllers/ directory.

$ ls app/controllers/
application_controller.rb  concerns/
$ rm -rf app/controllers/
$ ls app/controllers/
ls: app/controllers/: No such file or directory

Here we’re using the Unix ls command to list the contents of the app/controllers/ directory and the rm command to remove it (Table 1.1). As noted in Learn Enough Command Line to Be Dangerous, the -rf flag means “recursive force”, which recursively removes all files, directories, subdirectories, and so on, without asking for explicit confirmation of each deletion.

Let’s check the status to see what changed:

$ git status
On branch master
Changes not staged for commit:
  (use "git add/rm <file>..." to update what will be committed)
  (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)

        deleted:    app/controllers/application_controller.rb
        deleted:    app/controllers/concerns/.keep

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")

We see here that a file has been deleted, but the changes are only on the “working tree”; they haven’t been committed yet. This means we can still undo the changes using the checkout command with the -f flag to force overwriting the current changes:

$ git checkout -f
$ git status
On branch master
nothing to commit, working tree clean
$ ls app/controllers/
application_controller.rb concerns/

The missing files and directories are back. That’s a relief!

1.3.3 GitHub

Now that we’ve put our project under version control with Git, it’s time to push our code up to GitHub, a site optimized for hosting and sharing Git repositories.19 Putting a copy of your Git repository at GitHub serves two purposes: it’s a full backup of your code (including the full history of commits), and it makes any future collaboration much easier.

19 Bitbucket and GitLab are also excellent choices. Like GitHub, GitLab is written in Rails.

Getting started with GitHub is straightforward: just sign up for a GitHub account if you don’t already have one (Figure 1.23).

Images

Figure 1.23: Signing up for GitHub.

Once you’ve signed up or signed in, click on the + sign dropdown menu and select “New repository” (Figure 1.24).

Images

Figure 1.24: Selecting the “New repository” option.

On the new repository page, fill the fields with the repository name (hello_app) and optional description, and take special care to select the “Private” option, as shown in Figure 1.25. Although Rails apps are in principle safe to expose as public repositories, so many things can go wrong (such as accidentally exposing passwords or private keys) that making all such repositories private is a prudent default.20

Images

Figure 1.25: Creating a private repository at GitHub.

20 GitHub allows unlimited public and private repositories.

After clicking the “Create repository” button, you should see something like Figure 1.26, with commands for adding an existing repository to GitHub. Click on the HTTPS option,21 and then copy the commands in the section for an existing repository. I suggest clicking the small icon on the right side of the screen, which automatically copies the commands shown in Listing 1.16 to your pasteboard buffer, allowing you to paste them into the command-line terminal.

Images

Figure 1.26: Code for adding an existing repository.

21 The SSH option shown in Figure 1.26 is excellent for more advanced users, so feel free to use it if you’re comfortable with generating and configuring SSH keys. Among other things, this option allows your system to cache your password automatically, rendering the setup step in Listing 1.15 unnecessary.

Finally, run the commands in Listing 1.16. You will have to type your GitHub password, but you won’t the next time (as long as it’s within the cache timeout period) due to the configuration in Listing 1.15.

Listing 1.16: Adding GitHub as a remote origin and pushing up the repository.

$ git remote add origin https://github.com/<username>/hello_app.git
$ git push -u origin master

The commands in Listing 1.16 first tell Git that you want to add GitHub as the origin for your repository, and then push your repository up to the remote origin. (Don’t worry about what the -u flag does; if you’re curious, do a web search for “git set upstream”.) Of course, you should replace <username> in Listing 1.16 with your actual username. For example, the command I ran looked like this:

$ git remote add origin https://github.com/mhartl/hello_app.git

The result is a page at GitHub for the hello_app repository, with file browsing, full commit history, and lots of other features (Figure 1.27).

Images

Figure 1.27: A GitHub repository page.

1.3.4 Branch, edit, commit, merge

If you’ve followed the steps in Section 1.3.3, you might notice that GitHub automatically rendered the repository’s README file, as shown in Figure 1.28. This file, called README.md, was generated automatically by the command in Listing 1.4. As indicated by the filename extension .md, it is written in Markdown,22 a human-readable markup language designed to be easy to convert to HTML—which is exactly what GitHub has done.

Images

Figure 1.28: GitHub’s rendering of the default Rails README.

