Images Wireless Security and Mobile Devices

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App stores and mobile apps are the greatest hostile code and malware delivery mechanism ever created.

—WINN SCHWARTAU

In this chapter, you will learn how to

Images   Describe the different wireless systems in use today

Images   Identify 802.11’s security issues and possible solutions

Images   Learn about wireless configuration and deployment

Images   Learn about the different types of wireless attacks

Images   Examine the security of mobile systems

Wireless is increasingly the way people access the Internet. Because wireless access is considered a consumer benefit, many businesses have added wireless access points to lure customers into their shops. With the rollout of fifth-generation (5G) high-speed cellular networks, mobile devices are connected via the Internet for virtually any content type. The massive growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices has contributed to this data-rich environment that is made possible by wireless networks.

As wireless use increases, the security of the wireless protocols has become a more important factor in the security of the entire network. As a security professional, you need to understand wireless network applications because of the risks inherent in broadcasting a network signal where anyone can intercept it. Sending unsecured information across public airwaves is tantamount to posting your company’s passwords by the front door of the building. This chapter opens with a look at several current wireless protocols and their security features. The chapter finishes with an examination of mobile systems and their security concerns.

Images Connection Methods and Receivers

Mobile devices, by their mobile nature, require a nonwired means of connection to a network. Typically, this connection on the enterprise side is via the Internet, but on the mobile device side a wide range of options exist for connectivity. Where and how mobile devices connect to a network are manageable by the enterprise in architecting the mobile connection aspect of their wireless network. This section will cover the common methods of connecting, including cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC, infrared, and USB. The connection methods of point-to-point and point-to-multipoint are also explained. Specialized receivers, such as GPS and RFID, are covered at the end of the section.

Cellular

Cellular connections use mobile telephony circuits, today typically fourth-generation (4G) or LTE in nature, although some 3G services still exist. One of the strengths of cellular is that robust nationwide networks have been deployed, making strong signals available virtually anywhere with reasonable population density. The corresponding weakness is that gaps in cellular service still exist in remote areas.

As this book is being written, the telecommunication world is moving to 5G, the newest form of cellular. This change will occur in densely populated areas first and then move across the globe. 5G is more than just a newer, faster network; it is a redesign to improve network communications through greater throughput, lower latency, better quality-of-service controls, and service differentiations. It is also designed to handle streaming video downloads, standard audio calls, and data transfers from a myriad of smaller Internet of Things devices, all with appropriate service levels. 5G will enable network services that facilitate the move to widespread data connectivity and transfers over the cellular networks. 5G is much more than just a better cellphone; it is the network for the data connectivity era.

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi refers to the radio communication methods developed under the Wi-Fi Alliance. These systems exist on 2.4GHz and 5GHz frequency spectrums, and networks are constructed by both the enterprise you are associated with and third parties. This communication methodology is ubiquitous with computing platforms and is relatively easy to implement and secure. Securing Wi-Fi networks is covered later in the chapter. In 2021, a new range in the 6GHz spectrum in the U.S. will be used by Wi-Fi 6E devices, offering even greater throughput. As this is a new radio frequency, it will take new hardware to utilize this addition. The hardware is scheduled to be released in 2021.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a short-to-medium-range, low-power wireless protocol that transmits in the 2.4GHz band, the same band used for 802.11. The original concept for this short-range (approx. 32 feet) wireless protocol is to transmit data in personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth transmits and receives data from a variety of devices, the most common being mobile phones, laptops, printers, and audio devices. The mobile phone has driven a lot of Bluetooth growth and has even spread Bluetooth into new cars as a mobile phone hands-free kit. Advances in transmitter power, antenna gain, and operating environment uses have expanded the range up to 3800 meters in some outdoor applications.

Bluetooth has gone through several releases. Version 1.1 was the first commercially successful version, with version 1.2 released in 2007 and correcting some of the problems found in 1.1. Version 1.2 allows speeds up to 721 Kbps and improves resistance to interference. Version 1.2 is backward-compatible with version 1.1. With the rate of advancement and the life of most tech items, Bluetooth 1 series is basically extinct. Bluetooth 2.0 introduced enhanced data rate (EDR), which allows the transmission of up to 3.0 Mbps. Bluetooth 3.0 has the capability to use an 802.11 channel to achieve speeds up to 24 Mbps. The current version is the Bluetooth 4.0 standard, with support for three modes: classic, high speed, and Low Energy.

Bluetooth 4 introduced a new method to support collecting data from devices that generate data at a very low rate. Some devices, such as medical devices, may only collect and transmit data at low rates. This feature, called Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), was designed to aggregate data from various sensors, like heart rate monitors, thermometers, and so forth, and it carries the commercial name Bluetooth Smart. Bluetooth 5 continues the improvements of BLE, increasing its data rate and range.

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Tech Tip

Bluetooth Security

Bluetooth should always have discoverable mode turned off unless you’re deliberately pairing a device.

As Bluetooth became popular, people started trying to find holes in it. Bluetooth features easy configuration of devices to allow communication, with no need for network addresses or ports. Bluetooth uses pairing to establish a trust relationship between devices. To establish that trust, the devices advertise capabilities and require a passkey. To help maintain security, most devices require the passkey to be entered into both devices; this prevents a “default passkey” type of attack. The Bluetooth’s protocol advertisement of services and pairing properties is where some of the security issues start. Bluetooth should always have discoverable mode turned off unless you’re deliberately pairing a device. Table 12.1 displays Bluetooth versions and speeds.

Table 12.1  Bluetooth Versions, Range, and Speed

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In the Bluetooth 5.x versions, different data rates correspond to differing ranges with higher rates at lower ranges supporting more data rich devices, and lower rates having longer ranges to support lower-data-rate IoT devices. Bluetooth 5 uses a different frequency spectrum, requiring new hardware and limiting backward compatibility, but it is designed for local networks of the future with low power consumption, inexpensive hardware, small implementations, and scalable data rate versus range considerations.

NFC

Near field communication (NFC) is a set of wireless technologies that enables smartphones and other devices to establish radio communication when they are within close proximity to each other—typically a distance of 10 cm (3.9 in) or less. This technology did not see much use until recently when it started being employed to move data between cell phones and in mobile payment systems. NFC is likely to become a high-use technology in the years to come as multiple uses exist for the technology, and the next generation of smartphones is sure to include this as a standard function. Currently, NFC relies to a great degree on its very short range for security, although apps that use it have their own security mechanisms as well.

Infrared

Infrared (IR) is a band of electromagnetic energy just beyond the red end of the visible color spectrum. IR has been used in remote-control devices for years. IR made its debut in computer networking as a wireless method to connect to printers. Now that wireless keyboards, wireless mice, and mobile devices exchange data via IR, it seems to be everywhere. IR can also be used to connect devices in a network configuration, but it is slow compared to other wireless technologies. IR cannot penetrate walls but instead bounces off them. Nor can it penetrate other solid objects; therefore, if you stack a few items in front of the transceiver, the signal is lost. Because IR can be seen by all in range, any desired security must be on top of the base transmission mechanism.

USB

Universal Serial Bus (USB) has become the ubiquitous standard for connecting devices with cables. Mobile phones can transfer data and charge their battery via USB. Laptops, desktops, even servers have USB ports for a variety of data connection needs. Many devices, such as phones, tablets, routers, and IoT devices, also use USB ports, albeit many are moving to the newer smaller USB type C connector. USB ports have greatly expanded users’ ability to connect devices to their computers. USB ports automatically recognize a device being plugged into the system and usually work without the user needing to add drivers or configure software. This has spawned a legion of USB devices, from music players to peripherals to storage devices—virtually anything that can consume or deliver data connects via USB.

The most interesting of these devices, for security purposes, are the USB flash memory–based storage devices. USB drive keys, which are basically flash memory with a USB interface in a device typically about the size of your thumb, provide a way to move files easily from computer to computer. When plugged into a USB port, these devices automount and behave like any other drive attached to the computer. Their small size and relatively large capacity, coupled with instant read-write ability, present security problems. They can easily be used by an individual with malicious intent to conceal the removal of files or data from the building or to bring malicious files into the building and onto the company network.

USB connectors come in a wide range of sizes and shapes. For mobile use there is USB mini, USB micro, and now USB Type-C, which is faster and reversible (does not care which side is up). There are also Type-A and Type-B connectors, with different form factors. The original USB provided data rates up to 480 Mbps, with USB 3.0 raising it to 5 Gbps, 3.1 raising it to 10 Gbps, and 3.2 raising it to 20 Gbps. USB 4 provides speeds up to 40 Gbps.

Point-to-Point

Radio signals travel outward from an antenna and eventually are received by a receiving antenna. Point-to-point communications are defined as communications with one endpoint on each end. An example would be a single transmitter talking to a single receiver. This terminology transferred to networking, where a communication channel between two entities in isolation is referred to as point-to-point. Examples of point-to-point communications include Bluetooth, where this is mandated by protocol, and USB, where it is mandated by physical connections.

Point-to-Multipoint

Point-to-multipoint communications have multiple receivers for a transmitted signal. When a packet is sent to a broadcast address, it has multiple receivers and is called a point-to-multipoint communication. Most radio-based and networked systems are potentially point-to-multipoint, from a single transmitter to multiple receivers, limited only by protocols.

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A point-to-point connection is between two devices (one to one) while a point-to-multipoint connection is one (device) to many (devices).

Global Positioning System (GPS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a series of satellites that provide nearly global coverage of highly precise time signals, which when multiple signals are combined can produce precise positional data in all three dimensions. GPS receivers, operating in the 6GHz band, are small, cheap, and have been added to numerous mobile devices, becoming nearly ubiquitous. The ability to have precise time, precise location, and, given differential math, speed has transformed many mobile device capabilities. GPS enables geolocation, geofencing, and a whole host of other capabilities.

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags are used in a wide range of use cases. From tracking devices to tracking keys, the unique serialization of these remotely sensible devices has made them useful in a wide range of applications. RFID tags come in several different forms and can be classified as either active or passive. Active tags have a power source, whereas passive tags utilize the RF energy transmitted to them for power. RFID tags are used as a means of identification and have the advantage over bar codes in that they do not have to be visible, just within radio wave range—typically centimeters to 200 meters, depending on tag type. RFID tags are used in a range of security situations, including contactless identification systems such as smart cards.

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The various mobile device connection methods are conducive to performance-based questions, which means you need to pay attention to the scenario presented and choose the best connection methodology. Consider data rate, purpose, distances, and so forth in picking the best choice.

SATCOM

SATCOM (Satellite Communications) is the use of terrestrial transmitters and receivers and satellites in orbit to transfer the signals. SATCOM can be one-way, as in satellite radio, but for most communications two-way signals are needed. Satellites are expensive, and for high-density urban areas, both cost and line-of-sight issues make SATCOM a more costly option. However, in rural and remote areas as well as mobile areas such as at sea, SATCOM is one of the only options for communications. With the advent of SpaceX’s Starlink satellite-based Internet service, the fulfillment of global, affordable communications using satellites may finally happen. It is still too early to know for sure, but in the next couple of years this technology may become commonplace, especially for rural and remote users.

Images Wireless Protocols

Several different wireless bands are in common use today, the most common of which is the Wi-Fi series, referring to the 802.11 Wireless LAN standards certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Another set of bands is WiMAX, which refers to the set of 802.16 wireless network standards ratified by the WiMAX Forum. Lastly, there is Zigbee, a low-power, personal area networking technology described by the IEEE 802.15.4 series.

IEEE 802.11 is a family of protocols instead of a single specification. Table 12.2 provides a summary of the 802.11 family. The standard launched a range of products (such as wireless routers, an example of which is shown in Figure 12.1) that would open the way to a whole new genre of possibilities for attackers and a new series of headaches for security administrators everywhere. 802.11 was a new standard for sending packetized data traffic over radio waves in the unlicensed 2.4GHz band.

Table 12.2  The IEEE 802.11 Family

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Figure 12.1 A common wireless router

This group of IEEE standards is also called Wi-Fi, which is a certification owned by an industry group, the Wi-Fi Alliance. A device marked as Wi-Fi Certified adheres to the standards of the alliance. As the products matured and became easy to use and affordable, security experts began to deconstruct the limited security that had been built into the standard.

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Tech Tip

What Is Wi-Fi 4? Wi-Fi 5? Wi-Fi 6?

For consumers, the IEEE naming scheme for wireless standards is confusing and has details most do not care about. To simplify marketing, the Wi-Fi Alliance has introduced some simpler names: Wi-Fi 4, Wi-Fi 5, and Wi-Fi 6. The main purpose is to make it easier to match endpoints and routers for consumers.

