New Hydrocolloids in Ice Cream

Fatemeh Javidi and Seyed M.A. Razavi

Food Hydrocolloids Research Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Food Hydrocolloids Research Center, PO Box: 91775‐1163, Mashhad, Iran

21.1 Introduction

Ice cream is a desired preference of people as a frozen dessert which is prepared by processing ingredients such as milk, cream, stabilizer, emulsifier, sugar, and flavoring substances. The microstructure of ice cream is identified as a complex colloidal system with multiple phases which is mainly composed of fat globules, air bubbles, and ice crystals in a highly viscous solution of sugar, polysaccharides, and milk proteins, known as the matrix (Figure 21.1). The final quality of this product is mostly affected by the nature and concentration of ingredients and the different processes used in the ice cream production [1]. Stabilizers are a group of water‐soluble or water‐dispersible biopolymers used in ice cream formulation. They have a number of functions: stabilizing the mix to avoid wheying‐off, providing a stable foam resulting from controlled incorporation of air in the freezer, retarding or reducing ice and lactose crystal growth during “heat shock,” helping to suspend flavoring agents in the mix, decreasing the moisture migration from ice cream to the package or air, contributing to easier pumping, improving the melting resistance of ice cream, and providing a smooth and desirable texture and uniform mouth feel upon eating. Many of these beneficial effects are achieved by increasing the viscosity of the unfrozen phase in ice cream. The amount and kind of stabilizer needed in the ice cream formulation are mainly influenced by the mix ingredients, processing conditions, storage time, and temperature. The most frequently used stabilizers in various ice creams are polysaccharides of plant origin, for example, guar gum, locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan, alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), xanthan, and pectin. These ingredients are high‐molecular‐weight biopolymers known as hydrocolloids, which can interact with water through hydration [ 1,2].

Schematic diagram of the microstructure of ice cream with arrows labeled ice crystals, air bubbles, matrix, and fat droplets (on the air bubble surface and in the matrix). A dimensional arrow is indicated labeled 0.1 mm.

Figure 21.1 Schematic diagram of the microstructure of ice cream.

Source: Adapted from Clarke [1] with permission from the Royal Society of Chemistry.

In addition to the stabilizer, milk fat has important effects on ice cream structure. It facilitates the movement of the freezer barrel, improves foam stability, provides a creamy and smooth texture by lubricating the palate, reduces the rate of melting, depresses the cold sensation, and helps deliver fat‐soluble flavorants [ 2,3]. Typically, regular ice cream must have a fat content of 10% by weight, whereas “reduced‐fat” and “light” ice creams contain at least 25% and 50% less total fat than the reference product, respectively [4]. On the other hand, in recent years, consumer demand for reduced‐fat ice creams has increased due to better awareness of obesity risk factors, coronary heart disease, and so on. Therefore, the food industry is looking for new alternatives to fat in order to minimize the negative effects of fat reduction on ice cream quality. Fat replacers that are mostly based on carbohydrates are hydrocolloids, which can mimic fat globules in terms of mouthfeel and flow properties due to their emulsifying and water‐binding capabilities [5].

The advent of new hydrocolloids and their novel functionalities have made the investigation of their potential applications in food systems essential. Despite many review papers, books, and book chapters published about hydrocolloid applications in ice cream and related products [ 1, 2 69], there is no information concerning the applications of new sources of hydrocolloids in ice creams. So, in this chapter, we review some novel hydrocolloids studied in ice cream and introduce their functions, especially as a stabilizer, fat replacer, and cryoprotectant.

21.2 New Sources of Hydrocolloids in Ice Cream

A variety of hydrocolloids have been used as stabilizer and fat replacer agents in the ice cream industry. Furthermore, the cryoprotection role of some of them has been confirmed. The literature indicates that new hydrocolloids can provide novel functions and have the potential to substitute for some commercial ones in many food applications. So, over the past few decades, ice cream manufacturers have been investigating new sources of natural hydrocolloids, most of which are discussed in the following sections.

21.2.1 Lallemantia royleana Seed Gum

Lallemantia royleana is a member of the Labiate family. It grows in the European and Middle East countries, especially in various parts of Iran. Its vernacular name in Persian is Balangu or Balangu–Shirazi. It has been reported that Balangu seed is a good source of polysaccharides, fiber, oil, and protein [10]. Therefore, when soaked in water, it swells into a sticky, turbid, and tasteless mass due to its high mucilage content. Balangu seed mucilage is composed of 8.51% (w.b.) moisture, 8.24% (d.b.) ash, 2.71% (d.b.) protein, 75.87% (d.b.) carbohydrate, and 20.33% (d.b.) uronic acids. Results obtained from monosaccharide analysis showed that arabinose (37.88%), galactose (33.54%), rhamnose (18.44%), xylose (6.02%), and glucose (4.11%) are present in this hydrocolloid. It has been established that this new hydrocolloid has the capability to thicken solutions, form gel, stabilize o/w emulsion and ice cream mix, decrease the destructive effects of ice crystals growth, and improve some physical properties and sensory characteristics of sorghum gluten‐free bread [1116].

21.2.2 Ocimum basilicum Seed Gum

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. family Lamiaceae), with the vernacular name of Reihan or Reyhan, is an endemic plant in Iran and is naturally distributed in different regions of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America [17]. It absorbs water quickly and easily releases a transparent mucilaginous gum, which is composed of two main fractions: (1) an acid‐stable core glucomannan and (2) a‐linked xylan including acidic side chains at C‐2 and C‐3 of the xylosyl residues in the acid‐soluble portion. In addition, it contains an insignificant fraction of glucan and protein. Basil seed gum can act as foaming, emulsifying, thickening, gelling, binding, fat replacing, stabilizing, and suspending agents in many food products [18,19].