22 See Learn Enough Text Editor to Be Dangerous and Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous for more information about Markdown.

This automatic rendering of the README is convenient, but of course it would be better if we tailored the contents of the file to the project at hand. In this section, we’ll customize the README by adding some Rails Tutorial– specific content. In the process, we’ll see a first example of the branch, edit, commit, merge workflow that I recommend using with Git.23

23 For a convenient way to visualize Git repositories, take a look at Atlassian’s SourceTree app.

Branch

Git is incredibly good at making branches, which are effectively copies of a repository where we can make (possibly experimental) changes without modifying the parent files. In most cases, the parent repository is the master branch, and we can create a new topic branch by using checkout with the -b flag:

$ git checkout -b modify-README
Switched to a new branch 'modify-README'
$ git branch
  master
* modify-README

Here the second command, git branch, just lists all the local branches, and the asterisk * identifies which branch we’re currently on. Note that git checkout -b modify-README both creates a new branch and switches to it, as indicated by the asterisk in front of the modify-README branch.

The full value of branching only becomes clear when working on a project with multiple developers,24 but branches are helpful even for a single-developer tutorial such as this one. In particular, because the master branch is insulated from any changes we make to the topic branch, even if we really mess things up we can always abandon the changes by checking out the master branch and deleting the topic branch. We’ll see how to do this at the end of the section.

24 See, for example, the section on Collaborating in Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous.

By the way, for a change as small as this one I wouldn’t normally bother with a new branch (opting instead to work directly on the master branch), but in the present context it’s a prime opportunity to start practicing good habits.

Edit

After creating the topic branch, we’ll edit the README to add custom content, as shown in Listing 1.17 and Figure 1.29.

Images

Figure 1.29: Editing the README file.

Listing 1.17: The new README file.

README.md

# Ruby on Rails Tutorial

## "hello, world!"

This is the first application for the
[*Ruby on Rails Tutorial*](https://www.railstutorial.org/)
by [Michael Hartl](https://www.michaelhartl.com/). Hello, world!
Commit

With the changes made, we can take a look at the status of our branch:

$ git status
On branch modify-README
Changes not staged for commit:
  (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
  (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)

        modified:   README.md

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")

At this point, we could use git add -A as in Section 1.3.1, but git commit provides the -a flag as a shortcut for the (very common) case of committing all modifications to existing files:

$ git commit -a -m "Improve the README file"
[modify-README 34bb6a5] Improve the README file
 1 file changed, 5 insertions(+), 22 deletions(-)

Be careful about using the -a flag improperly; if you have added any new files to the project since the last commit, you still have to tell Git about them using git add -A first.

Note that we write the commit message in the present tense (and, technically speaking, the imperative mood). Git models commits as a series of patches, and in this context it makes sense to describe what each commit does, rather than what it did. Moreover, this usage matches up with the commit messages generated by Git commands themselves. See Committing to Git from Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous for more information.

Merge

Now that we’ve finished making our changes, we’re ready to merge the results back into our master branch:

$ git checkout master
Switched to branch 'master'
$ git merge modify-README
Updating b981e57..015008c
Fast-forward
 README.md | 27 +++++----------------------
 1 file changed, 5 insertions(+), 22 deletions(-)

Note that the Git output frequently includes things like 34f06b7, which are related to Git’s internal representation of repositories. Your exact results will differ in these details, but otherwise should essentially match the output shown above.

After you’ve merged in the changes, you can tidy up your branches by deleting the topic branch using git branch -d if you’re done with it:

$ git branch -d modify-README
Deleted branch modify-README (was 015008c).

This step is optional, and in fact it’s quite common to leave the topic branch intact. This way you can switch back and forth between the topic and master branches, merging in changes every time you reach a natural stopping point.

As mentioned above, it’s also possible to abandon your topic branch changes, in this case with git branch -D:

# For illustration only; don't do this unless you mess up a branch
$ git checkout -b topic-branch
$ <really mess up the branch>
$ git add -A
$ git commit -a -m "Make major mistake"
$ git checkout master
$ git branch -D topic-branch

Unlike the -d flag, the -D flag will delete the branch even though we haven’t merged in the changes.

Push

Now that we’ve updated the README, we can push the changes up to GitHub to see the result. Since we have already done one push (Section 1.3.3), on most systems we can omit origin master, and simply run git push:

$ git push

As with the default README, GitHub nicely converts the Markdown in our updated README to HTML (Figure 1.30).

