208
INDEX
INDEX
A
abdominal aorta 34, 40
abdominal separation 156
abdominals 18, 66, 68, 76,
152, 153
abduction 16
Accomplished 46–49
acetabulum 15
Achilles tendon 126
acid reux 202
adduction 16
adductors 18
Adho Mukha Svanasana
124–27
adrenal gland 28, 40
agility 114, 146, 182
aging
and meditation 181
and yoga 182–83
agitation 143, 190, 191, 192
agonist muscles 20, 21
ahimsa (non-harm) 202, 205
diet 39
ajna chakra 201
alignment 178
allostasis 29
alpha waves 25, 185, 187
alternate nostril breathing
33
amygdala 25, 27, 192, 193
anahata chakra 201
analgesic eect 194
anatomy 10–41
Anjaneyasana 98–101
ankle dorsiexors 18
ankle exibility 50
ankle plantar exors 19
ankylosing spondylitis 202
antagonist muscles 20, 21
anterior cingulate cortex 193
anterior superior iliac
spine 15
antibodies 37
antigens 37
anus 38
anxiety 185, 202
aorta 34
aparigraha (nonpossession)
205
appendix 38
arches, foot 89
Ardha Matsyendrasana
68–71
Ardha Sarvangasana
132–35
arm strength 128–31,
154–57
arteries 135
artery wall 35
arthritis 92, 194, 196
osteoarthritis 13, 17, 157,
202
rheumatoid 17, 37, 202
asanas
and chronic pain 195
oor 146–73
inversion 124–43
seated 46–83
standing 86–121
asteya (nonstealing/
abundance) 205
asthma 202
astronauts 198
atoms 10
attention 189, 193
Attention Decit
Hyperactivity Disorder
(ADHD) 180
autoimmune disease 37
autonomic nervous system
(ANS) 22, 23, 189, 190
axial rotation 16
axillary nodes 36
axons 23, 27
B
B-cells 37
back
care of 178–79
lying at on 187
pain 80, 92, 136, 158, 162,
165, 194
strength and exibility
140, 161
backbends 76–83, 136–39,
140–43, 158–61
Baddha Konasana 50–53
Bakasana 146–49
balance 67, 96, 97, 106, 182
poses 102–5, 106–9,
110–13, 114–17, 146–49,
154–57
and pressure 97, 104, 130,
148
three mechanisms of
108–9
Balasana 72–75
ball and socket joints 116
bandhas (energetic locks)
152–53
baroreceptors 32, 134
bee breath (brahmari) 32,
33
behavioral changes 26
belly breathing 31
belly-down boat pose
162–65
beta waves 185, 187
Bhujangasana 158–61
biopsychosocial-spiritual
model 197
Bitilasana 56–59
bladder 40
bliss (anandamaya) 196
blood
composition of 34
and nutrients 38
rush of 138
and waste 40
blood cells 12, 34
blood ow, venous 135
blood pressure 35, 40, 96,
186, 203, 204
lowering 132, 134
regulating 130
blood vessel changes 63
body awareness 110
body-mind connection 189
bone density 120
bone growth 120
bone marrow 12
bone spurs 17
bones 12–13
strengthening 118
yoga and aging 183
Bound Angle 50–53
brachial plexus 22
brahmacharya (moderation)
205
brain
and chronic pain 194,
195
hemispheres 33
inside 24–25
and meditation 181
and mental well-being
192–93
nervous system 22, 23
and perceived pain
pathway 172
plasticity 26
and regulation of blood
ow 138
and spiritual experience
199
understanding science
of 200
yoga and 25, 26, 192–93
brain-derived neurotrophic
factor (BDNF) 25, 26
US_208-213_Index.indd 208 02/11/2018 14:17
209
brainstem 25, 32, 192
brainwaves 187
breathing 30–33
and concentration 113
more ecient 128, 131
and posture 88
breathwork 32–33, 191,
198
Bridge 136–39, 142
bunions 116
bursa 173
bursitis 173, 202
C
calcaneus 13, 126
calcium 12, 21
calmness 136, 143, 191