21.2.3 Salvia hispanica Seed Gum

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), mint family (Lamiaceae), is a plant from tropical and subtropical climates. It contains a complex high‐molecular‐weight polysaccharide which has a slimy, mucilaginous character at very low concentrations. Because of strong cross‐linking and binding to the seed surface, this gum is not easily separated from the seeds when soaked in water. Therefore, its extraction should be accomplished by stirring, preferably in the presence of sand to aid in dislodgment or cleavage of the insolubilizing bonds. For research purposes, 6 M urea solution is also used. This hydrocolloid contains β‐D‐xylopyranosyl, α‐D‐glucopyranosyl, and 4‐O‐methyl‐α‐D‐glucopyranosyluronic acid units in the ratio 2:1:1. Chia seed gum not only has health benefits but also is considered as thickening, gel forming, stabilizing, emulsifying, and chelating agents [20,21].

21.2.4 Lepidium sativum Seed Gum

Cress (Lepidium sativum) is an annual herb of the family Cruciferae growing in Middle East countries, Europe, and the United States. Cress seed quickly produces a transparent mucilaginous gel around the whole seed as it is wetted by water. The structural characteristics of cress seed gum revealed that it chiefly contains mannose (38.9%), arabinose (19.4%), galacturonic acid (8%), fructose (6.8%), glucuronic acid (6.7%), galactose (4.7%), rhamnose (1.9%), and glucose (1.0%). Some 15% uronic acid (galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid) imparts a polyelectrolyte nature to this hydrocolloid. Researchers have shown that under certain conditions (pH, sugars, salts, and thermal treatments), cress seed gum has great potential to act as a gelling agent, emulsifier, and suspension stabilizer. It is capable of improving emulsion properties (emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability) and foam characteristics (foaming capacity and foam stability). It has also been shown that this new hydrocolloid can be used as a xanthan gum substitute [2224].

21.2.5 Linum usitatissimum Seed Gum

It has been reported that flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), belonging to the family Linaceae, is grown in many parts of the world such as the United States, Argentina, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Canada, and India [20]. It contains high amounts of mucilage that are present mainly in the outermost layer of the seed hull. It is extracted from whole flaxseed with water and is composed of two polysaccharide components, acidic and neutral, in the ratio 2:l. The neutral fraction is L‐arabinose, D‐xylose, and D‐galactose, and the acidic fraction includes L‐rhamnose, L‐fructose, L‐galactose, and D‐galacturonic acid [25]. This gum has been used to form a gel, increase viscosity, and enhance foam and emulsion stability. From its functional properties and microstructural data, flaxseed gum can replace gum arabic [26,27].

21.2.6 Gundelia tournefortii Gum

Gundelia tournefortii L., with the common name of tumbleweed, is a medicinal plant of the Asteraceae family, which grows naturally in Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan [28]. Its roots and leaves are a source of gumming liquid, which is used to produce a kind of chewable gum in Turkey called Kenger gum. Despite the fact that it has many beneficial effects, its hard texture makes it difficult to chew, because of which consumption is low. So, a thermal process is required to soften the gum and improve its textural properties. It has been demonstrated that softened Kenger gum, as a natural hydrocolloid, can be used to replace a synthetic gum in the production of conventional chewing gum. The possibility of using this gumming liquid as a natural stabilizer in ice cream has also been explored [2931].

21.2.7 Plantago ovate Seed Gum

Plantago ovate L., called Isfarzeh in Persian, Isabgol in Hindi, and Psyllium in English, belongs to the family Plantaginaceae. It is widely found throughout the temperate areas of the world and has a mucilaginous gum consisting of two fractions, one soluble in hot water and the other soluble in cold water. The hot‐water‐soluble fraction, which is chiefly composed of arabinose and xylose, gels on cooling. Methylation analysis revealed that the hot‐water‐extractable fraction contains (1 → 4) and (1 → 3) linked β‐D‐xylopyranosyl residues in the main chain. The side chains are primarily composed of terminal arabinose and xylose connected to the main chain by O‐3 and/or O‐2 linkage. This fraction also has a significant amount (15%) of uronic acids. This novel hydrocolloid is suitable for many food applications due to its high molecular weight, viscosity enhancement ability, and specific rheological properties [3234].

21.2.8 Abelmoschus esculentus Gum

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is a plant from the family Malvaceae which originated in Africa and was introduced into the tropical zones of the United States, the Middle East, and numerous countries of the world such as India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand [35]. Its common name is okra, and it is also known as lady's fingers, gombo, and bamia. Okra gum as a natural polymer is obtained from the pods of the okra plant. The major component of okra gum has a main chain of D‐galactose, L‐rhamnose, and L‐galacturonic acid. It has been used as a binding, suspending, film coating, foam stabilizing, dough strengthening, gelling, and bioadhesive agents. In addition, the great potential of okra gum to act as an emulsifier in acidic environments has been recognized by previously published work [ 20 3638].

21.2.9 Lepidium perfoliatum Seed Gum

Lepidium perfoliatum, a member of the family Cruciferae, is native to some countries of the Middle East such as Egypt, Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan. Its vernacular name is Qodume Shahri in Iran. A desirable amount of mucilage is extracted from its seeds when they come into contact with water. This new hydrocolloid includes, on average, 88.23% carbohydrate, 6% moisture, 4.6% protein, and 0.18% ash (dry basis, %). The literature shows that Qodume Shahri seed gum exhibits a good capacity for water absorption. In addition, the thickening and stabilizing properties of this gum make it suitable for use in many food systems such as foam‐ and emulsion‐based products [3941].