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Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) is a modulation type that spreads the traffic sent over the entire bandwidth. It does this by injecting a noise-like signal into the information stream and transmitting the normally narrowband information over the wider band available. The primary reason that spread-spectrum technology is used in 802.11 protocols is to avoid interference on the public 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technology is a method for multiplying the capacity of a radio link using multiple transmission and receiving antennas to exploit multipath propagation. MIMO is a practical technique for sending and receiving more than one data signal simultaneously over the same radio channel by exploiting multipath propagation of the radio waves. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) multiplexes, or separates, the data to be transmitted into smaller chunks and then transmits the chunks on several subchannels. This use of subchannels is what the “frequency division” portion of the name refers to. Both of these techniques, multiplexing and frequency division, are used to avoid interference. Orthogonal refers to the manner in which the subchannels are assigned—principally to avoid crosstalk, or interference, with your own channels. The latest versions of the 802.11 series, ax, introduces multi-user versions of OFDM and MIMO. Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is a multiuser version of the popular OFDM digital modulation scheme, and MU-MIMO is multiuser MIMO. Both of these were designed to facilitate multiple users in Wi-Fi dense locations, increasing the capacity of 802.11ax signals.

802.11: Individual Standards

The 802.11b protocol provides for multiple-rate Ethernet over 2.4GHz spread-spectrum wireless. The most common layout is a point-to-multipoint environment, with the available bandwidth being shared by all users. The typical range is roughly 100 yards indoors and 300 yards outdoors, line of sight. 802.11a uses a higher band and has a higher bandwidth. It operates in the 5GHz spectrum using OFDM. Supporting rates of up to 54 Mbps, it is the faster brother of 802.11b; however, the higher frequency used by 802.11a shortens the usable range of the devices and makes it incompatible with 802.11b. The 802.11g standard uses portions of both of the other standards: it uses the 2.4GHz band for greater range but uses the OFDM transmission method to achieve the faster 54Mbps data rates. Because it uses the 2.4GHz band, this standard interoperates with the older 802.11b standard. This allows older 802.11g access points (APs) to give access to both “g” and “b” clients.

The 802.11n version improves on the older standards by greatly increasing speed. It has a functional data rate of up to 600 Mbps, gained through the use of wider bands and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) processing. MIMO uses multiple antennas and can bond separate channels together to increase data throughput. 802.11ax is the latest in the 5GHz band, with functional data rates up to a theoretical 11+ Gbps using multiple antennas. The 802.11ac standard was ratified in 2014, and chipsets have been available since late 2011. 802.11ac is designed for multimedia streaming and other high-bandwidth operations, the individual channels are twice the width of 802.11n channels, and as many as eight antennas can be deployed in a MU-MIMO form. 802.11ax was designed to use higher-efficiency encoding methods and radio methods to improve the capability over 802.11ac. Called high efficiency wireless by many in marketing, the ax standard is designed for signal dense environments such as major gatherings.

All these protocols operate in bands that are “unlicensed” by the FCC. This means that people operating this equipment do not have to be certified by the FCC, but it also means that the devices could possibly share the band with other devices, such as cordless phones, closed-circuit TV (CCTV) wireless transceivers, and other similar equipment. This other equipment can cause interference with the 802.11 equipment, possibly causing speed degradation.

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The 2.4GHz band is commonly used by many household devices that are constantly on, such as cordless phones. It is also the frequency used by microwave ovens to heat food. So if you are having intermittent interference on your Wi-Fi LAN, check to see if the microwave is on.

WEP

The designers of the 802.11 protocol also attempted to maintain confidentiality by introducing Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), which uses a cipher to encrypt the data as it is transmitted through the air. WEP has been shown to have an implementation problem that can be exploited to break security. WEP encrypts the data traveling across the network with an RC4 stream cipher, attempting to ensure confidentiality. (The details of the RC4 cipher are covered in Chapter 5.) This synchronous method of encryption ensures some method of authentication. The system depends on the client and the AP having a shared secret key, ensuring that only authorized people with the proper key have access to the wireless network. WEP supports two key lengths, 40 and 104 bits, though these are more typically referred to as 64 and 128 bits. In 802.11a and 802.11g, manufacturers extended this to 152-bit WEP keys. This is because in all cases, 24 bits of the overall key length are used for the initialization vector (IV).

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Tech Tip

WEP Isn’t Equivalent, or Private

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) should not be trusted alone to provide confidentiality. If WEP is the only protocol supported by your AP, place your AP outside the corporate firewall and VPN to add more protection.

The biggest weakness of WEP is that the IV problem exists, regardless of key length, because the IV always remains at 24 bits, and IVs can frequently be repeated due to the limited size. Most APs also have the ability to lock in access only to known MAC addresses, providing a limited authentication capability. Given sniffers’ capacity to grab all active MAC addresses on the network, this capability is not very effective. An attacker simply configures their wireless cards to a known-good MAC address.

Current Security Methods

WEP was designed to provide some measure of confidentiality on an 802.11 network, similar to what is found on a wired network, but that has not been the case. Accordingly, the Wi-Fi Alliance developed Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) to improve upon WEP. The 802.11i standard is the IEEE standard for security in wireless networks, also known as Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2). The 802.11i standard specifies the use of the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) and uses AES with the Counter Mode with CBC-MAC Protocol (in full, the Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining–Message Authentication Codes Protocol, or simply CCMP). These two protocols have different functions, but they both serve to enhance security.

TKIP is used for backward compatibility with draft 802.11i implementation and WPA standards, and it works by using a shared secret combined with the card’s MAC address to generate a new key, which is mixed with the IV to make per-packet keys that encrypt a single packet using the same RC4 cipher used by traditional WEP. This overcomes the WEP key weakness, as a key is used on only one packet. The other advantage to this method is that it can be retrofitted to current hardware with only a software change, unlike AES and 802.1X. CCMP is actually the mode in which the AES cipher is used to provide message integrity. Unlike TKIP, CCMP requires new hardware to perform the AES encryption. The advances of 802.11i have corrected the weaknesses of WEP.

WPA

The first standard to be used in the market to replace WEP was Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). This standard uses the flawed WEP algorithm with the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). WPA also introduced a message integrity check (MIC) that is known by the name Michael.

Whereas WEP uses a 40-bit or 104-bit encryption key that must be manually entered on wireless access points and devices and does not change, TKIP employs a per-packet key, generating a new 128-bit key for each packet. This can generally be accomplished with only a firmware update, enabling a simple solution to the types of attacks that compromise WEP.

WPA also suffers from a lack of forward secrecy protection. If the WPA key is known, as in a public Wi-Fi password, then an attacker can collect all the packets from all of the connections and decrypt those packets later. This is why, when using public Wi-Fi, one should always use a secondary means of protection—either a VPN or a TLS-based solution to protect their content.

TKIP

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) was created as a stopgap security measure to replace the WEP protocol without requiring the replacement of legacy hardware. The breaking of WEP had left Wi-Fi networks without viable link-layer security, and a solution was required for already deployed hardware. TKIP works by mixing a secret root key with the IV before the RC4 encryption. WPA/TKIP uses the same underlying mechanism as WEP, and consequently is vulnerable to a number of similar attacks. TKIP is no longer considered secure and has been deprecated with the release of WPA2.

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TKIP is an integrity check; AES is an encryption algorithm.

Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)

IEEE 802.11i is the standard for security in wireless networks and is also known as Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2). It uses 802.1X to provide authentication and uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as the encryption protocol. WPA2 uses the AES block cipher, a significant improvement over WEP and WPA’s use of the RC4 stream cipher. WPA2 specifies the use of the Counter Mode with CBC-MAC Protocol (in full, the Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining–Message Authentication Codes Protocol, or simply CCMP). CCMP is described later in this chapter.

While WPA2 addressed the flaws in WPA and was the de facto standard for many years on wireless networks that were serious about security, it too fell to a series of issues, leading to the development of WPA3. WPA2 comes with a variety of methods to set up the shared key elements, and those are described later in the chapter. The WPA2-Personal passphrase can be cracked using brute force attacks. Even worse, once a hacker captures the data from the airwaves, the actual password cracking can occur offline on a more powerful, dedicated machine. Any encrypted messages they recorded can then be decrypted later, thus yielding passwords and other sensitive data.

WPA2 comes in two flavors: WPA2-Personal and WPA2-Enterprise. WPA2-Personal is also called WPA2-PSK because it uses authentication based on a pre-shared key (PSK), which allows home users without an enterprise authentication server to manage the keys. To use WPA2-PSK on a network, the router is given the pre-shared key, typically a plain-English passphrase between 8 and 63 characters long. WPA2-Personal then uses TKIP to combine that passphrase with the network Service Set Identifier (SSID) to generate unique encryption keys for each wireless client. WPA2-Enterprise replaces the pre-shared key with IEEE 802.1X, which is discussed in its own section later in this chapter. By eliminating the PSK element, WPA2-Enterprise can create stronger keys, and the information is not subject to capture.

In WPA2, an attacker can record the 4-way handshake between a client and the access point and use this data to crack the password. This will then crack all the keys that have been used or will be used in the future. Because of the ability to break future messages based on past messages, forward secrecy is not provided by WPA2.

WPS

Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a network security standard that was created to provide users with an easy method of configuring wireless networks. Designed for home networks and small business networks, this standard involves the use of an eight-digit PIN to configure wireless devices. WPS consists of a series of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) messages and has been shown to be susceptible to brute force attack. A successful attack can reveal the PIN and subsequently the WPA/WPA2 passphrase and allow unauthorized parties to gain access to the network. Currently, the only effective mitigation is to disable WPS.

Setting Up WPA2

If WPS is not safe for use, how does one set up WPA2? To set up WPA2, you need to have several parameters. Figure 12.2 shows the screens for a WPA2 setup in Windows.

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Figure 12.2 WPA2 setup options in Windows

The first element is to choose a security framework. When configuring an adapter to connect to an existing network, you need to match the choice of the network. When setting up your own network, you can choose whichever option you prefer. There are many selections, but for security purposes, you should choose WPA2-Personal or WPA2-Enterprise. Both of these require the choice of an encryption type, either TKIP or AES. TKIP has been deprecated, so choose AES. The last element is the choice of the network security key—the secret that is shared by all users. WPA2-Enterprise, which is designed to be used with an 802.1X authentication server that distributes different keys to each user, is typically used in business environments.

PSK vs. Enterprise vs. Open System

When building out a wireless network, you must decide how you are going to employ security on the network. Specifically, the questions need to be addressed with respect to who will be allowed to connect, and what level of protection will be provided in the transmission of data between mobile devices and the access point.

Both WPA and WPA2, discussed in detail earlier in the chapter, have two methods to establish a connection: PSK and Enterprise. PSK stands for pre-shared key, which is exactly what it sounds like—a secret that has to be shared between users. A PSK is typically entered as a passphrase of up to 63 characters. This key must be securely shared between users, as it is the basis of the security provided by the protocol. The PSK is converted to a 256-bit key that is then used to secure all communications between the device and access point. PSK has one particular vulnerability: simple and short PSKs are at risk of brute force attempts. Keeping them at least 20 random characters long should mitigate this attack vector. Table 12.3 illustrates the differences between WAP and WPA2.

Table 12.3  WPA and WPA2 Compared

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In Enterprise mode, the devices use IEEE 802.1X and a RADIUS authentication server to enable a connection. This method allows the use of usernames and passwords and provides enterprise-class options such as NAC integration, multiple random keys, and the same PSK for everyone.

In WEP-based systems, there are two options: Open System authentication and shared key authentication. Open System authentication is not truly authentication—it is merely a sharing of a secret key based on the SSID. The process is simple: First, the mobile client matches the SSID with the access point and requests a key (called authentication) to the access point. Then the access point generates an authentication code (the key, as there is no specific authentication of the client), which is a random number intended for use only during that session. The mobile client uses the authentication code and joins the network. The session continues until disassociation either by request or loss of signal.

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In practice, you will encounter the differences between PSK, Enterprise, and Open System authentication.

Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 (WPA3)

Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 (WPA3) is the successor to WPA2. Developed in 2018, it strives to resolve the weaknesses found in WPA2. WPA3 improves the security of the encryption by using Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) in place of the PSK authentication method used in prior WPA versions. SAE is described in detail later in this chapter. This change allows WPA3-Personal networks to employ simple passphrases that are significantly more time consuming to break than was the case with WPA/WPA2.

WPA3-Enterprise brings a whole host of upgrades, including 192-bit minimum-strength security protocols and cryptographic tools such as the following:

Images   Authenticated encryption  256-bit Galois/Counter Mode Protocol (GCMP-256)

Images   Key derivation and confirmation  384-bit Hashed Message Authentication Mode (HMAC) with Secure Hash Algorithm (HMAC-SHA-384)

Images   Key establishment and authentication  Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) exchange and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) using a 384-bit elliptic curve

Images   Robust management frame protection  256-bit Broadcast/Multicast Integrity Protocol Galois Message Authentication Code (BIP-GMAC-256)

WPA3 integrates with the back-end enterprise authentication infrastructure, such as a RADIUS server. It can use elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman exchanges and elliptic curve Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) protocols to provide a method of strong authentication. The WPA3 protocol makes use of a Quick Response (QR) code for users to connect their devices to the “Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Easy Connect” network, which allows them to scan a QR code on a device with their smartphone. WPA3 offers forward secrecy based on its method of encryption; previous messages do not enable future decryption.

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WPA2 uses pre-shared keys; WPA3 does not. If SAE is used, it is for WPA3-level authentication. Forward secrecy is only provided by WPA3.

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It is important to see the history of security protocol failures in Wi-Fi to understand the challenges and to help prevent repeating obvious failure modes. This lesson was not heeded in WEP and WAP, forcing a lot of changes to get to WPA3 today.

Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE)

Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) is a password-based key exchange method developed for mesh networks. Defined in RFC 7664, it uses the Dragonfly protocol to perform a key exchange and is secure against passive monitoring. SAE is not a new protocol; it has been around for more than a decade, but its incorporation as part of enterprise-level wireless protocols is relatively new. It is well suited for this because it creates a cryptographically strong shared secret for securing other data. Because of its zero-knowledge key generation method, it is resistant to active, passive, and dictionary attacks. As a peer-to-peer protocol, it does not rely on other parties, so it is an alternative to using certificates or a centralized authority for authentication. To configure SAE, you must set the security parameter k to a value of at least 40, per the recommendation in RFC 7664, “Dragonfly Key Exchange,” for all groups to prevent timing leaks.

Authentication Protocols

Wireless networks have a need for secure authentication protocols. The following authentication protocols should be understood for the Security+ exam: EAP, PEAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, IEEE 802.1X, and RADIUS from the RADIUS Federation.

EAP

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is defined in RFC 2284 (obsoleted by 3748). EAP-TLS relies on Transport Layer Security (TLS), an attempt to standardize the SSL structure to pass credentials. EAP-TTLS (the acronym stands for EAP–Tunneled TLS protocol) is a variant of the EAP-TLS protocol. EAP-TTLS works much the same way as EAP-TLS, with the server authenticating to the client with a certificate, but the protocol tunnels the client side of the authentication, allowing the use of legacy authentication protocols such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), MS-CHAP, and MS-CHAP v2.

LEAP

Cisco designed a proprietary version of EAP known as Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP); however, this is being phased out for newer protocols such as PEAP and EAP-TLS. Because it is susceptible to offline password guessing, and because tools are available that actively break LEAP security, this protocol has been deprecated in favor of stronger methods of EAP.

PEAP

PEAP, or Protected EAP, was developed to protect the EAP communication by encapsulating it with TLS. This is an open standard developed jointly by Cisco, Microsoft, and RSA. EAP was designed assuming a secure communication channel. PEAP provides that protection as part of the protocol via a TLS tunnel. PEAP is widely supported by vendors for use over wireless networks.

EAP-FAST

The Wi-Fi Alliance added EAP-FAST to its list of supported protocols for WPA/WPA2 in 2010. EAP-FAST is EAP–Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling, which is described in RFC-4851 and proposed by Cisco to be a replacement for LEAP, a previous Cisco version of EAP. It offers a lightweight, tunneling protocol to enable authentication. The distinguishing characteristic is the passing of a Protected Access Credential (PAC) that’s used to establish a TLS tunnel through which client credentials are verified.

EAP-TLS

The Wi-Fi Alliance also added EAP-TLS to its list of supported protocols for WPA/WPA2 in 2010. EAP-TLS is an IETF open standard (RFC 5216) that uses the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol to secure the authentication process. This is still considered one of the most secure implementations, primarily because common implementations employ client-side certificates. This means that an attacker must also possess the key for the client-side certificate to break the TLS channel.

EAP-TTLS

The Wi-Fi Alliance also added EAP-TTLS to its list of supported protocols for WPA/WPA2 in 2010. EAP-TTLS is an extension of TLS called Tunneled TLS. In EAP-TTLS, the authentication process is protected by the tunnel from man-in-the-middle attacks, and although client certificates can be used, they are not required, making this easier to set up than EAP-TLS for clients without certificates.

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You need to know two key elements concerning EAP. First, it is only a framework to secure the authentication process, not an actual encryption method. Second, many variants exist, and understanding the differences between EAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, and EAP-TTLS is important when using these methods.

Implementing 802.1X

The IEEE 802.1X protocol can support a wide variety of authentication methods and also fits well into existing authentication systems such as RADIUS and LDAP. This allows 802.1X to interoperate well with other systems such as VPNs and dial-up RAS. Unlike other authentication methods, such as the Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE), 802.1X does not use encapsulation, so the network overhead is much lower. Unfortunately, the protocol is just a framework for providing implementation, so no specifics guarantee strong authentication or key management. Implementations of the protocol vary from vendor to vendor in method of implementation and strength of security, especially when it comes to the difficult test of wireless security.

Three common methods are used to implement 802.1X: EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, and EAP-MD5. EAP-TLS relies on TLS, an attempt to standardize the SSL structure to pass credentials. The standard, developed by Microsoft, uses X.509 certificates and offers dynamic WEP key generation. This means that the organization must have the ability to support the public key infrastructure (PKI) in the form of X.509 digital certificates. Also, per-user, per-session dynamically generated WEP keys help prevent anyone from cracking the WEP keys in use, as each user individually has their own WEP key. Even if a user were logged onto the AP and transmitted enough traffic to allow cracking of the WEP key, access would be gained only to that user’s traffic. No other user’s data would be compromised, and the attacker could not use the WEP key to connect to the AP. This standard authenticates the client to the AP, but it also authenticates the AP to the client, helping to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks. The main problem with the EAP-TLS protocol is that it is designed to work only with Microsoft’s Active Directory and Certificate Services; it will not take certificates from other certificate issuers. Thus, a mixed environment would have implementation problems.

As discussed earlier, EAP-TTLS works much the same way as EAP-TLS, with the server authenticating to the client with a certificate, but the protocol tunnels the client side of the authentication, allowing the use of legacy authentication protocols such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), MS-CHAP, and MS-CHAP v2. This makes the protocol more versatile while still supporting the enhanced security features, such as dynamic WEP key assignment.

RADIUS Federation

Using a series of RADIUS servers in a federated connection has been employed in several worldwide RADIUS Federation networks. One example is the EDUROAM project that connects users of education institutions worldwide. The process is relatively simple in concept, although the technical details to maintain the hierarchy of RADIUS servers and routing tables is daunting at worldwide scale. A user packages their credentials at a local access point using a certificate-based tunneling protocol method. The first RADIUS server determines which RADIUS server to send the request to, and from there the user is authenticated via their home RADIUS server and the results passed back, permitting a joining to the network.

Because the credentials must pass multiple different networks, the EAP methods are limited to those with certificates and credentials to prevent loss of credentials during transit. This type of federated identity at global scale demonstrates the power of RADIUS and EAP methods.

Counter Mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP)

CCMP stands for Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining–Message Authentication Code Protocol (or Counter Mode with CBC-MAC Protocol). CCMP is a data encapsulation encryption mechanism designed for wireless use. CCMP is actually the mode in which the AES cipher is used to provide message integrity. Unlike WPA/TKIP, WPA2/CCMP requires new hardware to perform the AES encryption.

Images Wireless Systems Configuration

Wireless systems are more than just protocols. Putting up a functional wireless system in a house is as easy as plugging in a wireless access point and connecting. However, in an enterprise, where multiple access points will be needed, the configuration takes significantly more work. Site surveys are needed to determine proper access point and antenna placement, as well as channels and power levels.

Access Point

Wi-Fi access points are the point of entry for radio-based network signals into and out of a network. As wireless has become more capable in all aspects of networking, wireless-based networks are replacing cabled or wired solutions. In this scenario, one could consider the access point to be one half of a NIC, with the other half being the wireless card in a host.

Wireless access points can operate in several different modes, depending upon the unit capability and the need of the network. The most common mode, and the one all access points support, is normal mode. This is where the access point provides a point of connection from the wireless network to the wired network. A separate mode, bridged mode, allows an access point to communicate directly with another access point. This allows the extension of a wireless LAN over greater distance. A repeater mode is similar in that it extends the range by working between access points. A bridge mode device allows connections, while a repeater merely acts to extend range.

SSID

The 802.11 protocol designers expected some security concerns and attempted to build provisions into the 802.11 protocol that would ensure adequate security. The 802.11 standard includes attempts at rudimentary authentication and confidentiality controls. Authentication is handled in its most basic form by the 802.11 access point (AP), forcing clients to perform a handshake when attempting to “associate” to the AP.

Association is the process required before the AP will allow the client to talk across the AP to the network. Association occurs only if the client has all the correct parameters needed in the handshake, among them the service set identifier (SSID). This SSID setting should limit access only to the authorized users of the wireless network. The SSID is a phrase-based mechanism that helps ensure you are connecting to the correct AP. This SSID phrase is transmitted in all the access point’s beacon frames. The beacon frame is an 802.11 management frame for the network and contains several different fields, such as the timestamp and beacon interval, but most importantly the SSID. This allows attackers to scan for the beacon frame and retrieve the SSID.

Because multiple WLANs can coexist in one place, each WLAN needs a unique name. The service set identifier (SSID) is the name of the wireless network. A wireless device can see the SSIDs for all available networks, allowing users to select the desired network. For example, suppose your campus wireless network consists of three SSIDs named Student, Faculty, and Guest. This means that the network administrator has created three WLAN service profiles, and this allows different services to be provided by network. SSIDs can be hidden as well, but as they are used as part of the connection process, hiding the SSID will not stop an attacker, only a casual user.

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SSIDs can be set to anything by the person setting up an access point. So, while “FBI Surveillance Van #14” may seem humorous, what about SSIDs with the name of an airport, coffee house, or a hotel? Can you trust them? Because anyone can use any name, the answer is no. So, if you need a secure connection, you should use some form of secure channel such as a VPN for communication security. For even more security, you can carry your own access point and create a wireless channel that you control.

Multiple overlapping access points present a different problem—how do you differentiate them? The identifier for access points is called the basic service set identifier (BSSID), and it too is included in all packets. By convention, an access point’s MAC address is used as the BSSID. When multiple access points are involved, the collective BSSIDs for a given network are referred to as the extended service set (ESS).

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Renaming the SSID and disabling SSID broadcast are not considered to be useful security measures.

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Tech Tip

SSID, ESS, BSSID: What’s in a Name?

Because wireless networks are not bounded by physical items, it is common to have overlapping wireless networks. It is also common to have wireless networks with repeaters to extend system ranges. This leads to the issue of identifying networks when a wireless device is connecting to different access points. This is why we have SSIDs (names for humans) and BSSIDs (identities for machines, or MAC addresses). Figure 12.3 shows what overlapping networks (named Faculty, Student, Guest) and two overlapping access points would look like from a technical point of view. This example can be extended to 32 networks per AP.

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Figure 12.3 Wireless SSIDs and BSSIDs illustrated

Fat vs. Thin

Fat (or thick) access points refer to standalone access points, whereas thin access points refer to controller-based access points. These solutions differ in their handling of common functions such as configuration, encryption, updates, and policy settings. Determining which is more effective requires a closer examination of the differences, as presented in the next section, compared to a site’s needs and budget.

Controller Based vs. Standalone

Small standalone Wi-Fi access points can have substantial capabilities with respect to authentication, encryption, and even, to a degree, channel management. As the wireless deployment grows in size and complexity, there are some advantages to a controller-based access point solution. Controller-based solutions allow for centralized management and control, which can facilitate better channel management for adjacent access points, better load balancing, and easier deployment of patches and firmware updates. From a security standpoint, controller-based solutions offer large advantages in overall network monitoring and security controls. In large-scale environments, controller-based access points can enable network access control based on user identity, thus managing large sets of users in subgroups. Internet access can be blocked for some users (clerks), while internal access can be blocked for others (guests).

Signal Strength

The usability of a wireless signal is directly related to its signal strength. Too weak of a signal, and the connection can drop out or lose data. Signal strength can be influenced by a couple of factors: the transmitting power level and the environment across which the signal is transmitted. In buildings with significant metal in the walls and roofs, additional power may be needed to have sufficient signal strength at the receivers. Wi-Fi power levels can be controlled by the hardware for a variety of reasons. The lower the power used, the less the opportunity for interference. However, if the power levels are too low, then signal strength limits range. Access points can have the power level set either manually or via programmatic control. For most users, power level controls are not very useful, and leaving the unit in default mode is the best option. In complex enterprise setups, with site surveys and planned overlapping zones, this aspect of signal control can be used to increase capacity and control on the network.

Band Selection/Width

Today’s wireless environments employ multiple different bands, each with different bandwidths. Band selection may seem trivial, but with 802.11a, b/g, n, ac, and ax radios, the deployment of access points should support the desired bands based on client needs. Multiband radio access points exist and are commonly employed to resolve these issues. Wi-Fi operates over two different frequencies: 2.4 GHz for b/g and n, and 5 GHz for a, n, and ac. 802.11ax also has the ability to be used in the 6 GHz band, under Wi-Fi 6E, and equipment will be entering the market in 2021 to take advantage of the extended bandwidth.

Antenna Types and Placement

The standard access point is equipped with an omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas operate in all directions, making the relative orientation between devices less important. Omnidirectional antennas cover the greatest area per antenna. The weakness occurs in corners and hard-to-reach areas, as well as boundaries of a facility where directional antennas are needed to complete coverage. Figure 12.4 shows a sampling of common Wi-Fi antennas: (a) is a common home wireless router, (b) is a commercial indoor wireless access point, and (c) is an outdoor directional antenna. These can be visible, as shown, or hidden above ceiling tiles.