Camel 76–79
cancer 188, 197
capillaries 35
carbon dioxide 113
cardiac muscle 18
cardiovascular risk 79
cardiovascular system
34–35
carotid artery 34
carpal tunnel syndrome
202–3
carpals 12
cartilage 12, 13
arthritis 17, 37
cartilaginous joints 16
Cat 54–55, 183
cataracts 203
caudate nucleus 25
cells 10
central nervous system 22
cerebellum 25
activation 149
cerebral arteries 35
cerebral cortex 24, 26
cerebral veins 35
cervical extensors 19
cervical hyperextension
79
cervical spine 173
cervical vertebrae 14
cervix 41
Chair 94–97
chakras 201
change, response to 189
chanting 184, 185
children, yoga for 180
Child’s pose 17, 72–75
cholesterol 35
chondrocytes 13
chromosomes 10
cingulate gyrus 25
circulation 35
classes, yoga 26
clavicle 12
closed chain movement
139
coordination 106
Cobra 158–61
coccyx 15
collagen 12, 19, 21
compassion 26
concentration 198
breath and 113
concentric contraction 21
consciousness
higher states of 191, 198
levels of 187
science of 200
constructive rest position
187
contraction, types of
muscle 20
control groups 200
core strength 97, 118, 128,
150, 154
Corpse pose 186–87
corpus callosum 24
cortisol 25, 29
yoga and levels of 27
Cow 56–59
Cow Face 60–63, 142
cramp 117
cranial nerves 22, 190
Crescent Lunge 98–101
Crow 146–49
cysterna chyli 36
cytokines 37
D
Dancer 17, 114–17
deep six external rotators
112
degenerative disk disease
203
dehydration 117
delta waves 187
deltoids 62
dendrite 23
dendritic cells 37
dermis 11
detached retina 203
detoxication 11, 71
dharana (concentration)
198
dhyana (meditation) 198
diabetes
type 1 203
type 2 28, 29, 203
diaphragm 30, 31, 41, 153,
156
compressed 131
three diaphragms 152
diastasis recti 156
digestion, stimulating 68,
70, 158, 164
digestive system 11, 38–39
disk degeneration 165
disk herniation 92, 203
disk stacking 48
disks 64, 66, 68, 70, 93, 179,
203
disease
lifestyle-based chronic
197
stress and chronic 188
yoga research and 201
distress 189
dizziness 205
DNA 10
dopamine 25
dorsiexion 16
“double jointed” 177
Downward-facing Dog
124–27
drishti (focal point) 108
dull state 143, 190, 191
dynamic balance 182
E
ear infections 203
Easy pose 46
eccentric contraction 20
edema 134
eight limb structure 25, 198
Eka Pada Rajakapotasana
80–83
elastic region 177
elbows 16
exors 18
locking 157
electrolyte imbalance 117
elimination, stimulating
158
emotional brain 192
emotional states,
regulating 192, 193
emulation of movement 26
endocrine system 24,
28–29
endometrium 41
endoneurium 23
energy 143, 150, 191
ow of dormant 158
energy and breath
(pranamaya) 196
energy centres (chakras)
201
energy channels (nadis)
201
enlightenment 198, 199
enteric nervous system
(ENS) 39
epidermis 11
epiglottis 30, 38
epineurium 23
equanimity 182
equilibrium 108
erythrocytes 34
esophagus 38
eustress 188, 189
exhalation 31, 32, 59
US_208-213_Index.indd 209 02/11/2018 14:17
210
INDEX
extension 16, 20
external rotation 16
eye conditions 203
F
fallopian tubes 41
falls 182, 183
fascia 20, 21, 64
fascicles 20
fatigue 185
fear 27, 192, 193
feet 89
femoral artery 34
femoral nerve 22
femoral vein 34
femur 13
dierences 52
fetal position 72, 75
bromyalgia 203