21.2.10 Salvia macrosiphon Seed Gum

Salvia plant is native to the northern Mediterranean coast but is distributed worldwide and widely cultivated. Sage (Salvia macrosiphon) belongs to Lamiaceae family. Sage seeds contain a large number of mucilaginous substances (9.97%–12%) which diffuse out when soaked in water. Monosaccharide analysis by high‐performance anion‐exchange chromatography demonstrated the presence of mannose (M) and galactose (G) as the main monosaccharide components in sage seed gum (SSG). Therefore, galactomannan is the primary polysaccharide characterized in this hydrocolloid (M + G > 93%). The M/G ratio of the SSG polysaccharide is the range 1.78–1.93, which is fairly similar to that of guar gum (1.43–2.0) It has been found that mannose (61.50%) and galactose (33.15%) are the major carbohydrate fractions, but glucose (2.78%), arabinose (1.41%), and rhamnose (1.17%) are minor ones [42]. At certain concentrations, it is able to thicken aqueous dispersions, form gels, and reduce the surface tension of water [43,44].

21.2.11 Salep Glucomannan

Salep, a member of the family Orchidaceae, is obtained from the dried tubers of orchids growing in different parts of Iran and Turkey. It is rich in polysaccharides (11%–44%), which gives it an important stabilizing capacity since it swells when used with water and milk. Salep is known to be a valuable source for glucomannan, and its mannose‐to‐glucose ratio is in the range 2.0–3.0. The thickening, gelling, and stabilizing abilities of Salep in food systems such as emulsions, ice creams, milk desserts, and drinks were discovered by earlier researchers [45]. It is commonly used for imparting hardness and elasticity to Turkish ice cream (Kahramanmaras‐type). In addition, Salep is traditionally applied as one of the essential ingredients of Iranian ice cream [4648]. There are two forms of Salep, having either (1) palmate (branched) tubers or (2) rounded (unbranched) ones. It has been reported that at similar concentrations, palmate‐tuber Salep exhibited a higher consistency of gum solutions in comparison to the rounded‐tuber type [49].

21.2.12 Gum Tragacanth

Gum tragacanth is a natural exudate obtained by slitting the stems and branches of the Astragalus species (family Leguminosae). Astragalus plants grow in sections of Asia Minor and in the semi‐desert and mountainous regions of Iran, Syria, and Turkey as well as Australia. The name “tragacanth” is derived from the Greek tragos (goat) and akantha (horn), referring to the white curled ribbons [50]. This hydrocolloid is a very complex heterogeneous anionic polysaccharide composed of two main fractions: a water‐insoluble component called bassorin which has a chain of galacturonic acid units, and a water‐soluble arabinogalactan component known as tragacanthin. Because of the easy separability of bassorin and tragacanthin, it has been suggested that the two fractions are in a physical mixture and not chemically bonded [51]. Gum tragacanth has been widely used in food technology applications on the basis of its gelling and thickening ability, good suspending action, unusually high stability to heat and acidity, emulsifying characteristics, creamy mouthfeel, good flavor‐release properties, and very long shelf life [52].

21.3 Functions of New Hydrocolloids in Ice Cream

21.3.1 Stabilizing Rheological Properties

It has been reported that the flow behavior index of ice cream mixes is less than unity (n < 1) [6]. The decrease in shear stress with an increase in the shear rate may be owing to the increased alignment of the constituent molecules, complex entanglement of partially broken‐down micellar casein at the droplet surface and aggregation of fat globules in ice cream mix [5356]. However, the dilatant behavior has been reported by others for mixes containing Salep and Isfarzeh mucilage [47,57]. There are many different models to determine the rheological properties of non‐Newtonian fluids. In this regard, the power‐law model (Eq. (21.1)) is generally used to describe the rheology of ice cream mixes [48]:

(21.1) equation

where τ (Pa) is the shear stress, k (Pa.sn) is the consistency coefficient, images (s−1) is the shear rate, and n (dimensionless) is the flow behavior index. Table 0 shows the values of the flow behavior index and consistency coefficient of some ice cream mixes including new hydrocolloids as stabilizer. Previous studies have revealed that the shear‐thinning behavior become more prominent as the concentration of stabilizer increases, which is shown by a decrease in values of the flow behavior index [12,54,58 6062]. This finding has been related to the increase in serum concentration resulting from the formation of compact polysaccharides entanglements which are very sensitive to the shear rate. The shear‐thinning behavior is an important factor for desirable texture and mouthfeel and for choosing the size of the pump for mix handling. Additionally, viscosity, the resistance of a liquid to flow, is the most important aspect of fluid rheology [ 2, 12].

Table 0 Parameters of the power‐law model determined for regular mixes containing new hydrocolloid stabilizers.

Stabilizers k (Pa.sn) n (−) Reference
Isfarzeh seed mucilage, basil seed gum, Salep 1.25–2.43 0.30–1.40 [57]
Qodume Shahri seed gum, cress seed gum 3.61–11.52 a 0.41–0.55 b [54]
Basil seed gum, carboxymethylcellulose, guar gum 0.27–0.90 c 0.63–0.73 d [58]
Balangu seed gum, carboxymethylcellulose, palmate‐tuber Salep 0.05–6.82 0.45–1.15 [47]
Basil seed gum, guar gum, κ‐carrageenan 19.51–20.41 0.40–0.42 [59]
Cress seed gum 0.89–7.14 e 0.53–0.74 f [60]
Okra cell wall and polysaccharide, guar gum 0.52–0.71 g [61]

k, consistency coefficient; n, flow behavior index

a k value for ice cream mix without stabilizer was 1.29.

b n value for ice cream mix without stabilizer was 0.63.

c k value for ice cream mix without stabilizer was 0.1.

d n value for ice cream mix without stabilizer was 0.8.

e k value for ice cream mix without stabilizer was 0.712.

f n value for ice cream mix without stabilizer was 0.776.

g n value for ice cream mix without stabilizer was 0.72.