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Figure 12.4 Wireless access point antennas

Wireless networking problems caused by weak signal strength can sometimes be solved by installing upgraded Wi-Fi radio antennas on the access points. On business networks, the complexity of multiple access points typically requires a comprehensive site survey to map the Wi-Fi signal strength in and around office buildings. Additional wireless access points can then be strategically placed where needed to resolve dead spots in coverage. For small businesses and homes, where a single access point may be all that is needed, an antenna upgrade may be a simpler and more cost-effective option to fix Wi-Fi signal problems.

Two common forms of upgraded antennas are the Yagi antenna and the panel antenna. An example of a Yagi antenna is shown in Figure 12.4(c). Both Yagi and panel antennas are directional in nature, spreading the RF energy in a more limited field, increasing effective range in one direction while limiting it in others. Panel antennas can provide solid room performance while preventing signal bleed behind the antennas. This works well on the edge of a site, limiting the stray emissions that could be captured offsite. Yagi antennas act more like a rifle, funneling the energy along a beam. This allows much longer communication distances using standard power. This also enables eavesdroppers to capture signals from much greater distances because of the gain provided by the antenna itself.

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Because wireless antennas can transmit outside a facility, tuning and placement of antennas can be crucial for security. Adjusting radiated power through the power level controls will assist in keeping wireless signals from being broadcast outside areas under physical access control.

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Tech Tip

MIMO

MIMO is a set of multiple-input and multiple-output antenna technologies where the available antennas are spread over a multitude of independent access points, each having one or multiple antennas. This can enhance the usable bandwidth and data transmission capacity between the access point and user. There are a wide variety of MIMO methods, and this technology, once considered cutting edge or advanced, it is now mainstream. The latest versions of 802.11, specifically the ax version, uses MU-MIMO, or multiuser MIMO. This is designed for high-density locations, such as areas where crowds exist and wireless is desired. This further increases the channel capacities of the radios.

Power-Level Controls

Wi-Fi power levels can be controlled by the hardware for a variety of reasons. The lower the power used, the less the opportunity for interference. However, if the power levels are too low, then signal strength limits range. Access points can have the power level set either manually or via programmatic control. For most users, power-level controls are not very useful, and leaving the unit in default mode is the best option. In complex enterprise setups, with site surveys and planned overlapping zones, this aspect of signal control can be used to increase capacity and control on the network.

Wi-Fi Analyzers

Wi-Fi analyzers provide a means of determining signal strength and channel interference. A Wi-Fi analyzer is an RF device used to measure signal strength and quality. It can determine if the Wi-Fi signal strength is sufficient, and if there are competing devices on a particular channel. This enables an engineer to allocate signals both in strength and channel to improve Wi-Fi performance.

Channel Overlays

Wi-Fi radio signals exist at specific frequencies: 2.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. Each of these signals is broken into a series of channels, and the actual data transmissions occur across these channels. Wi-Fi versions of IEEE 802.11 (a, b, g, n) work with channel frequencies of 2400 MHz and 2500 MHz, hence the term 2.4 GHz for the system. The 100 MHz in between is split into 14 channels of 20 MHz each. As a result, each channel overlaps with up to four other channels. If you used nearby channels, this overlapping makes wireless network throughput quite poor. For this reason, most 2.4 GHz systems use channels 1, 6, and 11. When multiple access points are in close proximity, there can be issues with competing signals. In an apartment, if you find that your neighbors are using channels 2 and 10, then you would want to switch your devices to 6 to improve signal strength in your channel. Most wireless routers use an auto function to manage this, but in cases where congestion is occurring, learning the distribution of signals via a site survey and partitioning your devices into available channels will improve performance.

Beyond just improving channel overlay issues, the Wi-Fi Alliance has improved system throughput through the use of newer standards, including 802.11ac and 802.11ax. These systems use a set of different encoding mechanisms and frequency allocations to increase throughput in dense Wi-Fi environments such as large public gatherings. These methods are referred to as Wi-Fi 6 or, in the case of 802.11ax specifically, High Efficiency Wireless (HEW).

Wireless Access Point (WAP) Placement

Wireless access point (WAP) placement is seemingly simple. Perform a site survey, determine the optimum placement based on RF signal strength, and you are done. But not so fast. Access points also need power, so the availability of power to the placement can be an issue. Also, if the access point is going to be connected to the network, then availability of a network connection is also a consideration. These issues can actually be more challenging in a home environment because home users are not likely to incur the expense of running dedicated power and network connections to the access point. To help solve this issue in home and small networks, many vendors have mesh-based Wi-Fi extenders that enable Wi-Fi radio frequency (RF) signals to be extended via relays, but this can come at a throughput cost if the network becomes congested with devices.

For security reasons, you should be aware that Wi-Fi signals go through walls, so placing access points where they produce large areas of coverage outside a facility may lead to outsiders accessing your system. Protecting the access point from physical access is also important. Coordinating AP placement with site surveys is important to address issues of poor placement leading to bad coverage, signal bleed, and throughput costs associated with adding too many APs or extenders.

Site Surveys

When developing a coverage map for a complex building site, you need to take into account a wide variety of factors, particularly walls, interfering sources, and floor plans. A site survey involves several steps: mapping the floor plan, testing for RF interference, testing for RF coverage, and analysis of material via software. The software can suggest placement of access points. After deploying the APs, you survey the site again, mapping the results versus those predicted, watching signal strength and signal-to-noise ratios. Figure 12.5 illustrates what a site survey looks like. The different shades indicate signal strength, showing where reception is strong and where it is weak. Site surveys can be used to ensure availability of wireless, especially when it’s critical for users to have connections.

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Figure 12.5 Example of a site survey

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Wireless networks are dependent on radio signals to function. It is important to understand that antenna type, placement, and site surveys are used to ensure proper coverage of a site, including areas blocked by walls, interfering signals, and echoes.

Heat Maps

A Wi-Fi heat map is a map of wireless signal coverage and strength. Typically, a heat map shows a layout of a room, floor, or facility overlaid by a graphical representation of a wireless signal. Heat maps are created using a Wi-Fi analyzer and software to allow the analysis of Wi-Fi signal strength in the form of a graphical layout. This allows network administrators to find areas of weak signals and consider alternative access point placement. An example of a heat map is shown in Figure 12.6. The different shades indicate signal strength, showing where reception is strong and where it is weak.

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Figure 12.6 Example of a Wi-Fi heat map

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A site survey is a process for determining Wi-Fi signal strengths; the heat map is one of the outcomes and is part of the survey.

Controller and Access Point Security

Wireless access points are physical connections to your network infrastructure and should be guarded as such. Proper controller and access point security provisions include both physical and logical security precautions. The case of logical security has been the main focus of this chapter, keeping unauthorized users from accessing the channels. Physical security is just as important, if not more so, and the actual devices and network connections should be placed in a location that is not readily accessible to an attacker. This is especially true for exterior connections where no one would observe someone physically manipulating the device.

MAC Filtering

MAC filtering is the selective admission of packets based on a list of approved Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Employed on switches, this method is used to provide a means of machine authentication. In wired networks, this enjoys the protection afforded by the wires, making interception of signals to determine their MAC addresses difficult. In wireless networks, this same mechanism suffers from the fact that an attacker can see the MAC addresses of all traffic to and from the access point, and then can spoof the MAC addresses that are permitted to communicate via the access point.

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MAC filtering can be employed on wireless access points, but it can be bypassed by attackers observing allowed MAC addresses and spoofing the allowed MAC address for the wireless card.

Captive Portals

Captive portal refers to a specific technique of using an HTTP client to handle authentication on a wireless network. Frequently employed in public hotspots, a captive portal opens a web browser to an authentication page. This occurs before the user is granted admission to the network. The access point uses this simple mechanism by intercepting all packets and returning the web page for login. The actual web server that serves up the authentication page can be in a walled-off section of the network, blocking access to the Internet until the user successfully authenticates.

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Captive portals are common in coffee shops, airports, hotels, and stores. The user accepts the offered conditions, views, and advertisements, provides an e-mail address or other authentication requirement, and is granted access to the portal.

Securing Public Wi-Fi

Public Wi-Fi is a common perk that some firms provide for their customers and visitors. When providing a Wi-Fi hotspot, even free open-to-the-public Wi-Fi, the firm should make security a concern. One of the issues associated with wireless transmissions is that they are subject to interception by anyone within range of the hotspot. This makes it possible for others to intercept and read the traffic of anyone using the hotspot, unless encryption is used. For this reason, it has become common practice to use wireless security, even when the intent is to open the channel for everyone. Having a default password, even one that everyone knows, will make it so that people cannot observe other traffic.

There is an entire open wireless movement designed around a sharing concept that promotes sharing of the Internet to all. For information, check out https://openwireless.org.

Images Wireless Attacks

Wireless is a common networking technology that has a substantial number of standards and processes to connect users to networks via a radio signal, freeing machines from wires. As in all software systems, wireless networking is a target for hackers. This is partly because of the simple fact that wireless removes the physical barrier.

Attacking 802.11

Wireless is a popular target for several reasons: the access gained from wireless, the lack of default security, and the wide proliferation of devices. However, other reasons also make it attackable. The first of these is anonymity. An attacker can probe your building for wireless access from the street. Then they can log packets to and from the AP without giving any indication that an attempted intrusion is taking place. The attacker will announce their presence only if they attempt to associate to the AP. Even then, an attempted association is recorded only by the MAC address of the wireless card associating to it, and most APs do not have alerting functionality to indicate when users associate to them. This fact gives administrators a very limited view of who is gaining access to the network, if they are even paying attention at all. It gives attackers the ability to seek out and compromise wireless networks with relative impunity.

The second reason is the low cost of the equipment needed. A single wireless access card costing less than $100 can give access to any unsecured AP within driving range. Finally, attacking a wireless network is relatively easy compared to attacking other target hosts. Windows-based tools for locating and sniffing wireless-based networks have turned anyone who can download files from the Internet and has a wireless card into a potential attacker.

Locating wireless networks was originally termed war-driving, an adaptation of the term war-dialing. War-dialing comes from the 1983 movie WarGames; it is the process of dialing a list of phone numbers looking for modem-connected computers. War-drivers drive around with a wireless locater program recording the number of networks found and their locations. This term has evolved along with war-flying and war-walking, which mean exactly what you expect. War-chalking started with people using chalk on sidewalks to mark some of the open wireless networks they found.

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Anonymity also works in another way; once an attacker finds an unsecured AP with wireless access, they can use an essentially untraceable IP address to attempt attacks on other Internet hosts.

The most common tools for an attacker to use are reception-based programs that listen to the beacon frames output by other wireless devices, and programs that promiscuously capture all traffic. A wide variety of programs can assist in troubleshooting wireless networks, and these all work in the same manner, by listening for the beacon frames of APs that are within range of the network interface card (NIC) attached to the computer. When the program receives the frames, it logs all available information about the AP for later analysis. If the computer has a GPS unit attached to it, the program also logs the AP’s coordinates. This information can be used to return to the AP or to plot maps of APs in a city. One of the more commonly used tools is Wireshark. Other common tools include the Aircrack-ng suite, Kismet, NetSurveyor, Vistumbler, and NetSpot. Different tools have different specializations; some are better for troubleshooting some issues such as congestion, while others can map signal strengths and assist in site surveys.

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Because wireless antennas can transmit outside a facility, the proper tuning and placement of these antennas can be crucial for security. Adjusting radiated power through these power-level controls will assist in keeping wireless signals from being broadcast outside areas under physical access control.

Once an attacker has located a network, and assuming they cannot directly connect and start active scanning and penetration of the network, the attacker will use the best attack tool there is: a network sniffer. The network sniffer, when combined with a wireless network card it can support, is a powerful attack tool because the shared medium of a wireless network exposes all packets to interception and logging. Popular wireless sniffers are Wireshark and Kismet. Regular sniffers used on wired Ethernet have also been updated to include support for wireless. Sniffers are also important because they allow you to retrieve the MAC addresses of the nodes of the network. APs can be configured to allow access only to pre-specified MAC addresses, and an attacker spoofing the MAC can bypass this feature.

After the limited security functions of a wireless network are broken, the network behaves exactly like a regular Ethernet network and is subject to the exact same vulnerabilities. The host machines that are on or attached to the wireless network are as vulnerable as if they and the attacker were physically connected. Being on the network opens up all machines to vulnerability scanners, Trojan horse programs, virus and worm programs, and traffic interception via sniffer programs. Any unpatched vulnerability on any machine accessible from the wireless segment is now open to compromise.

Replay

A replay attack occurs when the attacker captures a portion of a communication between two parties and retransmits it at a later time. For example, an attacker might replay a series of commands and codes used in a financial transaction to cause the transaction to be conducted multiple times. Generally, replay attacks are associated with attempts to circumvent authentication mechanisms, such as the capturing and reuse of a certificate or ticket.

The best way to prevent replay attacks is with encryption, cryptographic authentication, and timestamps. If a portion of the certificate or ticket includes a date/time stamp or an expiration date/time, and this portion is also encrypted as part of the ticket or certificate, replaying it at a later time will prove useless because it will be rejected as having expired.

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The best method for defending against replay attacks is through the use of encryption and short time frames for legal transactions. Encryption can protect the contents from being understood, and a short time frame for a transaction prevents subsequent use.