Images

Figure 1.30: The improved README file at GitHub.

1.4 Deploying

Even though this is only the first chapter, we’re already going to deploy our Rails application to production! As with the version control setup in Section 1.3, this step is technically optional, but deploying early and often allows us to catch any deployment problems early in our development cycle. The alternative—deploying only after laborious effort sealed away in a development environment—often leads to terrible integration headaches when launch time comes.25

25 Though it shouldn’t matter for the example applications in the Rails Tutorial, if you’re worried about accidentally making your app public too soon there are several options; see Section 1.4.3 for one.

Deploying Rails applications used to be a pain, but the Rails deployment ecosystem has matured rapidly in the past few years, and now there are several great options. These include shared hosts or virtual private servers running Phusion Passenger (a module for the Apache and Nginx26 webservers), full-service deployment companies such as Engine Yard and Rails Machine, and cloud deployment services such as Engine Yard Cloud and Heroku.

26 Pronounced “Engine X”.

My favorite Rails deployment option is Heroku, which is a hosted platform built specifically for deploying Rails and other web applications. (As you might guess, Heroku itself is written in Rails.) Heroku makes deploying Rails applications ridiculously easy, as long as your source code is under version control with Git—which is is yet another reason to follow the Git setup steps in Section 1.3 if you haven’t already. In addition, for many purposes, including for this tutorial, Heroku’s free tier is more than sufficient.

The rest of this section is dedicated to deploying our first application to Heroku. Some of the ideas are fairly advanced, so don’t worry about understanding all the details; what’s important is that by the end of the process we’ll have deployed our application to the live web.

1.4.1 Heroku setup and deployment

Heroku uses the PostgreSQL database (pronounced “post-gres-cue-ell”, and often called “Postgres” for short), which means that we need to add the pg gem in the production environment to allow Rails to talk to Postgres:

group :production do
  gem 'pg', '0.20.0'
end

Also be sure to incorporate the changes made in Listing 1.6 preventing the sqlite3 gem from being included in a production environment, since the SQLite database isn’t supported at Heroku:27

27 SQLite is widely used as an embedded database—for instance, it’s ubiquitous in mobile phones—and Rails uses it locally by default because it’s so easy to set up, but it isn’t designed for database-backed web applications. See Section 3.1 for more information.

group :development, :test do
  gem 'sqlite3', '1.4.1'
  gem 'byebug', '11.0.1', platforms: [:mri, :mingw, :x64_mingw]
end

The resulting Gemfile appears as in Listing 1.18.

Important note: For all the Gemfiles in this book, you should use the version numbers listed at gemfiles-6th-ed.railstutorial.org instead of the ones listed below (although they should be identical if you are reading this online).

Listing 1.18: A Gemfile with added and rearranged gems.

source 'https://rubygems.org'
git_source(:github) { |repo| "https://github.com/#{repo}.git" }

gem 'rails',      '6.0.0'
gem 'puma',       '3.12.1'
gem 'sass-rails', '5.1.0'
gem 'webpacker',  '4.0.7'
gem 'turbolinks', '5.2.0'
gem 'jbuilder',   '2.9.1'
gem 'bootsnap',   '1.4.4', require: false

group :development, :test do
   gem 'sqlite3', '1.4.1'
   gem 'byebug',  '11.0.1', platforms: [:mri, :mingw, :x64_mingw]
end

group :development do
  gem 'web-console',           '4.0.1'
  gem 'listen',                '3.1.5'
  gem 'spring',                '2.1.0'
  gem 'spring-watcher-listen', '2.0.1'
end

group :test do
  gem 'capybara',           '3.28.0'
  gem 'selenium-webdriver', '3.142.4'
  gem 'webdrivers',         '4.1.2'
end

group :production do
gem 'pg', '1.1.4'
end

# Windows does not include zoneinfo files, so bundle the tzinfo-data gem
gem 'tzinfo-data', platforms: [:mingw, :mswin, :x64_mingw, :jruby]

To prepare the system for deployment to production, we run bundle install with a special flag to prevent the local installation of any production gems (which in this case consists of the pg gem), as shown in Listing 1.19.

Listing 1.19: Bundling without production gems.