In general, the magnitudes of the consistency coefficient and viscosity are also enhanced by increasing the concentration of novel stabilizers [ 12, 54 57 60, 62, 63]. Hydrocolloids contribute to the mix viscosity and stabilize the protein in the mix due to the capability of interacting with water, proteins, and lipids [ 6, 57]. The results reported by El‐Aziz et al. [62] showed that the mix viscosity was very dependent on the type and concentration of cress seed mucilage, flaxseed mucilage, and guar gum. This observation is related to the effect of sugar, proteins, and salts on the functional properties of the used stabilizers. In another study, ice cream mixes containing Qodume Shahri gum had higher viscosity and consistency coefficients of the power‐law and Herschel–Bulkley models than those of mixes with cress seed gum at equivalent concentrations. Azari‐Anpar et al. [54] concluded that magnitude of this rheological property was affected by the chemical structure, size, molecular weight, and water‐holding capacity of the selected gums. It was also reported that increasing the proportion of basil seed gum in stabilizer mixtures containing commercial gums enhanced the viscosity of the ice cream mix [ 59,63,64]. Similar results have been found by BahramParvar and Goff [58]. On the other hand, Yuennan et al. [61] and Raftani and Ahmadi [65] reported that tragacanth gum and okra polysaccharide produced lower viscosity values, respectively, in comparison with CMC and guar gum at equal amounts. Furthermore, the effects of different proportions of gum tragacanth and Salep glucomannan on some rheological properties of ice cream mix have been investigated [66]. The authors found that an increase in the tragacanth‐to‐Salep ratio decreased the values of Burger's model and Maxwell unit parameters. In fact, the addition of gum tragacanth created a stronger network with a greater resistance to deformation. Textural Attributes

The mechanical properties such as hardness and Young's modulus indicate that how foods respond when they are deformed [1]. There are many important factors that influence ice cream texture. The stabilizer is one such ingredient imparting specific functions to the finished product. This ingredient prevents the formation of large ice crystals and lactose crystals in ice cream mixes during processing and storage by binding water. Therefore, stabilizer is necessary to produce smoothness in body and texture [ 54, 66]. Numerous studies have evaluated the textural attributes of ice cream. In this regard, El‐Aziz et al. [62], in investigating the physical properties of ice cream containing cress seed and flaxseed gums, found that the magnitude of hardness decreased by either adding hydrocolloids or increasing their concentration due to increased viscosity, decreased movement of water molecules, and consequently limited ice crystal growth. On the other hand, Azari‐Anpar et al. [54] reported that Qodume Shahri and cress seed gums enhanced the hardness of ice cream, attributing it to low air content and high viscosity. Similar in hardness, both native Iranian gums increased adhesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. In another study, a novel stabilizer blend composed of 96.94% basil seed gum and 3.06% guar gum was introduced [67]. They assessed the effects of these primary stabilizers in combination with k‐carrageenan on the textural properties of ice cream and found that the hardness and consistency of ice cream decreased by the addition of κ‐carrageenan, because of the cryoprotective function of this hydrocolloid, but these parameters increased during storage time, which was attributed to recrystallization of ice. Kurt et al. [66] observed that Young's modulus and stickiness, as indicative properties of Kahramanmaras‐type ice creams, increased as a result of adding gum tragacanth. In addition, this gum was used as a substitute for CMC. The results showed that hardness was the lowest for ice creams containing 0.3% CMC and 0.1% tragacanth, and the highest for samples with 0.4% tragacanth. From a textural point of view, the ability of chia seed mucilage to be replaced with the emulsifiers and stabilizers in ice cream was also demonstrated [68]. Overrun

The air content of ice cream is in the form of microscopic bubbles or cells and is determined by the overrun percentage [1]. Overrun is directly tied to quality, yield, and commercial benefits, and therefore tight control over this property is essential [2]. Stabilizers are able to increase the viscosity of the mix, maintain air bubbles, and consequently improve ice cream volume [6]. However, a number of researchers have determined the negative impact of high viscosity on the overrun [ 6, 47, 58, 59, 61, 62, 65], which was connected to hydrocolloid concentration, so that an increase in the level of hydrocolloid decreased the overrun. Therefore, an appropriate amount of viscosity is needed to entrap air and stabilize air bubbles. Other researchers observed no significant changes in the overrun between different concentrations of gum tragacanth and Salep glucomannan [66]. Compared to some well‐known commercial stabilizers, chia seed gum and G. tournefortii L. produced superior air incorporation [ 29, 68]. It is concluded that the overrun of ice cream is mostly affected by the nature and concentration of the stabilizer, and consequently on the machine used to make ice cream. As shown in Table Table 21.2, the low values of overrun can be due to the incapability of the batch freezer to incorporate air and obtain the desired volume.

Table 21.2 Overrun values of regular ice creams containing new hydrocolloid stabilizers.