brous joints 16
bula 13
bular nerve 22
ght-or-ight response 190,
192
ne motor skills 27
exibility 90, 114, 146,
173–74, 182
exion 16, 21
exion dominance 79
oor asanas 146–73
ow sequences 124
ow state 185
focal point 108
focus 106, 185
food, digestive system 38
foot arches 89
fornix 25
Forward Fold 90–93, 179
fractures 183
friction 173
frontal cortex 192, 193, 199
frontal lobe 24
frozen shoulder 203
G
gallbladder 38
gamma waves 187
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid
25
gate theory of pain 172
genes 10
glands 28–29
glaucoma 203
gluteals 19, 98, 139
glycemic control 29
Golgi tendon organ 169
Gomukhasana 60–63
gravity 86, 118
gray matter
deterioration 195
and mindfulness 185
great saphenous vein 34
greater sciatic notch 15
greenhouse gasses 39
groin stretch 50
groundedness 170
gunas 190–91
gut brain 39
H
habits 192
hair 11
Half Shoulderstand 132–35
hamstrings 139
tight 101, 126
hand-specic sensory
areas 27
head, relaxing 204
Headstand 128–31
health conditions, and yoga
202–5
healthcare systems 197
healthspan 182
heart 28, 32, 34, 35
circulation 35
pounding 143, 154
heart disease 35, 188, 201,
203
heart openers 138
heart rate variability (HRV)
35, 186
heartburn 202
heel 126
herniated disks 92, 203
Hero pose 185
hip abductors 112
hip extensors 19
hip exors 18, 47, 51, 98, 101
hip joints 116
hip replacement 203
hip stretches 50–53
hippocampus 25, 27
hips 15
homeostasis 28, 29, 134,
189
hormones 28–29
hot yoga 11, 177
human body 11
humerus 13
hyperextension
of elbow 157
of knee 121, 203
of lumbar region 143
of neck 57, 79, 160
hyperkyphosis 14, 161
hypermobility 127, 177, 203
hypertension 35, 203
hyperventilation 32
hypotension 204
hypothalamus 24, 28
I
immune system 36
impulsivity 180
incontinence 40
independence, preserving
182
inferior vena cava 34, 40
inammation 36, 37
inguinal nodes 36
inhalation 31, 32, 59
injuries, yoga 202
inner ear, and balance 106,
108
inner thighs 50
instinctual brain 192
insula 24
insulin 29
integumentary system 11
intercostal muscles 18, 74
internal rotation 16
interoception 189, 191
intervertebral disks 64, 70,
92, 165, 172
inversion asanas 124–43
ischial tuberosity 15
ishvara pranidhana
(surrendering/accepting)
205
islets 29
isometric contractions 20
J
Jalandhara bandha 153
joint stabilization 110
joints 12, 16–17
ball and socket 116
bursitis 173
and exibility 176–77
inamed 37
“popping” 176
jugular vein 34
K
Kabat-Zinn, Jon 184
kapalabhati (breath of re)
32
karma (action) 26
Khumbhakasana 150–53
kidneys 40
kinetic chains 139
King Pigeon 80–83
knee alignment 105
knee hyperextension 121
knee ligaments 105
injury 203
knee meniscus tear 204
knee replacement 204
koshas, ve 196
kumbhaka (breath holding)
32, 153
kyphosis 14, 161
L
lactic acid 187
large intestine 38
larynx 30
Lazar, Sara 181
US_208-213_Index.indd 210 02/11/2018 14:17
211
learning 185
Lee, Michael 198
left nostril breathing 32
leukocytes 34, 37
life stages 180–83
lifestyle changes 196, 197
lifestyle choices 188
ligaments 12, 13, 116, 177
knee 105
limbic system 25, 192, 199
liver 11, 38, 187
lobes of the brain 24
Locust 162–65, 183
longevity 94, 96, 149
lordosis 14
low squat 149
lumbar load 92, 96, 97