IV

The initialization vector (IV) is used in wireless systems as the randomization element at the beginning of a connection. Attacks against the IV aim to determine it, thus finding the repeating key sequence. This was the weakness that led to the fall of WEP and WPA. It is not that the IV is bad; its length was short enough that all the values could be cycled through, forcing a repeat.

The IV is the primary reason for the weaknesses in WEP. The IV is sent in the plaintext part of the message, and because the total keyspace is approximately 16 million keys, the same key will be reused. Once the key has been repeated, an attacker has two ciphertexts encrypted with the same key stream. This allows the attacker to examine the ciphertext and retrieve the key. This attack can be improved by examining only packets that have weak IVs, reducing the number of packets needed to crack the key. Using only weak IV packets, the number of required captured packets is reduced to around four or five million, which can take only a few hours to capture on a fairly busy AP. For a point of reference, this means that equipment with an advertised WEP key of 128 bits can be cracked in less than a day, whereas to crack a normal 128-bit key would take roughly 2,000,000,000,000,000,000 years on a computer able to attempt one trillion keys a second. AirSnort is a modified sniffing program that takes advantage of this weakness to retrieve the WEP keys. The biggest weakness of WEP is that the IV problem exists regardless of key length, because the IV always remains at 24 bits.

Evil Twin

The evil twin attack is in essence an attack against the wireless protocol via substitute hardware. This attack uses an access point owned by an attacker that usually has been enhanced with higher-power and higher-gain antennas to look like a better connection to the users and computers attaching to it. By getting users to connect through the evil access point, attackers can more easily analyze traffic and perform man-in-the-middle types of attacks. For simple denial of service (DoS), an attacker could use interference to jam the wireless signal, not allowing any computer to connect to the access point successfully.

Rogue AP

By setting up a rogue access point (AP), an attacker can attempt to get clients to connect to it as if it were authorized and then simply authenticate to the real AP—a simple way to have access to the network and the client’s credentials. Rogue APs can act as a man in the middle and easily steal the user’s credentials. Enterprises with wireless APs should routinely scan for and remove rogue APs, because users have difficulty avoiding them.

Jamming

Jamming is a form of denial of service, specifically against the radio spectrum aspect of wireless. Just as other DoS attacks can manipulate things behind the scenes, so can jamming on a wireless AP, enabling things such as attachment to a rogue AP.

Bluetooth Attacks

As a wireless method of communication, Bluetooth is open to connection and attack from outside the intended sender and receiver. Several different attack modes have been discovered that can be used against Bluetooth systems. These are discussed later in the chapter.

Bluetooth technology is likely to grow due to the popularity of mobile phones. Software and protocol updates have helped to improve the security of the protocol. Almost all phones now keep Bluetooth turned off by default, and they allow you to make the phone discoverable for only a limited amount of time. User education about security risks is also a large factor in avoiding security breaches.

Bluejacking

Bluejacking is the term used for the sending of unauthorized messages to another Bluetooth device. This involves sending a message as a phonebook contact, as shown here.

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Then the attacker sends the message to the possible recipient via Bluetooth. Originally, this involved sending text messages, but more recent phones can send images or audio as well. A popular variant of this is the transmission of “shock” images, featuring disturbing or crude photos. Because Bluetooth is a short-range protocol, the attack and victim must be within roughly 10 yards of each other. The victim’s phone must also have Bluetooth enabled and must be in discoverable mode. On some early phones, this was the default configuration, and while it makes connecting external devices easier, it also allows attacks against the phone. If Bluetooth is turned off, or if the device is set to nondiscoverable, bluejacking can be avoided.

Bluesnarfing

Bluesnarfing is similar to bluejacking in that it uses the same contact transmission protocol. The difference is that instead of sending an unsolicited message to the victim’s phone, the attacker copies off the victim’s information, which can include e-mails, contact lists, calendars, and anything else that exists on that device. More recent phones with media capabilities can be snarfed for private photos and videos. Bluesnarfing used to require a laptop with a Bluetooth adapter, making it relatively easy to identify a possible attacker, but bluesnarfing applications are now available for mobile devices. Bloover, a combination of Bluetooth and Hoover, is one such application that runs as a Java applet. The majority of Bluetooth phones need to be discoverable for the bluesnarf attack to work, but they do not necessarily need to be paired. In theory, an attacker can also brute-force the device’s unique 48-bit name. A program called RedFang attempts to perform this brute force attack by sending all possible names and seeing what gets a response. This approach was addressed in Bluetooth 1.2 with an anonymity mode.

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Bluejacking and bluesnarfing are both attacks against Bluetooth. They differ in that bluejacking is the sending of unauthorized data via Bluetooth, whereas bluesnarfing is the unauthorized taking of data over a Bluetooth channel. Understanding this difference is important to ensure you are covering both attacks.

Bluebugging

Bluebugging is a far more serious attack than either bluejacking or bluesnarfing. In bluebugging, the attacker uses Bluetooth to establish a serial connection to the device. This allows access to the full AT command set—GSM phones use AT commands similar to Hayes-compatible modems.

This connection allows full control over the phone, including the placing of calls to any number without the phone owner’s knowledge. Fortunately, this attack requires pairing of the devices to complete, and phones initially vulnerable to the attack have updated firmware to correct the problem. To accomplish the attack now, the phone owner would need to surrender their phone and allow an attacker to physically establish the connection.

Bluetooth DoS is the use of Bluetooth technology to perform a denial-of-service attack against another device. In this attack, an attacker repeatedly requests pairing with the victim device. This type of attack does not divulge information or permit access, but it is a nuisance. More importantly, if done repeatedly it can drain a device’s battery, or prevent other operations from occurring on the victim’s device. As with all Bluetooth attacks, because of the short range involved, all one has to do is leave the area and the attack will cease.

RFID

RFID tags have multiple security concerns; first and foremost, because they are connected via RF energy, physical security is a challenge. Security was recognized as an important issue for RFID tag systems because they form a means of identification and there is a need for authentication and confidentiality of the data transfers. Several standards are associated with securing the RFID data flow, including ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 for cryptography methods to support confidentiality, untraceability, tag and reader authentication, and over-the-air privacy, whereas ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for use in RFID systems.

Several different attack types can be performed against RFID systems. The first is against the RFID devices themselves—the chips and readers. A second form of attack goes against the communication channel between the device and the reader. The third category of attack is against the reader and back-end system. This last type is more of a standard IT/IS attack, depending on the interfaces used (web, database, and so on) and therefore is not covered any further. Attacks against the communication channel are relatively easy because the radio frequencies are known and devices exist to interface with tags. Two main attacks are replay and eavesdropping. In a replay attack, the RFID information is recorded and then replayed later; in the case of an RFID-based access badge, it could be read in a restaurant from a distance and then replayed at the appropriate entry point to gain entry. In the case of eavesdropping, the data can be collected, monitoring the movement of tags for whatever purpose needed by an unauthorized party. Both of these attacks are easily defeated using the aforementioned security standards.

If eavesdropping is possible, then what about man-in-the-middle attacks? These are certainly possible because they would be a combination of a sniffing (eavesdropping) action, followed by replay (spoofing) attack. This leads to the question as to whether an RFID can be cloned. Again, the answer is yes, if the RFID information is not protected via a cryptographic component.

Disassociation

Disassociation attacks against a wireless system are those attacks designed to disassociate a host from the wireless access point, and from the wireless network. Disassociation attacks stem from the deauthentication frame that is in the IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) standard. The deauthentication frame is designed as a tool to remove unauthorized stations from a Wi-Fi access point, but because of the design of the protocol, they can be implemented by virtually anyone. An attacker only needs to have the MAC address of the intended victim, and then they can send a spoofed message to the access point, specifically spoofing the MAC address of the victim machine. This results in the disconnection of the victim machine, making this attack a form of denial of service.

Disassociation attacks are not typically used alone, but rather in concert with another attack objective. For instance, if you disassociate a connection and then sniff the reconnect, you can steal passwords. After disassociating a machine, the user attempting to reestablish a WPA or WPA2 session will need to repeat the WPA 4-way handshake. This gives the hacker a chance to sniff this event, the first step in gathering needed information for a brute force or dictionary-based WPA password-cracking attack. Forcing users to reconnect gives the attacker a chance to mount a man-in-the-middle attack against content provided during a connection. This has been used by the Wifiphisher tool to collect passwords.

Images Mobile Device Management Concepts

The concepts of mobile device management (MDM) are essential knowledge in today’s environment of connected devices. MDM began as a marketing term for a collective set of commonly employed protection elements associated with mobile devices. When viewed as a comprehensive set of security options for mobile devices, an MDM policy should be created and enforced by every corporation. The policy should require the following:

Images   Device locking with a strong password

Images   Encryption of data on the device

Images   Device locking automatically after a certain period of inactivity

Images   The capability to remotely lock the device if it is lost or stolen

Images   The capability to wipe the device automatically after a certain number of failed login attempts

Images   The capability to remotely wipe the device if it is lost or stolen

Password policies should extend to mobile devices, including lockout and, if possible, the automatic wiping of data. Corporate policy for data encryption on mobile devices should be consistent with the policy for data encryption on laptop computers. In other words, if you don’t require encryption of portable computers, then should you require it for mobile devices? There is not a uniform answer to this question. Mobile devices are much more mobile in practice than laptops, and more prone to loss. This is ultimately a risk question that management must address: what is the risk and what are the costs of the options employed? This also raises bigger questions: Which devices should have encryption as a basic security protection mechanism? Is it by device type or by user based on what data would be exposed to risk? Fortunately, MDM solutions exist that make the choices manageable.

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Mobile device management (MDM) is a marketing term for a collective set of commonly employed protection elements associated with mobile devices.

Application Management

Most mobile device vendors provide some kind of application store for finding and purchasing applications for their mobile devices. The vendors do a reasonable job of making sure that offered applications are approved and don’t create an overt security risk. Yet many applications request access to various information stores on the mobile device as part of their business model. Understanding what access is requested and approved upon installation of an app is an important security precaution. These are all potential problems for mobile users concerned over data security and drive the need for a mobile application management (MAM) solution. Your company may have to restrict the types of applications that can be downloaded and used on mobile devices. If you need very strong protection, your company can be very proactive and provide an enterprise application store where only company-approved applications are available, with a corresponding policy that apps cannot be obtained from any other source. Another method involves the use of an MDM solution, as discussed in the previous section.

Full Device Encryption (FDE)

Just as laptop computers should employ full disk encryption (FDE) to protect the laptop in case of loss or theft, you may need to consider encryption for mobile devices used by your company’s employees. Mobile devices are much more likely to be lost or stolen, so you should consider encrypting data on your devices. More and more, mobile devices are used for accessing and storing business-critical data or other sensitive information. Protecting the information on mobile devices is becoming a business imperative. This is an emerging technology, so you’ll need to complete some rigorous market analysis to determine what commercial product meets your needs.

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BitLocker is a full disk encryption (FDE) feature included with Microsoft Windows operating systems. It protects data by encrypting entire volumes and has full-featured key management capabilities. BitLocker uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption algorithm by default. BitLocker can manage key recovery even via the Azure cloud deployment of Active Directory services in enterprise deployments.

Content Management

Applications are not the only information moving to mobile devices. Content is moving as well, and organizations need a means of content management for mobile devices. For instance, it might be fine to have, and edit, some types of information on mobile devices, whereas other more sensitive information would be best suited not to be shared to this extent. Content management is the set of actions used to control content issues on mobile devices. Most organizations have a data ownership policy that clearly establishes the company ownership rights over data, regardless of the device on which it is shared. However, content management goes a step further, examining what content belongs on what devices and then establishing mechanisms to enforce these rules. Again, MDM solutions exist to assist in this security issue with respect to mobile devices.

Remote Wipe

Today’s mobile devices are almost innumerable and are very susceptible to loss and theft. Further, it is unlikely that a lost or stolen device will be recovered, thus making even encrypted data stored on a device more vulnerable to decryption. If the thief can have your device for a long time, they can take all the time they want to try to decrypt your data. Therefore, many companies prefer to just remotely wipe a lost or stolen device. Remote wiping a mobile device typically removes data stored on the device and resets the device to factory settings.

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Tech Tip

Location Services

Mobile devices by their specific nature are on the move, and hence the location of a device can have significant ramifications with respect to its use. Mobile devices can connect to multiple public Wi-Fi locations, and they can provide users with navigation and other location context-sensitive information, such as a local sale. To enable this functionality, location services are a set of functions that enable, and control, the location information possessed by the device.

Geofencing

Geofencing is the use of GPS and/or RFID technology to create a virtual fence around a particular location, and to detect when devices cross the fence. This enables devices to be recognized by location and have actions taken. Geofencing is used in marketing to send messages to devices that are in a specific area—near a point of sale, or just to count potential customers. Geofencing has been used for remote workers, notifying management when they have arrived at remote work sites. This allows network connections to be enabled for them, for example. The uses of geofencing are truly only limited by one’s imagination.