Stabilizers Overrun (%) Reference
Basil seed gum, carboxymethylcellulose, guar gum 42.7–62.3 a [58]
Balangu seed gum, carboxymethylcellulose, palmate‐tuber Salep 18.8–28.6 [47]
Basil seed gum, guar gum, κ‐carrageenan 55.5–60.9 [59]
Basil seed gum, carboxymethylcellulose, guar gum 30.6–65.2 [64]
Gundelia tournefortii L., guar gum, carrageenan, Salep 43.0–71.0 [29]
Chia mucilage, commercial stabilizer 60.0–96.0 [68]
Gum tragacanth, Salep 32.4–32.8 [66]
Gum tragacanth, carboxymethylcellulose 53.3–57.0 [65]
Okra cell wall and polysaccharide, guar gum 70.0–85.0 [61]

a Overrun (%) for ice cream without stabilizer was reported as 45.8%. Melting Resistance

Meltdown is one of the main techniques to characterize the thermal properties of ice cream. It is determined by the meltdown test, which measures the ability of ice cream to resist melting when placed on a wire mesh and exposed to a constant temperature, for example, 25 °C, for a period of time [1]. Numerous factors influence melting resistance, such as the number and surface area of ice crystals, the viscosity of the serum phase, fat globule/cluster size, and the air content [2]. BahramParvar et al. [63] found that the melting rate of ice cream decreased as the level of fat destabilization increased. This observation may be related to the fact that partially coalesced fat is responsible for stabilizing the air cells [2]. Additionally, the greater the overrun, the lower the thermal conductivity of ice cream [ 1, 57, 62]. BahramParvar et al. [67] also reported that melting resistance of ice cream decreased with storage, due to ice recrystallization. Research findings have shown that hydrocolloids delay the separation of the clear serum from ice cream during the meltdown, which is attributable to their water‐holding capacity and microviscosity enhancement ability. In the other words, as the ice crystals melt, the water must diffuse into the serum phase. The increase in hydrocolloid content increases the resistance to flow. Therefore, more time is needed for the water to drip through the screen on which it rests [ 29, 47, 57, 58 61 63]. Kurt et al. [66] adjusted gum tragacanth and Salep glucomannan ratios to obtain a constant concentration (1%). They observed that increasing ratio of gum tragacanth in the mixture enhanced the melting resistance. Similarly, the melting rate decreased upon increasing the ratio of basil seed gum in the stabilizer mixture, while the addition of CMC and guar gum increased the melting rate values [ 6, 63]. In another investigation, ice creams containing palmate‐tuber Salep exhibited lower melting resistance than that of samples produced using CMC or Balangu seed gum [47]. Sensory Characteristics

The sensory characteristics of foods can be detected by the sense of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing. Most people tend to eat ice cream because of its sensory properties, including a smooth, creamy, and viscoelastic texture, a rich sweet flavor, and cold sensation. The ingredients and processing conditions used in the production of ice cream influence the sensory properties [ 1, 2]. One function of stabilizers in ice cream is to decrease the icy sensation, as reported in several published works [ 62,69]. It can be assumed that the desirable effects of hydrocolloids on the sensory perception of ice cream result from their ability to change the surface properties of ice crystals or to change the perception of ice crystals in the mouth [6]. In other words, hydrocolloids, due to their functional properties, have significant effects on recrystallization, as described in detail in Section 21.3.3. Regarding the results pertaining to the overall acceptability of ice creams containing new hydrocolloids, the samples with basil seed gum, Qodume Shahri seed gum, and SSG showed higher scores than those including Isfarzeh mucilage, cress seed gum, and Salep, respectively [ 54, 57, 69]. Cakmakci and Dagdemir [29] found that adding G. tournefortii L. leaves significantly decreased the overall acceptability of ice cream compared to the sample with commercial stabilizers. Contrary to this result, there were no statistical differences between CMC and Balangu seed gum in terms of total acceptance [47]. BahramParvar et al. [70], BahramParvar et al. [59], and BahramParvar et al. [64] observed that the combination of basil seed gum and guar gum at the optimum level created acceptable sensory properties, because the hedonic sensory scores of appearance, flavor, body and texture, color, and total acceptance of ice creams were about 7. The instrumental textural properties of ice cream had moderate to high correlations with some sensory properties, including iciness, coarseness, creaminess, smoothness, and greasiness, in a scoop [67]. It has also been reported that some sensory characteristics of ice cream are related to their rheological properties [6].

21.3.2 Fat Replacement Rheological Properties

The evaluation of the time‐dependent rheological properties of ice cream mixes is important to assess the relationship between structure and flow during processing [ 66,71]. The second‐order structural kinetic model was applied to investigate the influence of fat content (2.5% and 10%), fat replacers (guar gum, basil seed gum, and their mixture [50:50]), and the fat replacer level (0.35%, 0.45%, 0.5%, and 0.55%) on the time‐dependent rheological properties of ice cream mixes [3]. They observed that all formulations were thixotropic, and a decreasing trend of the thixotropy rate constant (k) and extent of thixotropy (η 0 ) was seen as the fat content decreased, while these parameters were enhanced by either adding fat replacers or increasing their concentration. At the same fat and gum levels, ice cream mixes with basil seed gum exhibited a greater shear‐sensitive thixotropic nature than mixes containing guar gum and its blend with basil seed gum (Table Table 21.3). The authors declared that this observation could be related to the complex nature of basil seed gum. In addition, insignificant differences were observed in the η 0 of mixes with 0.35% and 0.45% basil seed gum and gum blend. Other models have recently been applied to characterize the thixotropic behavior of full‐fat and light ice cream mixes containing guar gum, basil seed gum, and their mixture (50:50) as a fat replacer. In this regard, Javidi and Razavi [72] stated that fat reduction from 10% to 5% decreased the extent of thixotropy (B), but no specific trend was seen in the values of the breakdown rate constant (k). It was also found that full‐fat and light samples with basil seed gum and its blend with guar gum had higher B values than those of mixes containing guar gum at the same concentration.

Table 21.3 Some characteristics of full‐fat, low‐fat, and light ice creams containing basil seed gum (BSG), guar gum (GG), and their mixture (50:50).