$ bundle install --without production

Because the only gem added in Listing 1.18 is restricted to a production environment, right now the command in Listing 1.19 doesn’t actually install any additional local gems, but it’s needed to update Gemfile.lock with the pg gem. We can commit the resulting change as follows:

$ git commit -a -m "Update Gemfile for Heroku"

Next we have to create and configure a new Heroku account. The first step is to sign up for Heroku. Then check to see if your system already has the Heroku command-line client installed:

$ heroku --version

This will display the current version number if the heroku command-line interface (CLI) is available, but on most systems it will be necessary to install the Heroku CLI by hand.28 In particular, if you’re working on the cloud IDE, you can install Heroku using the command shown in Listing 1.20.

28 toolbelt.heroku.com

Listing 1.20: The command to install Heroku on the cloud IDE.

$ source <(curl -sL https://cdn.learnenough.com/heroku_install)

After running the command in Listing 1.20, you should now be able to verify the installation by displaying the current version number (details may vary):

$ heroku --version
heroku/7.27.1 linux-x64 node-v11.14.0

Once you’ve verified that the Heroku command-line interface is installed, use the heroku command to log in with the mail address and password you used when signing up (the --interactive option prevents heroku from trying to spawn a browser):

$ heroku login --interactive

Finally, use the heroku create command to create a place on the Heroku servers for the sample app to live (Listing 1.21).

Listing 1.21: Creating a new application at Heroku.

$ heroku create
Creating app... done, ⃜ blooming-bayou-75897
https://blooming-bayou-75897.herokuapp.com/ |
https://git.heroku.com/blooming-bayou-75897.git

The heroku command creates a new subdomain just for our application, available for immediate viewing. There’s nothing there yet, though, so let’s get busy deploying.

1.4.2 Heroku deployment, step one

At this point, we’re ready to deploy to Heroku.

Step 1

The first step is to use Git to push the master branch up to Heroku:

$ git push heroku master

(You may see some warning messages, which you should ignore for now. We’ll discuss them further in Section 7.5.)

Step 2

There is no step two! We’re already done. To see your newly deployed application, visit the address that you saw when you ran heroku create (i.e., Listing 1.21).29 The result appears in Figure 1.31. The page is identical to Figure 1.20, but now it’s running in a production environment on the live web.30

Images

Figure 1.31: The first Rails Tutorial application running on Heroku.

30 Your results may differ if you completed the exercises in Section 1.2.4.

29 If you’re working on your local machine instead of the cloud IDE, you can use heroku open to open the site automatically in a web browser.

Exercises

Solutions to the exercises are available to all Rails Tutorial purchasers here.

To see other people’s answers and to record your own, subscribe to the Rails Tutorial course or to the Learn Enough All Access Bundle.

1. By making the same change as in Section 1.2.4, arrange for your production app to display “hola, mundo!”.

2. As in Section 1.2.4, arrange for the root route to display the result of the goodbye action. When deploying, confirm that you can omit master in the Git push, as in git push heroku.

1.4.3 Heroku commands

There are many Heroku commands, and we’ll barely scratch the surface in this book. Let’s take a minute to show just one of them by renaming the application as follows:

$ heroku rename rails-tutorial-hello

Don’t use this name yourself; it’s already taken by me! In fact, you probably shouldn’t bother with this step right now; using the default address supplied by Heroku is fine. But if you do want to rename your application, you can arrange for it to be reasonably secure by using a random or obscure subdomain, such as the following:

hwpcbmze.herokuapp.com
seyjhflo.herokuapp.com
jhyicevg.herokuapp.com

With a random subdomain like this, someone could visit your site only if you gave them the address.31 (By the way, as a preview of Ruby’s compact awesomeness, here’s the code I used to generate the random subdomains:

('a'..'z').to_a.shuffle[0..7].join

31 This solution, known as “security through obscurity”, is fine for hobby projects, but for sites that require greater initial security I recommend using Rails HTTP basic authentication. This is a much more advanced technique, though, and requires significantly more technical sophistication (Box 1.2) to implement. (Thanks to Alfie Pates for raising this issue.)

We’ll return to this bit of code in Chapter 4.)32

32 As is often the case, this code can be made even more compact using a built-in part of Ruby, in this case something called sample: ('a'..'z').to_a.sample(8).join. Thanks to alert reader Stefan Pochmann for pointing this out—I didn’t even know about sample until he told me!