Geolocation

Most mobile devices are now capable of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for tracking device location. Many apps rely heavily on GPS location, such as device-locating services, mapping applications, traffic-monitoring apps, and apps that locate nearby businesses such as gas stations and restaurants. Such technology can be exploited to track movement and the location of the mobile device, which is referred to as geolocation. This tracking can be used to assist in the recovery of lost devices.

Geo-Tagging

Geo-tagging is the posting of location information into a data stream, signifying where the device was when the stream was created. Because many mobile devices include on-board cameras, and the photos/videos they take can divulge information, geo-tagging can make location part of any picture or video, and this information can be associated with anything the camera can image—whiteboards, documents, and even the location of the device when the photo/video was taken.

Posting photos with geo-tags embedded in them has its use, but it can also unexpectedly divulge information users might not want to share. For example, if you use your smartphone to take a photo of your car in the driveway and then post the photo on the Internet in an attempt to sell your car, if geo-tagging is enabled on the smartphone, the location of where the photo was taken is embedded as metadata in the digital photo. Such a posting could inadvertently expose where your home is located. Some social media applications strip out the metadata on a photo before posting, but then they indicate where you posted the photo within the posting itself. There has been much public discussion on this topic, and geo-tagging can be disabled on most mobile devices. It is recommended that it be disabled unless you have a specific reason for having the location information embedded in a photo.

Screen Locks

Most corporate policies regarding mobile devices require the use of the mobile device’s screen-locking capability. This usually consists of entering a passcode or PIN to unlock the device. It is highly recommended that screen locks be enforced for all mobile devices. Your policy regarding the quality of the passcode should be consistent with your corporate password policy. However, many companies merely enforce the use of screen locking. Thus, users tend to use convenient or easy-to-remember passcodes. Some devices allow complex passcodes. As shown in Figure 12.7, the device screen on the left supports only a simple iOS passcode, limited to four numbers, whereas the device screen on the right supports a passcode of indeterminate length and can contain alphanumeric characters.

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Figure 12.7 iOS lock screens

Some more advanced forms of screen locks work in conjunction with device wiping. If the passcode is entered incorrectly a specified number of times, the device is automatically wiped. This is one of the security features of BlackBerry that has traditionally made it of interest to security-conscious users. Apple has made this an option on newer iOS devices. Apple also allows remote locking of a device from the user’s iCloud account.

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Tech Tip

Mobile Device Security

Mobile devices require basic security mechanisms of screen locks, lockouts, device wiping, and encryption to protect sensitive information contained on them.

Lockout

If a user discovers that they’ve lost their device, a quick way to protect it is to remotely lock the device as soon as they recognize it has been lost or stolen. Several products are available on the market today to help enterprises manage their devices. Remote lockout is usually the first step taken in securing a mobile device.

Push Notification Services

Push notification services are services that deliver information to mobile devices without a specific request from the device. Push notifications are used a lot in mobile devices to indicate that content has been updated. Push notification methods are typically unique to the platform, with Apple Push Notification service for Apple devices and Android Cloud to Device Messaging as examples. Many other back-end server services have similar methods for updating their content.

Passwords and PINs

Passwords and PINs are common security measures used to protect mobile devices from unauthorized use. These are essential tools and should be used in all cases, and mandated by company policy.

Biometrics

Biometrics is used across a wide range of mobile phones as a means of access control. Many of these devices have less-than-perfect recognition, however, and many security presentations on hacking past the biometric sensor have been shown at conferences. The newest biometric method, facial recognition, is based on a camera image of the user holding their phone. Because it has been shown that these devices can be bypassed, one should consider them to be convenience features, not security features. As facial recognition has gotten better, even the addition of masks as part of the pandemic in 2020 did not stop facial recognition, as the AI-based processing can be trained to ignore the mask. Hence, it is important for management policies to reflect this and not rely on these methods for securing important data.

Context-Aware Authentication

Context-aware authentication is the use of information such as who is the user, what are they requesting, what machine are they using, how are they connected, and so on, to make the authentication decision as to whether to permit the requested resource. The goal is to prevent unauthorized end users, devices, or network connections from being able to access corporate data. This approach can be used to allow an authorized user to access network-based resources from inside the office, but deny access if they are connecting via a public Wi-Fi network.

Containerization

Containerization on mobile devices is just that: dividing the device into a series of containers, with one container holding work-related materials and the other personal materials. The containers can separate apps, data, and virtually everything on the device. Depending on the mobile device management solution employed, remote control over the work container can be possible. This enables a much stronger use case for mixing business and personal data on a single device.

Storage Segmentation

On mobile devices, it can be very difficult to keep personal data separate from corporate data. Storage segmentation is similar to containerization in that it represents a logical separation of the storage in the unit. Some companies have developed capabilities to create distinct virtual containers to keep personal data separate from corporate data and applications. For devices that are used to handle highly sensitive corporate data, this form of protection is highly recommended.

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Containerization and storage segmentation are both technologies used to keep personal data separate from corporate data on devices.

Asset Control

Because each user can have multiple devices connecting to the corporate network, it is important to implement a viable asset-tracking and inventory-control mechanism. For security and liability reasons, the company needs to know what devices are connecting to its systems and what access has been granted. Just as in IT systems, maintaining a list of approved devices is a critical control.

Device Access Control

The principles of access control for mobile devices need to be managed just like access control from wired or wireless desktops and laptops. This will become more critical as storage in the cloud and Software as a Service (SaaS) become more prevalent. Emerging tablet/mobile device sharing intends to provide the user with a seamless data access experience across many devices. Data access capabilities will continue to evolve to meet this need. Rigorous data access principles need to be applied, and they become even more important with the inclusion of mobile devices as fully functional computing devices. When reviewing possible solutions, it is important that you consider seeking proof of security and procedures rather than relying on marketing brochures.

Removable Storage

Because removable devices can move data outside of the corporate-controlled environment, their security needs must be addressed. Removable devices can bring unprotected or corrupted data into the corporate environment. All removable devices should be scanned by antivirus software upon connection to the corporate environment. Corporate policies should address the copying of data to removable devices. Many mobile devices can be connected via USB to a system and used to store data—and in some cases vast quantities of data. This capability can be used to avoid some implementations of data loss prevention (DLP) mechanisms.

Disabling Unused Features

As with all computing devices, features that are not used or that present a security risk should be disabled. Bluetooth access is particularly problematic. It is best to make Bluetooth connections undiscoverable. However, users will need to enable it to pair with a new headset or car connection, for example. Requiring Bluetooth connections to be undiscoverable is very hard to enforce but should be encouraged as a best practice. Users should receive training as to the risks of Bluetooth—not so they avoid Bluetooth, but so they understand when they should turn it off. Having a mobile device with access to sensitive information carries with it a level of responsibility. Helping users understand this and act accordingly can go a long way toward securing mobile devices.

Images Mobile Application Security

Devices are not the only concern in the mobile world. Applications that run on the devices also represent security threats to the information that is stored on and processed by the device. Applications are the software elements that can be used to violate security, even when the user is not aware. Many games and utilities offer value to the user, but at the same time they scrape information stores on the device for information.

Application Control

Mobile devices are typically updated through the use of an app store. This store provides the apps and their updates in one convenient location. In devices used on enterprise networks, the security provided by the app store may not meet the requirements of the business. In these circumstances, a separate application, known typically as the Management Device Manager (MDM), can handle device configuration as well as security. The configuration of the MDM solution provides the company with a method of controlling what applications are loaded on the device and thus would potentially become connected to the network and other sensitive systems.

Key and Credential Management

The MDM marketplace is maturing quickly. Key and credential management services are being integrated into most MDM services to ensure that existing strong policies and procedures can be extended to mobile platforms securely. These services include protection of keys for digital signatures and S/MIME encryption and decryption. Keys and credentials are among the highest-value items that can be found on mobile devices, so ensuring protection for them is a key element in mobile device security. The keys and credentials stored on the device can be used by multiple applications. Providing protection of these keys while still maintaining usability of them is an essential element of modern mobile application security.

Authentication

When mobile devices are used to access business networks, authentication becomes an issue. Is the device allowed to access the network? Is the user of the device a network user? If so, how do you authenticate the user? Mobile devices have some advantages in that they can store certificates, which by their very nature are more secure than passwords. This moves the authentication problem to the endpoint, where it relies on passcodes, screen locks, and other mobile device protections. These can be relatively weak unless structured together, including wiping after a limited number of failures. The risk in mobile authentication is that strong credentials stored in the device are protected by the less rigorous passcode and the end user. End users can share their mobile devices, and by proxy unwittingly share their strong corporate authentication codes.

Application Whitelisting

As discussed in the “Application Control” section earlier in the chapter, controlling what applications a device can access may be an important element of your company’s mobile device policy. The use of application whitelisting and blacklisting enables you to control and block applications available on the mobile device. Whitelisting is the use of a preapproved list of behaviors—only those on the whitelist are allowed. Blacklisting involves using a list of behaviors that are specifically blocked. Blacklisting is great against specific known threats. Whitelisting, when possible, restricts use to only approved functions. The challenge in whitelisting is in the definition of allowed activities. This is usually administered through some type of MDM capability. Application whitelisting can improve security by preventing unapproved applications from being installed and run on the device.

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In light of changing speech due to political correctness, the terms whitelisting and blacklisting as well as white hat and black hat are being challenged. The history of these terms goes back to old westerns, where the good guy wore a white hat, and the bad guy wore a black hat; neither is a reference to race. Many are considering the terms application approved list and application block list (or deny list) to replace whitelisting and blacklisting.

Encryption

Just as the device should be encrypted, thereby protecting all information on the device, applications should be encrypted as well. Just employing encryption for the data store is not sufficient. If the device is fully encrypted, then all apps would have to have access to the data, in essence bypassing the encryption from an app point of view. Apps with sensitive information should control access via their own set of protections. The only way to segregate data within the device is for apps to manage their own data stores through app-specific encryption. This will allow sensitive data to be protected from rogue applications that would leak data if uniform access was allowed.

Transitive Trust/Authentication

Security across multiple domains/platforms is provided through trust relationships. When trust relationships between domains or platforms exist, authentication for each domain trusts the authentication for all other trusted domains. Thus, when an application is authenticated, its authentication is accepted by all other domains/platforms that trust the authenticating domain or platform. Trust relationships can be very complex in mobile devices, and often security aspects aren’t properly implemented. Mobile devices tend to be used across numerous systems, including business, personal, public, and private. This greatly expands the risk profile and opportunity for transitive trust–based attacks. As with all other applications, mobile applications should be carefully reviewed to ensure that trust relationships are secure.

Images Mobile Devices

Mobile devices can bring much to the enterprise in terms of business functionality, but with this increased utility comes additional risks. There are a variety of ways to manage the risk, including the use of encryption and endpoint protections designed for mobile devices. You can use several different methodologies to manage mobile devices, and these are covered in the following sections.

MicroSD Hardware Security Module (HSM)

A MicroSD HSM is a hardware security module in a MicroSD form factor. This device allows you a portable means of secure cryptographic key storage for a wide range of keys. These devices come with an application that manages the typical HSM functions associated with keys, including backup, restore, and many PKI functions.

MDM/Unified Endpoint Management (UEM)

MDM software is an application that runs on a mobile device and, when activated, can manage aspects of the device such as connectivity and functions. The purpose of an MDM application is to turn the device into one where the functionality is limited in accordance with the enterprise policy. Unified endpoint management (UEM) is an enterprise-level endpoint management solution that can cover all endpoints, from PC to laptops, from phones to other mobile devices, tablets, and even some wearables. The idea behind UEM is to extend the function set from MDM to include all endpoint devices, including bringing more functionality under enterprise control. A UEM can manage the deployment of corporate resources onto an endpoint, providing control over items such as application and resource access, remote control of the device, and monitoring of device activity. MDM and UEM solutions also assist with asset management, including location and tracking.

Mobile Application Management (MAM)

Mobile devices bring a plethora of applications along with the device into an enterprise. While MDM solutions can protect the enterprise from applications installed on a device, there is also a need to manage corporate applications on the device. The deployment, updating, and configuration of applications on devices requires an enterprise solution that is scalable and provides for the installation, updating, and management of in-house applications across a set of mobile devices. Mobile application management (MAM) tool suites provide these capabilities in the enterprise.

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Distinguishing between MDM, UEM, and MAM applications is by functionality. MAM controls in-house applications on devices. MDM controls the data on the device, segregating it from the general data on the device. UEM is a complete endpoint control solution that works across virtually every form of endpoint, mobile or not.

SEAndroid/SELinux

Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a modified Linux distribution that enforces mandatory access control (MAC) over all processes, even processes running with root/superuser privileges. SELinux has one overarching principle: default denial. This means that anything that is not explicitly allowed is denied. SEAndroid is a version of SELinux used on mobile devices.

Images Policies for Enforcement and Monitoring

This section covers the topics of corporate policies and mobile device usage in a corporate environment. Your corporate policies regarding mobile devices should be consistent with your existing computer security policies. Your training programs should include instruction on mobile device security. Disciplinary actions should be consistent. Your monitoring programs should be enhanced to include monitoring and control of mobile devices.