Extent of thixotropy
Ice cream Stabilizer/fat replacer η 0 a B b Overrun (%) Melting rate (g min−1) Creaminess Reference
Full fat (10%) GG 1.25 1.13 29.0 0.83 4.8 [ 3, 72]
BSG 1.80 4.76 13.9 0.41 5.3
GG: BSG 1.35 3.17 29.2 0.77 4.9
Light (5%) GG 0.64–3.03 32.1–40.1 0.89–1.00 4.2–7.5 [72]
BSG 2.96–7.58 23.2–31.1 0.06–0.55 3.5–8.2
GG: BSG 0.88–4.97 29.3–44.5 0.79–1.10 3.7–7.0
Low fat (2.5%) GG 1.20–1.51 23.4–31.5 0.81–0.89 2.8–5.3 [3]
BSG 1.60–2.33 11.6–21.1 0.25–0.71 3.3–7.1
GG: BSG 1.09–1.39 23.4–34.7 0.75–0.91 2.5–6.2

a Extent of thixotropy of full‐fat ice cream mixes in comparison with low‐fat samples.

b Extent of thixotropy of full‐fat ice cream mixes in comparison with light samples.

The power‐law, Casson, and Herschel–Bulkley models were used to describe the steady‐state rheological data of light (5%) and low‐fat (2.5%) ice cream mixes, respectively [ 3, 72]. From the data obtained, values of the flow behavior index (n) of low‐fat and light mixes were observed to be less than 1 (0.42–0.74), indicating their pseudoplastic nature. It was found that fat reduction had no significant effect on the n values, whereas the addition of fat replacers and an increase in their concentration were accompanied by an enhancement of the pseudoplasticity of the mixes. The formation of compact polysaccharides entanglements sensitive to the shear rate could explain this observation. The consistency coefficient (k) can be considered to indicate the viscous nature of fluid foods [6]. Research findings by Javidi et al. [3] and Javidi and Razavi [72] showed that k values were reduced as the fat content decreased and increased as fat replacers were added, with samples including guar gum ranked first followed by mixes containing basil seed gum, although the consistency coefficient of basil seed gum samples increased more with concentration than that of ice cream mixes containing guar gum. This could be owing to the molecular chain expansion of basil seed gum resulting from stronger anionic nature of this novel gum in comparison to guar gum. A similar trend was also observed in the Casson plastic viscosity of light mixes as a result of fat reduction and gum addition. The yield stress is defined as the stress at which a material begins to undergo permanent deformation. At the same amount of gum (0.35%), a lower yield stress was found in low‐fat (2.5%) and light (5%) samples compared to regular ice cream (10%). On the other hand, higher yield stress values in mixes with higher gum concentrations were connected to the increased intermolecular associations [ 3, 72]. This parameter, as a quality control tool, is correlated well with the texture, body, and scoopability of the ice cream [73]. Textural Attributes

It is obvious that the type and amount of ingredients such as fat and fat replacers used in ice cream formulations can mainly impact textural properties. The findings by several works indicated that the hardness of light (5%) and low‐fat (2.5%) ice creams decreased upon reducing the fat content [3]. The reason for this observation can be attributed to the ice crystal size and ice phase volume. These authors stated that higher hardness values were obtained by increasing the fat replacer concentrations (0.35%, 0.45%, 0.5%, and 0.55%), leading to an increase in the viscosity of the samples. In this regard, the effect of the guar gum–basil seed gum blend (50:50) on hardness was greater than that of the other two systems (guar gum or basil seed gum) at the same concentration, except for 0.55% guar gum. In the other words, low‐fat and light ice creams with 0.55% guar gum had the maximum value of hardness in comparison to the corresponding samples containing basil seed gum and its blend with guar gum. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the hardness of samples including the same amount of individual gums at 0.35%, 0.45%, and 0.55%. The effect of fat and fat replacers on the adhesiveness of ice creams was found parallel to the results of the hardness. However, guar gum and the mixture of guar gum and basil seed gum (50 : 50) generally caused the lowest adhesiveness of light and low‐fat ice creams, respectively [ 3, 72]. Overrun

Fat, hydrocolloids, and proteins are important key factors for the incorporation of air into an ice cream mix and also for controlling the thermodynamically unstable air cells [2]. A certain viscosity is needed to entrap air during the freezing process. In the other words, the vigorous agitation of too viscous ice cream mix causes difficulties and then air incorporation decreases, while in low‐viscosity liquid, the film on the surface of the air cells drains [ 1, 59]. According to previous studies, fat reduction increased the overrun values of low‐fat (2.5%) and light (5%) ice creams, but this parameter was decreased by raising the concentration of fat replacers (guar gum, basil seed gum, and their mixture [50:50]), owing to the capability of hydrocolloids to absorb water and consequently increase the viscosity [ 3, 72,74]. The observed effect of basil seed gum on the overrun was greater than that of guar gum at the same concentration (Table Table 21.3). On the other hand, samples including the mixture of guar gum and basil seed gum had a higher overrun than ice creams with guar gum at concentrations of 0.35% and 0.45%. In addition, there were no significant differences between the overrun percentages of the latter two‐gum systems at higher concentrations. These results indicate a synergistic interaction between guar gum and basil seed gum. Melting Resistance

The meltdown of ice cream is influenced by heat and mass transfer phenomena in which water has a higher thermal conductivity than fat. So, the fat content and the network of fat globules can mainly affect the melting properties. Compared to full‐fat (10%) ice cream, a lower first dripping time and a faster melting rate of light (5%) samples with 0.35% gum were obtained by Javidi and Razavi [72]. Their results also indicated that the addition of a fat replacer (basil seed gum, guar gum, and their mixture [50:50]) increased the first dripping time and reinforced the melting resistance, and basil seed gum was more effective than other gum systems (Table Table 21.3). Similar results have recently been reported by others [ 3, 74]. In addition, Javidi et al. [3] investigated the M0/M150 value (extent of melting) to better describe the melting behavior of low‐fat (2.5%) ice creams including basil seed gum, guar gum, and their 50:50 blend as fat replacers. They found that this parameter was considerably influenced by three main factors: (1) fat reduction, (2) fat replacer addition, and (3) fat replacer concentration. As a matter of fact, the addition of basil seed gum to the low‐fat ice cream was more effective in reducing the M0/M150 value, compared to guar gum and their mixture in the ratio 50:50. As shown in Figure 21.2, a significant (p < 0.05) linear negative correlation was also observed between the melting rate data and breakdown rate parameters for low‐fat ice creams. The reason for this is probably the structural arrangement of ice creams, encompassing factors such as the extent of partial coalescence of fat [ 1,75].