lumbar plexus 22
lumbar spine 143, 173
lumbar vertebrae 14
lung capacity 88
lungs 30, 31
lymph nodes 36
lymph vessels 36
lymphatic drainage 134
lymphatic system 36–37
lymphocytes 36
M
M-line 20, 21
macrophages 37
Malasana 149
mandible 12
manipura chakra 201
Marjaryasana 54–55
Meatless Monday 39
median nerve 22
meditation 26, 29, 184–85,
189, 198
and brain activity 192
and brain aging 181
for children 180
and chronic pain 194,
195
and Savasana 186
memory 27, 185
menstruation 130
mental well-being, brain
and 192–93
meta-analysis 200
metabolism 29, 177
metacarpals 12
metatarsals 12
migraine 204
milk ducts 41
mind and emotions
(manomaya) 196
mind-body connection 58,
118, 188, 189, 194
mind-body therapy 180
mindfulness
and aging 181, 182
and brain activity 192, 193
and chronic pain 194
and meditation 184, 185
Mindfulness-Based Stress
Reduction (MBSR)
program 184, 185
mindset shifts 196
mineral density 120
mirror neurons 26
mobility 116
mood, regulating 192
motor neurons 169
motor signals 169
Mountain 86–89
mouth 30, 38
movement
closed chain 139
and fascia 21
mindful 184, 189
spinal 173
types of 16
MRI scans 181, 185, 195
mudras 27, 189, 191
mula bandha 40, 153
muladhara chakra 201
multiple sclerosis 204
muscle cramps 117
muscle bers 20
muscle memory 149
muscle spindles 169
muscles
building 116
contraction 21
damage 177
progressive muscle
relaxation 186
skeletal 18–19
sore 187
structure 20
working of 20–21
muscular strength 102, 110,
116, 118, 120
muscular system 18–21
myelin 23
myobrils 20
N
nadis 201
nasal cavity 30
nasal cycle 33
Natarajasana 114–15
neck 178
problems 160
relaxing 74
negative emotions 188, 191
nerve signals 23
nerve structure 23
nervous system 22–27, 64,
132
and breath 30
and muscle contraction 21
neti pots 30
neural pathways 26, 189,
192, 195
neurocognitive pathway
189
neurogenesis 27
neuroglia 27
neuroimaging 199
neuromuscular fatigue 117
neurons 23, 24, 26, 27
neurophysiological pathway
189
neuroplasticity 26, 181, 192
neutral pelvis 15, 50
neutral spine 14, 46, 50,
166, 179
Newberg, Andrew 199
nidra 186, 187
nipples 41
niyamas 198, 205
nociceptive signals 172
non-judgmentalism
191
norepinephrine 25
nose 31
nostrils 30
numbness 202
nutrients 38, 116
O
obesity 204
occipital lobe 24
olfactory bulb 25
“om” 184, 185
organisms 11
organs 11
osteoblasts 120
osteopenia 92, 204
osteophytes 17
osteoporosis 68, 92, 179,
183, 204
ovaries 28, 41
overstretching 177
oxygen 30, 35
P
pain
chronic 194–95, 196, 197
perceived pain pathway
172
relief 173
pancreas 28, 29
panic attacks 202
parasympathetic nervous
system (PSNS) 22, 23, 33,
170, 186
parathyroid gland 28
parietal lobe 24
Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana
64–67
Parkinsons disease 204
patella 123
pathogenesis 197
pectorals 18
pelvic alignment 113
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212
INDEX
pelvic oor diaphragm 152
pelvic oor muscles 40, 41,
150, 153
pelvis 12, 15
dierences 53
softening 53
penis 41
perceived pain pathway 172
perception 193
perineurium 23
peripheral nervous system
(PNS) 22
peristalsis 39, 70, 71
phalanges 12
pharynx 38
physical well-being
(annamaya) 196
pineal gland 25, 28