Third-party App Stores

Many mobile devices have manufacturer-associated application stores, where applications can be downloaded to the device. From a corporate enterprise point of view, these application stores are third-party app stores, as they represent neither the user nor the enterprise in the nature and quantity of their offerings. Currently there are two main app stores: one from Apple and one from Google. The Apple Store is built on a principle of exclusivity, and security is highly enforced on apps. The Google Store has less restrictions, which has translated into some security issues from apps. Managing what applications a user can add to the device is essential because many of these applications can create security risks for the enterprise. This issue becomes significantly more complex with employee-owned devices and access to corporate data stores. There are very few segmentation options for most devices to separate work and personal spaces, so the ability to control this access becomes problematic. For devices with access to sensitive corporate information, a company-owned device is recommended, thus allowing for more stringent control.

Rooting/Jailbreaking

A common hack associated with Apple iOS mobile devices is the jailbreak. Jailbreaking is a process by which the user escalates their privilege level, bypassing the operating system’s controls and limitations. The user still has the complete functionality of the device, but also has additional capabilities that bypass the OS-imposed user restrictions. There are several schools of thought concerning the utility of jailbreaking, but the important issue from a security point of view is that running any device with enhanced privileges can result in errors that cause more damage, because normal security controls are typically bypassed.

Rooting a device is a process whereby OS controls are bypassed on Android devices. The effect is the same whether the device is rooted or jailbroken: the OS controls designed to constrain operations are no longer in play and the device can do things it was never intended to do, good or bad.

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Rooting is used to bypass OS controls on Android, and jailbreaking is used to escalate privileges and do the same on iOS devices. Both processes stop OS controls from inhibiting user behaviors.

Sideloading

Sideloading is the process of adding apps to a mobile device without using the authorized store associated with the device. Currently, sideloading only works on Android devices because Apple has not enabled any application execution except of those coming through the App Store. Sideloading is an alternative means of instantiating an app on the device without having to have it hosted on the app store. The downside, simply put, is that without the app store screening, one is at greater risk of installing malicious software in the guise of a desired app.

Custom Firmware

Custom firmware is firmware for a device that has been altered from the original factory settings. This firmware can bring added functionality, but it can also result in security holes. The use of custom firmware should only be done on devices without access to critical information.

Carrier Unlocking

Most mobile devices in the U.S. come locked to a carrier, while in other parts of the world they are unlocked, relying on a SIM card for connection and billing information. This is a byproduct of the business market decisions made early in the mobile phone market lifecycle and has remained fairly true to date. If you have a carrier-locked device and you attempt to use a SIM card from another carrier, the phone will not accept it unless you unlock the device. Carrier unlocking is the process of telling the device to sever itself from the carrier. This is usually done through the inputting of a special key sequence that unlocks the device.

Firmware OTA Updates

Firmware is, at the end of the day, software. It may be stored in a chip, but like all software, it sometimes requires updating. With mobile devices being literarily everywhere, the scale does not support bringing the device to a central location or connection for updating. Firmware OTA (over the air) updates are a solution to this problem. Just as one can add an app, or update an app from the store, it is possible to have a menu option that permits the device firmware to be updated. All major device manufacturers support this model because it is the only real workable solution.

Camera Use

Many mobile devices include on-board cameras, and the photos/videos they take can divulge information. This information can be associated with anything the camera can image—whiteboards, documents, and even the location of the device when the photo/video was taken via geo-tagging. Another challenge presented by mobile devices is the possibility that they will be used for illegal purposes. This can create liability for the company if it is a company-owned device. Despite all the potential legal concerns, possibly the greatest concern of mobile device users is that their personal photos will be lost during a device wipe originated by the company.

SMS/MMS/RCS

Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) are standard protocols used to send messages, including multimedia content in the case of MMS, to and from mobile devices over a cellular network. SMS is limited to short text-only messages of less than 160 characters and is carried over the signaling path of the cellular network when signaling data is not being sent. SMS dates back to the early days of mobile telephony in the 1980s, whereas MMS is a more recent development designed to support multimedia content to and from mobile devices. Because of the content connections that can be sent via MMS in particular, and SMS in certain cases, it is important to at least address these communication channels in relevant policies.

Rich Communication Services (RCS) is a protocol that is currently used alongside SMS and MMS. RCS operates between the mobile device and the carrier. RCS messaging requires RCS-capable apps on both ends of the communication. RCS supports modern methods of communication, like adding user-desired features such as integration with stickers, video, images, groups, and other modern mobile data formats. RCS is intended to eventually replace both SMS and MMS.

External Media

External media refers to any item or device that can store data. From flash drives to hard drives, music players, smartphones, and even smart watches, if it can store data, it is a pathway for data exfiltration. External media can also deliver malware into the enterprise. The risk is evident: these devices can carry data in and out of the enterprise, yet they have become synonymous with today’s tech worker. The key is to develop a policy that determines where these devices can exist and where they should be banned, and then follow the plan with monitoring and enforcement.

USB On-The-Go (USB OTG)

Universal Serial Bus is a common method of connecting mobile devices to computers and other host-based platforms. Connecting mobile devices directly to each other required changes to USB connections. Enter USB OTG (USB On-The-Go), an extension of USB technology that facilitates direct connection between USB OTG–enabled mobile devices. USB OTG allows those devices to switch back and forth between the roles of host and device, including deciding who provides power (host) and who consumes power across the interface. USB OTG also allows the connection of USB-based peripherals, such as keyboards, mice, and storage, to mobile devices. Although USB OTG is relatively new, most mobile devices made since 2015 are USB OTG compatible.

Recording Microphone

Many of today’s electronic devices—from smartphones to watches, to devices such as the online assistants from Amazon and Google, and even toys—have the ability to record audio information. Recording microphones can be used to record conversations and collect sensitive data, and the parties under observation are not even aware of the incident. As with other high-tech gadgets, the key is to determine the policy of where they can be used and the rules for their use.

GPS Tagging

GPS tagging is the addition of GPS information to a file or folder, or other digital item. Adding GPS information to the metadata of a file can enhance value in that it enables site-specific information to be associated with the digital item. This can be a location where a picture was taken, or map coordinates when linking to mapping software. A more extensive coverage of this type of tagging was covered earlier in the chapter under the section heading “Geo-Tagging.”

Wi-Fi Direct/Ad Hoc

Wi-Fi typically connects a Wi-Fi device to a network via a wireless access point. Other methods exist—namely, Wi-Fi Direct and Wi-Fi ad hoc. In Wi-Fi Direct, two Wi-Fi devices connect to each other in a single-hop connection. In essence, one of the two devices acts as an access point for the other device. The key element is the single-hop nature of a Wi-Fi Direct connection. In the end, Wi-Fi Direct connects only two devices. These two devices can be connected with all of the bells and whistles of modern wireless networking, including WPA2/WPA3.

Wi-Fi Direct uses a couple of services to establish secure connections between devices. The first is Wi-Fi Direct Device and Service Discovery. This protocol provides a way for devices to discover each other based on the services they support before connecting. A device can see all compatible devices in the area and then narrow down the list to only devices that allow a specific service (say, printing) before displaying to the user a list of available printers for pairing. The other method used is WPA2/WPA3. This protocol is used to protect the connections and prevent unauthorized parties from pairing to Wi-Fi Direct devices, or intercepting communications from paired devices.

For Wi-Fi ad hoc, the primary difference is that in the network, multiple devices can communicate with each other, with each device capable of communicating with all other devices.

Tethering

Tethering is the connection of a device to a mobile device that has a means of accessing a network for the purpose of sharing network access. Connecting a mobile phone to a laptop to charge the phone’s battery is not tethering. Connecting it so that the laptop can use the phone to connect to the Internet is tethering. Tethering introduces new outside-of-the-enterprise, span-of-control network connections; it can act to bridge your enterprise network with the outside network.

Hotspot

The term hotspot can refer to a specific piece of network equipment, an endpoint for a wireless solution, or, in other respects, the physical area where connectivity is provided. Typically a Wi-Fi endpoint, a hotspot provides a set of users a method of connecting to a network. This can be done for employees, customers, guests, or a combination thereof based on access control mechanisms employed at the endpoint device. A network engineer will refer to a hotspot as the physical equipment that provides services over a specified geographic area, whereas a user will refer to it as a place they can connect to the network.

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Tethering involves the connection of a device to a mobile device to gain network connectivity. A hotspot can be tethered if the actual device is mobile, but if the device is fixed, it is not tethering.

Payment Methods

Twenty years ago, payment methods were cash, check, and charge. Today, we have new intermediaries; for example, smart devices with NFC linked to credit cards offer a convenient alternative for payments. Although the actual payment is still a credit/debit card charge, the payment pathway is through the digital device. Utilizing the security features of the device, NFC, and biometrics/PIN, this form of payment has some advantages over the other methods because it allows for the addition of specific security measures before the payment method is accessed.

Images Deployment Models

When determining how to incorporate mobile devices securely within the enterprise, you have a wide range of considerations. How will security be enforced? How will all the policies be enforced? And, ultimately, what devices will be supported in the enterprise? There are a variety of deployment models—from employee-owned devices to corporate-owned devices, with mixtures of the two in between. Each of these models has advantages and disadvantages.

CYOD

CYOD (choose your own device) is very similar to BYOD (bring your own device) in concept: users have a choice in the type of device. In most cases, this choice is constrained to a list of acceptable devices that can be supported in the enterprise. Because the device is corporate owned, CYOD provides greater flexibility in corporate restrictions on device use, in terms of apps, data, updates, and so on.

COPE

COPE (company-issued, personally enabled) is a model where employees are supplied a phone chosen and paid for by the company, but they are given permission to use it for personal activities. The company can decide how much choice and freedom employees get with the personal use of the device. This allows the enterprise to control security functionality while dealing with the employee dissatisfaction associated with the traditional method of supplying devices: corporate-owned business-only (COBO).

Corporate-Owned

Corporate-owned business-only (COBO) is a model in which the business supplies a mobile device for company-only use on the part of the employee. This has the disadvantage of the employee having to carry two devices—one personal and one for work—and then separate functions between the devices based on the purpose of use in each instance. The advantage is that the corporation has complete control over the device and can apply any security controls desired without interference from other device functionality.

BYOD

BYOD (bring your own device) has many advantages in business, and not just from the perspective of device cost. Users tend to prefer having a single device rather than carrying multiple devices. Users also have less of a learning curve on devices they already have an interest in learning. This model is popular in small firms and those employing a lot of temporary workers. The big disadvantage is that employees will not be eager to limit the use of their personal device based on corporate policies, so corporate control will be limited.

Data Ownership

BYOD blurs the lines of data ownership because it blurs the lines of device management. If a company owns a smartphone issued to an employee, the company can repossess the phone upon employee termination. This practice may protect company data by keeping the company-issued devices in the hands of employees only. However, a company cannot rely on a simple factory reset before reissuing a device, because factory resetting might not remove all the data on the device. If a device is reissued, it is possible that some of the previous owner’s personal information, such as private contacts, still remains on the device. On the other hand, if the employee’s device is a personal device that has been used for business purposes, upon termination of the employee, it is likely that some company data remains on the phone despite the company’s best efforts to remove its data from the device. If that device is resold or recycled, the company’s data might remain on the device and be passed on to the subsequent owner. Keeping business data in separate, MDM-managed containers is one method of dealing with this issue.

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Tech Tip

BYOD Concerns

There is a dilemma in the use of BYOD devices that store both personal and enterprise data. Wiping the device usually removes all data, both personal and enterprise. Therefore, if corporate policy requires wiping a lost device, that policy may mean the device’s user loses personal photos and data. The software controls for separate data containers—one for business and one for personal—have been proposed but are not a mainstream option yet.

Storage Segmentation

Storage segmentation methods are needed whenever a device has multilevel data security types, as in personal and corporate, or corporate and highly sensitive corporate. Having the ability to manage the separate data streams based on their sensitivity is important because of the highly mobile nature of the device. When an enterprise is using BYOD, then it is expected that non-business use will be occurring, making storage segmentation, covered earlier in the chapter, even more important.

Support Ownership

Support costs for mobile devices are an important consideration for corporations. Each device has its own implementation of various functions. While those functions typically are implemented against a specification, software implementations might not fully or properly implement the specification. This can result in increased support calls to your help desk or support organization. It is very difficult for a corporate help desk to be knowledgeable on all aspects of all possible devices that access a corporate network. For example, your support organization must be able to troubleshoot iPhones, Android devices, tablets, and so forth. These devices are updated frequently, new devices are released, and new capabilities are added on a regular basis. Your support organization will need viable knowledge base articles and job aids in order to provide sufficient support for the wide variety of ever-changing devices.

Patch Management

Just as your corporate policy should enforce the prompt update of desktop and laptop computers to help eliminate security vulnerabilities on those platforms, it should also require mobile devices to be kept current with respect to patches. Having the latest applications, operating system, and so on is an important best defense against viruses, malware, and other threats. It is important to recognize that “jailbreaking” or “rooting” your device can remove the manufacturer’s security mechanisms and protection against malware and other threats. These devices might also no longer be able to update their applications or OS against known issues. Jailbreaking or rooting is also a method used to bypass security measures associated with the device manufacturer control, and in some locations, this can be illegal. Mobile devices that are jailbroken or rooted should not be trusted on your enterprise network or allowed to access sensitive data.