Rate of break down vs. melting rate displaying a descending line along with 12 diamond markers.

Figure 21.2 Correlation between the melting rate data and breakdown rate parameters determined for low‐fat ice creams.

Source: Adapted from Javidi et al. [3] with permission from Elsevier. Sensory Characteristics

It is generally acknowledged that fat content affects the sensory quality of ice cream, such as enhancement of creaminess, an increase of mouth‐coating, and flavor perception [76]. Vanilla as a primary flavor used in ice cream is a lipophilic component, so dissolution and release of this flavor are strongly influenced by milk fat, which is in agreement with the findings reported by Javidi et al. [3]. They also found that low‐fat (2.5%) ice creams had less creaminess and more coldness, coarseness, and hardness than the full‐fat (10%) sample. The involvement of fat in the structural characteristics of ice cream such as its lower heat conductivity can describe these results. Also, adding basil seed gum, guar gum, and their blends (50:50) reduced the coldness and coarseness due to the high water‐binding capacity of the selected hydrocolloids, which was more prominent in basil seed gum than in the other gum systems. The hardness of low‐fat samples with fat replacers was found to be higher than that of corresponding controls. The reason for such an effect could be attributed to the viscosity enhancement ability of the hydrocolloids. As presented in Table Table 21.3, fat replacers are able to mimic the creaminess of full‐fat ice cream, above all in samples containing basil seed gum followed by formulations with a mixture of basil seed gum and guar gum (50:50). In this regard, the authors concluded that the creaminess of ice creams was related to the extent of thixotropy of the mixes. These sensory findings are in accordance with the results reported by Javidi and Razavi [72], who obtained the Pearson correlation coefficients for instrumental and sensory properties. In this case, a positive correlation between the values of creaminess and hardness, adhesiveness, consistency coefficient, Casson yield stress, initial shear stress, the extent of thixotropy, equilibrium shear stress, and sensory hardness was observed, but coldness and coarseness had a negative correlation with creaminess (Table 21.4). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to describe the relationships between samples and their rheological, physical, and sensory attributes. PCA scores were divided into three groups: (1) full‐fat (10%) ice creams, (2) light (5%) samples containing basil seed gum and its blend with guar gum at concentrations of 0.35% and 0.45%, and (3) light (5%) ice creams with 0.5% and 0.55% basil seed gum and its blend with guar gum. According to PCA results, the sensory properties of the ice creams exhibited interdependence.

Table 21.4 Correlation coefficients between some properties of full‐fat and light ice creams containing basil seed gum and guar gum as fat replacers.

Source: Adapted from Javidi and Razavi [72] with permission from Springer.

Variables Hardness Adhesiveness Consistency coefficient Casson yield stress Initial shear stress Extent of thixotropy Equilibrium shear stress Coldness Sensory hardness Coarseness Creaminess
Hardness 1 0.900 0.524 0.604 0.656 0.546 0.371 −0.404 0.866 −0.566 0.731
Adhesiveness 1 0.274 0.358 0.781 0.784 0.187 −0.438 0.872 −0.617 0.744
Consistency coefficient 1 0.961 0.378 −0.086 0.845 −0.441 0.375 −0.393 0.678
Casson yield stress 1 0.416 −0.068 0.893 −0.396 0.398 −0.443 0.677
Initial shear stress 1 0.810 0.465 −0.768 0.668 −0.834 0.798
Extent of thixotropy 1 −0.120 −0.556 0.698 −0.640 0.549
Equilibrium shear stress 1 −0.513 0.156 −0.504 0.589
Coldness 1 −0.424 0.723 −0.757
Sensory hardness 1 −0.654 0.709
Coarseness 1 −0.719
Creaminess 1

Values in bold are different from 0 with a significance level alpha = 0.05.

21.3.3 Cryoprotection

Ice recrystallization (coarsening) is a process in which small ice crystals melt, combine, and form larger ones so that there is an increase in the mean crystal size without changing the total amount of ice. The average ice crystal size should be in the range 20–40 µm because ice crystals larger than 50 µm contribute to a coarse and icy texture and affect the quality of ice cream [77]. Thus, to ensure that recrystallization is minimized, useful techniques should be used, such as the addition of ice recrystallization inhibition agents to the mix. In this regard, the recrystallization phenomenon in ice cream can be effectively controlled by the addition of hydrocolloids, and is attributed to the reduction in the kinetics of the ice recrystallization phenomena during storage [2], although these ingredients have little or no effect on the initial ice crystal size distribution at the time of draw from the scraped surface freezer, nor on the initial ice growth during hardening [78]. Their ability to hold water and enhance microviscosity is the first mechanism controlling the rate of ice crystal growth. This functionality of hydrocolloids probably results in hyper‐entanglements and solution structure formation in the unfrozen phase of ice cream, affecting the rate of water diffusion to the surface of growing ice crystals or the rate of diffusion of solutes and macromolecules away from the surface of growing crystals during temperature fluctuation [6]. However, some researchers declared that the mix viscosity did not correlate well with the cryoprotective effect of hydrocolloids under their test conditions [79,80]. According to the second mechanism of hydrocolloid action, the diffusion characteristics of water and solutes are restricted within their network, and free water is held as the water of hydration around the polysaccharide structure. The reason underlying this mechanism is the ability of hydrocolloids to form cryogel as a result of heat shock. It has been found that a certain firmness and flexibility of the gel is needed to exert a strong opposing force for ice front propagation. On the other hand, some non‐gelling stabilizers (xanthan, CMC, and alginate) were more effective in retarding recrystallization than gelling stabilizers (gelatin, carrageenan, and LBG) [78]. It was suggested that the cryoprotective functionality of hydrocolloids may originate from some mechanisms other than steric blocking of the interface or inhibition of solute transport to and from the ice interface caused by their gelation. The incompatibility of hydrocolloids and proteins is considered as the third mechanism, which provokes phase separation and may contribute to retarding recrystallization. Such inhibitory effects of hydrocolloids on ice crystal growth may be enhanced as their concentration increases.