piriformis 82
pituitary gland 28
placebos 194
Plank 150–53
plantar fascia 20
plantar fasciitis 204
plantar rotation 16
plasma 34
plastic region 177
plasticity 26
platelets 34
pleasure signals 172
Polyvagal Theory 190
pons 25
popliteal artery 34
Porges, Stephen 190
positive behaviors,
reinforcing 192
positive mindset 181
posterior parietal lobe 199
postural alignment 86
posture 178
and breathing 88
counteracting poor 162
prakriti 190
prana 32, 201
pranayama 32, 189, 192,
195, 198
pratyahara (controlled
senses) 198
prefrontal cortex 26
pregnancy
cautions 156, 204
yoga during 181
present moment 184, 185
pressure, and balance 97,
104, 130, 148
pressure points 67, 75, 89,
109, 120
primary somatosensory
cortex 195
problem-solving 181, 185
progressive muscle
relaxation 186
proprioception 59, 106, 109
prostate gland 40
psoas major 100
psoas minor 164
pubic symphysis 15
pulmonary artery 35
pulmonary vein 35
Purusha 191
push-ups 150
putamen 25
Q
Q-angle 88
quadratus lumborum 66
quadriceps 18, 96
R
radius 13
rajasic state 190, 191, 192
randomized controlled
trials 200
range of motion (ROM) 63,
176, 182
reciprocal inhibition (RI) 169
rectum 38
red blood cells 34
relaxation 72–75, 185, 186,
190
relaxin 53
release 169
reproductive system 41
resilience 189, 191
respiratory diaphragm 152
respiratory muscles 156
respiratory system 30–33
rest and digest response
23, 170
rheumatoid arthritis 37
rhomboids 19, 49
ribcage movement 48
ribs 12, 31
right nostril breathing 32
rotation 16
rotator cu
injuries 204
strength 131
routine, changing 26
running 98
S
sacral plexus 22
sacroiliac dysfunction/pain
204
sacroiliac joint 15, 71
sacrum 13, 15
sahasrara chakra 201
Salabhasana 162–65
salivary glands 38
salt water 30
salutogenesis 197
samadhi (enlightenment)
198, 199
sample size 200
samskaras (impressions) 26
santosha (contentment) 205
sarcomeres 20, 21
sattvic state 190, 191
satya (truthfulness) 205
saucha (cleanliness) 205
Savasana 185, 186–87
scalenes 156
scapula 13
sciatic nerve 22, 83
sciatica 80, 204
scoliosis 156, 157, 205
seated asanas 46–83
Seated Twist 68–71
self-actualization 197
self-awareness 193
self-control 25, 198
self-realization 191, 197
self-regulation 25, 189, 195,
198, 205
Selye, Hans 189
sensory awareness 195
serotonin 25, 39
serratus anterior 160, 161
Setu Bandhasana 136–39
sex hormones 28
sexual reproduction 41
shoulder dislocation 205
shoulder exion 142
shoulder joints 116, 128, 130
shoulder stretches 60–63,
170
shoulders, tight 142
Shoulderstand, Half 132–35
shutdown vagus 190
Siddhasana 46–49
Side Bend 64–67
Side Plank 154–57
sinuses 30
sinusitis 205
Sirsasana 128–31
sitting, for meditation 185
skeletal muscles 18–19, 116
skeletal system 12–13
skin 11
skull 12, 30
sleep 87
preparation for 136
small intestine 28, 38
smell 27
smooth muscle 18
social vagus 190, 191
somatic nervous system 22
somatic practices 193
sperm 41
Sphinx pose 160
spinal cord 22, 23, 172, 178
spinal disks 66, 68, 78, 93
spinal extensors 19
spinal exibility 100, 127,
143
spinal stenosis 205
spinal twists 68–71, 170–73
US_208-213_Index.indd 212 28/09/2018 16:16
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