Antivirus/Anti-malware Management

Just like desktop and laptop computers need protection against viruses and malware, so too do smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices. It is important that corporate policy and personal usage keep operating systems and applications current. Antivirus and malware protection should be employed as widely as possible and kept up to date against current threats.

Forensics

Mobile device forensics is a rapidly evolving and fast-changing field. Because devices are evolving so quickly, it is difficult to stay current in this field. Solid forensics principles should always be followed. Devices should be properly handled by using RF-shielded bags or containers. Because of the rapid changes in this area, it’s best to engage the help of trained forensic specialists to ensure that data isn’t contaminated and that the device state and memory are unaltered. If forensics are needed on a device that has both personal and business data, then policies need to be in place to cover the appropriate privacy protections on the personal side of the device.

Privacy

When an employee uses their personal device to perform their work for the company, they may have strong expectations that privacy will be protected by the company. The company policy needs to consider this and address it explicitly. On company-owned devices, it’s quite acceptable for the company to reserve the right to access and wipe any company data on the device. The company can thus state that the user can have no expectation of privacy when using a company device. However, when the device is a personal device, the user may feel stronger ownership. Expectations of privacy and data access on personal devices should be included in your company policy.

Onboarding/Offboarding

Most companies and individuals find it relatively easy to connect mobile devices to the corporate network. Often there are no controls around for connecting a device other than having a Microsoft Exchange account. When new employees join a company, the onboarding processes need to include provisions for mobile device responsibilities. It is easy for new employees to bypass security measures if they are not part of the business process of onboarding.

Employee termination needs to be modified to include termination of accounts on mobile devices. It’s not uncommon to find terminated employees with accounts or even company devices still connecting to the corporate network months after being terminated. E-mail accounts should be removed promptly as part of the employee termination policy and process. Mobile devices supplied by the company should be collected upon termination. BYOD equipment should have its access to corporate resources terminated as part of the offboarding process. Regular audits for old or unterminated accounts should be performed to ensure prompt deletion of accounts for terminated employees.

Adherence to Corporate Policies

Your corporate policies regarding BYOD devices should be consistent with your existing computer security policies. Your training programs should include instruction on mobile device security. Disciplinary actions should be consistent. Your monitoring programs should be enhanced to include monitoring and control of mobile devices.

BYOD User Acceptance

BYOD inherently creates a conflict between personal and corporate interests. An employee who uses their own device to conduct corporate business inherently feels strong ownership over the device and may resent corporate demands to control corporate information downloaded to the device. On the other hand, the corporation expects that corporate data be properly controlled and protected and thus desires to impose remote wiping or lockout requirements in order to protect corporate data. An individual who loses their personal photos from a special event will likely harbor ill feelings toward the corporation if it wipes their device, including those irreplaceable photos. Your corporate BYOD policy needs to be well defined, approved by the corporate legal department, and clearly communicated to all employees through training.

Architecture/Infrastructure Considerations

Mobile devices consume connections to your corporate IT infrastructure. It is not unusual now for a single individual to be connected to the corporate infrastructure with one or more smartphones, tablets, and laptop or desktop computers. Some infrastructure implementations in the past have not been efficient in their design, sometimes consuming multiple connections for a single device. This can reduce the number of available connections for other end users. It is recommended that load testing be performed to ensure that your design or existing infrastructure can support the potentially large number of connections from multiple devices.

Multiple connections can also create security issues when the system tracks user accounts against multiple connections. Users will need to be aware of this so that they don’t inadvertently create incident response situations or find themselves locked out by their own actions. This can be a tricky issue and requires a bit more intelligent design than the traditional philosophy of “one user ID equals one current connection.”

Legal Concerns

It should be apparent from the various topics discussed in this chapter that there are many security challenges presented by mobile devices used for corporate business. Because the technology is rapidly changing, it’s best to make sure you have a solid legal review of policies. There are both legal and public relation concerns when it comes to mobile devices. Employees who use both company-owned and personal devices have responsibilities when company data is involved. Policies and procedures should be reviewed on a regular basis to stay current with technology.

Another challenge presented by mobile devices is the possibility that they will be used for illegal purposes. This can create liability for the company if the device is company-owned.

Acceptable Use Policy

Similar to your acceptable use policies for laptops and desktops, your mobile device policies should address acceptable use of mobile or BYOD devices. Authorized usage of corporate devices for personal purposes should be addressed. Disciplinary actions for violation of mobile device policies should be defined. BYOD offers both the company and the user advantages; ramifications should be specifically spelled out, along with the specific user responsibilities.

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Mobile devices offer many usability advantages across the enterprise, and they can be managed securely with the help of security-conscious users. Security policies can go a long way toward assisting users in understanding their responsibilities associated with mobile devices and sensitive data.

Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)

While it seems the deployment models are only associated with phones, this is really not the case, because personal computers can also be external mobile devices requiring connections at times. In the case of laptops, a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) solution can bring control to the mobile environment associated with non-corporate-owned equipment. The enterprise can set up virtual desktop machines that are fully security compliant and contain all the necessary applications needed by the employee, and then let the employee access the virtual machine via either a virtual connection or a remote desktop connection. This can solve most if not all of the security and application functionality issues associated with mobile devices. It does require an IT staff that is capable of setting up, maintaining, and managing the VDI in the organization, which is not necessarily a small task, depending on the number of instances needed. Interaction with a VDI can be accomplished easily on many of today’s mobile devices because of their advanced screens and compute power.

Chapter 12 Review

Images Chapter Summary

After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you should understand the following about wireless security and mobile devices.

Describe the different wireless systems in use today

Images   A wide range of wireless connectivity methods exist today beyond just Wi-Fi, including cellular, Bluetooth, NFC, and satellite-based services.

Images   802.11 is the IEEE standard for wireless local area networks. The standard includes several different specifications of 802.11 networks, such as 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac, and 802.11ax.

Images   Wi-Fi 4, Wi-Fi 5, and Wi-Fi 6 are more than just new marketing names. They are a means to propel better Wi-Fi-based service in more diverse environments.

Identify 802.11’s security issues and possible solutions

Images   802.11 does not allow physical control of the transport mechanism.

Images   Wireless transmission of all network data sends frames to all wireless machines, not just a single client, similar to Ethernet hub devices.

Images   Poor authentication is caused by the SSID being broadcast to anyone listening.

Images   Multiple encryption methods have been deployed over the years, including WEP (now considered a failure), WPA (deprecated), WPA2, and WPA3.

Images   A wide range of authentication protocols are supported, including EAP, LEAP, PEAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, and EAP-TTLS.

Learn about wireless configuration and deployment

Images   Wireless networks are built using access points and SSIDs.

Images   Technical selection of antennas, device placement, and deployment management through site surveys and testing are important to ensure coverage.

Images   Deployment of physical equipment is complemented through the deployment of security technologies, including MAC filtering and captive portals, to the network elements.

Learn about the different types of wireless attacks

Images   Attacks against protocols include bluejacking, bluesnarfing, and IV attacks.

Images   Attacks against the wireless system include evil twin, replay, disassociation, and rogue AP attacks.

Examine the security of mobile systems

Images   Mobile devices have specific security concerns and specific controls to assist in securing them.

Images   BYOD has its own concerns as well as policies and procedures to manage mobile devices in the enterprise.

Images   Mobile applications require security, and the issues associated with mobile, apps, and security need to be addressed.

Images   The range of security issues associated with mobile devices is a superset of normal endpoint concerns, as mobility and device capabilities increase the points of risk.

Images   Policies are needed to address the unique capabilities and risks associated with the use of mobile devices in the corporate environment.

Images   Specific mobile solutions exist, including MicroSD HSM, MDM with unified endpoint management, and mobile application management.

Images Key Terms

beacon frames (440)

bluebugging (450)

bluejacking (449)

bluesnarfing (450)

Bluetooth (425)

Bluetooth DoS (450)

captive portal (446)

containerization (456)

custom firmware (461)

direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) (430)

disassociation (451)

EAP-FAST (437)

EAP-TLS (437)

EAP-TTLS (438)

evil twin (448)

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) (437)

firmware OTA updates (462)

geo-tagging (454)

IEEE 802.1X (438)

infrared (IR) (427)

initialization vector (IV) (448)

jailbreaking (461)

jamming (449)

MAC filtering (445)

mobile device management (MDM) (452)

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) (462)

multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) (430)

near field communication (NFC) (427)

orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) (430)

PEAP (437)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) (428)

RC4 stream cipher (431)

remote wiping (453)

replay attack (448)

rogue access point (449)

rooting (461)

screen locking (454)

service set identifier (SSID) (440)

Short Message Service (SMS) (462)

sideloading (461)

site survey (444)

storage segmentation (456)

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) (432)

USB OTG (USB On-The-Go) (463)

war-chalking (447)

war-dialing (447)

war-driving (447)

Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) (433)

Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 (WPA3) (436)

WiMAX (429)

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) (431)

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) placement (443)

Zigbee (429)

Images Key Terms Quiz

Use terms from the Key Terms list to complete the sentences that follow. Don’t use the same term more than once. Not all terms will be used.

1.   An AP uses _______________ to advertise its existence to potential wireless clients.

2.   The _______________ is the part of the RC4 cipher that has a weak implementation in WEP.

3.   Two common mobile device security measures are _______________ and _______________.

4.   To identify a specific AP and network, one would use the _______________.

5.   The 32-character identifier attached to the header of a packet used for authentication to an 802.11 access point is the _______________.

6.   _______________ is a feature that can disclose a user’s position when sharing photos.

7.   802.11i updates the flawed security protocol called _______________.

8.   The standard for wireless local area networks is called _______________.

9.   The type of application used to control security across multiple mobile devices in an enterprise is called _______________.

10.   802.11a uses frequencies in the _______________.

Images Multiple-Choice Quiz

1.   Bluebugging can give an attacker what?

A.   All of your contacts

B.   The ability to send “shock” photos

C.   Total control over a mobile phone

D.   A virus

2.   How does 802.11n improve network speed?

A.   Wider bandwidth

B.   Higher frequency

C.   Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)

D.   Both A and C

3.   802.11ax is also called?

A.   Wi-Fi 4

B.   Wi-Fi 5

C.   Wi-Fi 6

D.   5G

4.   WEP has used an implementation of which of the following encryption algorithms?

A.   SHA

B.   ElGamal

C.   RC4

D.   Triple-DES

5.   What element does not belong in a mobile device security policy in an enterprise employing BYOD?

A.   Separation of personal and business-related information

B.   Remote wiping

C.   Passwords and screen locking

D.   Mobile device carrier selection

6.   What is bluejacking?

A.   Stealing a person’s mobile phone

B.   Sending an unsolicited message via Bluetooth

C.   Breaking a WEP key

D.   Leaving your Bluetooth in discoverable mode

7.   While the SSID provides some measure of authentication, why is it not very effective?

A.   It is dictated by the manufacturer of the access point.

B.   It is encrypted.

C.   It is broadcast in every beacon frame.

D.   SSID is not an authentication function.

8.   802.1X is a protocol for which aspect of Ethernet?

A.   Authentication

B.   Speed

C.   Wireless

D.   Cabling

9.   What is the best way to avoid problems with Bluetooth?

A.   Keep personal info off your phone.

B.   Keep Bluetooth discoverability off.

C.   Buy a new phone often.

D.   Encryption.

10.   Why is attacking wireless networks so popular?

A.   There are more wireless networks than wired.

B.   They all run Windows.

C.   It’s easy.

D.   It’s more difficult and more prestigious than other network attacks.

Images Essay Quiz

1.   Produce a report on why sensitive information should not be sent over the Wireless Application Protocol.

2.   When you want to start scanning for rogue wireless networks, your supervisor asks you to write a memo detailing the threats of rogue wireless access points. What information would you include in the memo?

3.   Write a security policy for company-owned cell phones that use the Bluetooth protocol.

4.   Write a memo recommending upgrading your organization’s old 802.11b infrastructure to an 802.11ac- or ax-compliant network, and detail the security enhancements.

Lab Projects

Lab Project 12.1

Set up a wireless scanner on a computer and then use it to find wireless access points. You will need the following:

Images   A laptop with Windows or Linux installed

Images   A compatible wireless 802.11 network adapter

Then do the following:

1.   Pick an appropriate scanner software package.

2.   Install and configure package.

3.   Start the program and make sure it sees your wireless adapter.

4.   Take the laptop on your normal commute (or drive around your neighborhood) with the software running.

5.   Log any access points you detect. If a multi-AP environment is available, record the different APs and values for key identifiers.

Lab Project 12.2

Attempt to scan the area for Bluetooth devices. You will need a cell phone with Bluetooth installed or a computer with a Bluetooth adapter. Then do the following:

1.   If you’re using a PC, download BlueScanner from SourceForge at https://sourceforge.net/projects/bluescanner/.

2.   Take your phone or computer to a place with many people, such as a café.

3.   Start the program and make sure it sees your Bluetooth adapter.

4.   Attempt to scan for vulnerable Bluetooth devices.

5.   If you’re using your phone, tell it to scan for Bluetooth devices. Any devices that you find are running in “discoverable” mode and are potentially exploitable.

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