Ice creams with different stabilizer systems (basil seed gum and CMC–guar gum blend) were subjected to heat shock by BahramParvar and Goff [58]. They used the values of the ice crystal equivalent diameter at 50% of the cumulative distribution (X50) and slope at these X50 values to determine the ice crystal size distributions. There was no significant difference between the ice crystal size of the samples with and without stabilizer after hardening, while temperature cycling significantly increased the ice crystal size. The lowest values of ice crystal size and the highest values of slope at X50 after heat shock were found in ice creams with basil seed gum, which indicates that this novel hydrocolloid is able to reduce the rate of ice crystal growth after temperature cycling (Table 21.5), although a contrary result was observed in samples containing CMC–guar gum blend. The authors also explained that ice crystal growth diminished from 127.4% to 102.3% as the concentration of basil seed gum increased from 0.1% to 0.2% [58]. These findings were confirmed by cryo‐scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations (Figures 21.3 and 21.4), which show the microstructure of ice creams without or with (0.1% and 0.2%) stabilizer before and after temperature cycling, respectively. Similar results were also obtained by Yuennan et al. [61], who evaluated the effects of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on ice recrystallization and stated that the ice crystal growth of samples decreased significantly (from 132.3% to 32.0%) upon either adding stabilizers or increasing their concentration (Table 21.5). In addition, the cryoprotectant effect of okra polysaccharide, a new hydrocolloid, was comparable with that of guar gum, a commercial hydrocolloid, at a concentration of 0.15%.

Table 21.5 Ice crystal growth (%) of ice creams containing new hydrocolloid stabilizers.

Stabilizers Ice crystal growth (%) Reference
167.7 [58]
0.1% Basil seed gum 127.4
0.1% Carboxymethylcellulose/guar gum 176.3
0.2% Basil seed gum 102.3
0.2% Carboxymethylcellulose/guar gum 185.5
132.3 [61]
0.15% Guar gum 84
0.15% Okra cell wall 107.9
0.30% Okra cell wall  86.1
0.45% Okra cell wall  66.4
0.15% Okra polysaccharide  87.6
0.30% Okra polysaccharide  59.8
0.45% Okra polysaccharide  32.0
Image described by caption.

Figure 21.3 Microstructure of ice cream samples without stabilizer (F1) and containing 0.1% basil seed gum (F2), 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose/guar (F3), 0.2% BSG (F4), or 0.2% carboxymethylcellulose/guar (F5) after hardening.

Source: Adapted from BahramParvar and Goff [58] with permission from Springer.

Image described by caption.

Figure 21.4 Microstructure of ice cream samples without stabilizer (F1) and containing 0.1% basil seed gum (F2), 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose/guar (F3), 0.2% BSG (F4), or 0.2% carboxymethylcellulose/guar (F5) after temperature cycling.

Source: Adapted from BahramParvar and Goff [58] with permission from Springer.

21.4 Conclusions

Ice cream is a structurally complex system that is mostly affected by the nature and concentration of mix ingredients such as a stabilizer and milk fat. A study of the literature shows that hydrocolloid stabilizers are able to bind a high amount of water and enhance the viscosity of the unfrozen phase of ice cream, contribute to acceptable meltdown, and improve the body, texture, mouthfeel, and heat‐shock resistance resulting from their hydrophilicity, high molecular weight, and highly branched structure. In this chapter, potential applications of novel hydrocolloids in ice cream have been discussed. It is deduced that the choice of hydrocolloids should be based on their functions. In this regard, some new sources of hydrocolloids can act as a thickener, stabilizer, fat replacer, and/or cryoprotectant in ice cream, with results that are comparable with those of commercial gums. Furthermore, basil seed gum can mimic flow properties and some physical and sensory attributes, especially creaminess, in a similar manner as milk fat. From the effects of studied novel hydrocolloids on ice cream characteristics that have been established, it can be concluded that these sources are potential ingredients for ice cream development.

21.5 Future Trends

As discussed in this chapter, the functional properties of emerging natural hydrocolloids in regular, light, and low‐fat ice cream formulations have been identified in recent years. However, it is important to understand the structure–function relationship in these functional agents. Therefore, we believe that the evaluation of new hydrocolloids individually, together, or in combination with commercial hydrocolloids in model systems of ice cream and frozen desserts, under different processing and storage conditions, should be a major topic for future studies. When the mechanisms behind the functions become known, it will be possible to propose scientifically based recommendations for choosing the amount and type of suitable hydrocolloids, which have received little attention up to now. In addition, more work is necessary to show whether the positive results obtained on a laboratory scale can be transferred to pilot‐plant and industrial scales. However, there must be a market driver to provide a financial incentive for producers to use new sources of hydrocolloids in ice cream and frozen desserts.


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