In addition to supporting subdomains, Heroku also supports custom domains. (In fact, the Ruby on Rails Tutorial site lives at Heroku; if you’re reading this book online, you’re looking at a Heroku-hosted site right now!) See the Heroku documentation for more information about custom domains and other Heroku topics.

Exercises

Solutions to the exercises are available to all Rails Tutorial purchasers here.

To see other people’s answers and to record your own, subscribe to the Rails Tutorial course or to the Learn Enough All Access Bundle.

1. Run heroku help to see a list of Heroku commands. What is the command to display logs for an app?

2. Use the command identified in the previous exercise to inspect the activity on your application. What was the most recent event? (This command is often useful when debugging production apps.)

1.5 Conclusion

We’ve come a long way in this chapter: development environment setup, installation, version control, and deployment. In the next chapter, we’ll build on the foundation from Chapter 1 to make a database-backed toy app, which will give us our first real taste of what Rails can do.

If you’d like to share your progress at this point, feel free to send a tweet or Facebook status update with something like this:

I’m learning Ruby on Rails with the @railstutorial!
https://www.railstutorial.org/

I also recommend signing up for the Rails Tutorial email list33, which will ensure that you receive priority updates (and exclusive coupon codes) regarding the Ruby on Rails Tutorial.

33 railstutorial.org/email

1.5.1 What we learned in this chapter

• Ruby on Rails is a web development framework written in the Ruby programming language.

• Installing Rails, generating an application, and editing the resulting files is easy using a pre-configured cloud environment.

• Rails comes with a command-line command called rails that can generate new applications (rails new) and run local servers (rails server).

• We added a controller action and modified the root route to create a “hello, world” application.

• We protected against data loss while enabling collaboration by placing our application source code under version control with Git and pushing the resulting code to a private repository at GitHub.

• We deployed our application to a production environment using Heroku.

1.6 Conventions used in this book

The conventions used in this book are mostly self-explanatory. In this section, we’ll go over some that may not be.

This tutorial makes frequent use of command-line commands. For simplicity, all command line examples use a Unix-style command-line prompt (a dollar sign), as follows:

$ echo "hello, world" hello, world

Rails comes with many commands that can be run at the command line. For example, in Section 1.2.2 we’ll run a local development webserver with the rails server command:

$ rails server

As with the command-line prompt, the Rails Tutorial uses the Unix convention for directory separators (i.e., a forward slash /). For example, the sample application production.rb configuration file appears as follows:

config/environments/production.rb

This file path should be understood as being relative to the application’s root directory, which will vary by system. For example, on the cloud IDE (Section 1.1.1) it looks like this:

/home/ubuntu/environment/sample_app/

Thus, the full path to production.rb is

/home/ubuntu/environment/sample_app/config/environments/production.rb

I will typically omit the application path and write just config/environments/production.rb for short.

The Rails Tutorial often shows output from various programs. Because of the innumerable small differences between different computer systems, the output you see may not always agree exactly with what is shown in the text, but this is not cause for concern. In addition, some commands may produce errors depending on your system; rather than attempt the Sisyphean task of documenting all such errors in this tutorial, I will delegate to the “Google the error message” algorithm, which among other things is good practice for real-life software development (Box 1.2). If you run into any problems while following the tutorial, I suggest consulting the resources listed at the Rails Tutorial Help page.34

34 https://www.railstutorial.org/help

Because the Rails Tutorial covers testing of Rails applications, it is often helpful to know if a particular piece of code causes the test suite to fail (indicated by the color red) or pass (indicated by the color green). For convenience, code resulting in a failing test is thus indicated with red, while code resulting in a passing test is indicated with green.

Finally, for convenience the Ruby on Rails Tutorial adopts two conventions designed to make the many code samples easier to understand. First, some code listings include one or more highlighted lines, as seen below:

class User < ApplicationRecord
  validates :name, presence: true
  validates :email, presence: true
end

Such highlighted lines typically indicate the most important new code in the given sample, and often (though not always) represent the difference between the present code listing and previous listings. Second, for brevity and simplicity many of the book’s code listings include vertical dots, as follows:

class User < ApplicationRecord
  .
  .
  .
  has_secure_password
end

These dots represent omitted code and should not be copied literally.

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