NOTES

Introduction: The Heartbeat of Democracy

1. Thomas Paine, “Dissertation on First Principles of Government,” The Greatest Works of Thomas Paine: 39 Books in One Edition (Musaicum Books, e-book).

2. http://reclaimdemocracy.org/powell_memo_lewis/

3. https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/states-removed-17-million-voters-rolls-two-years-government-agency-n1023416

4. https://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Global-Viewpoint/2013/0305/Argo-helps-Iran-s-dictatorship-harms-democracy

5. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/newsnight/1174115.stm

6. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/25/us/wisconsin-voters.html

7. https://www.thenation.com/article/the-gops-attack-on-voting-rights-was-the-most-under-covered-story-of-2016/

8. https://www.gregpalast.com/why-are-greg-palast-and-jesse-jackson-suing-kris-kobach/

9. https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0091

10. Paine, “Dissertation on First Principles of Government.”

Part One: The Hidden History of the Vote in America

1. http://www.delamar.org/gnpwitch.htm and https://symonsez.wordpress.com/tag/1787-constitutional-convention-weather/

2. https://oll.libertyfund.org/pages/1787-madison-s-notes-of-debates-in-the-federal-convention

3. https://theintercept.com/2019/03/23/black-identity-extremist-fbi-domestic-terrorism/

4. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/03/magazine/FBI-charlottesville-white-nationalism-far-right.html

5. https://constitutioncenter.org/blog/hot-hot-hot-the-summer-of-1787/

6. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000872649.pdf

7. https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-30-02-0451

8. John Ferling, A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 425.

9. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed68.asp

10. http://www.crf-usa.org/bill-of-rights-in-action/bria-25-2-the-major-debates-at-the-constitutional-convention.html

11. http://time.com/4558510/electoral-college-history-slavery/

12. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/09/getting-rid-of-the-electoral-college-dream-on-democrats/

13. Ibid.

14. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/politics/wp/2017/11/28/by-2040-two-thirds-of-americans-will-be-represented-by-30-percent-of-the-senate/?utm_term=.685e1ec228bc

15. Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams, March 31–April 5, 1776 (electronic edition), Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society, http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/.

16. Letter from John Adams to Abigail Adams, April 14, 1776 (electronic edition), Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive, Massachusetts Historical Society, http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/.

17. Susan B. Anthony, November 12, 1872, letter to an unknown correspondent, https://rbscp.lib.rochester.edu/exhibits/show/womens-rights-movement/anthony-and-stanton.

18. https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/83/130

19. https://now.org/resource/voter-suppression-targets-women-youth-and-communities-of-color-issue-advisory-part-one/

20. http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/the-war-voting-war-women

21. https://time.com/5442434/north-dakota-voting-law-native-american-activism/

22. https://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1146&context=tapestries

23. https://www.brennancenter.org/blog/state-native-american-voting-rights

24. https://oll.libertyfund.org/pages/1787-madison-s-notes-of-debates-in-the-federal-convention

25. https://vindicatingthefounders.com/library/madison-remarks.html

26. https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-11-02-0047

27. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/presidents/thomas-jefferson/letters-of-thomas-jefferson/jefl246.php

Part Two: The Economic Royalists’ Modern War on Voting

1. http://armored-column.com/did-the-democrats-gop-switch-sides-after-the-voting-rights-act-in-1964/

2. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/28/republicans-party-of-civil-rights

3. Bill Moyers, Moyers on America: A Journalist and His Times (New York: Anchor Books, 2005, reprint edition), 197.

4. https://www.clarionledger.com/story/news/politics/2016/07/26/trump-neshoba-fair-geoff-pender/87561270/

5. https://www.naacpldf.org/ldf-celebrates-60th-anniversary-brown-v-board-education/southern-manifesto-massive-resistance-brown/

6. Ibid.

7. https://www.thenation.com/article/brown-v-board-education-didnt-end-segregation-big-government-did/

8. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/29/washington/29scotus.html

9. https://www.epi.org/publication/brown-at-60-why-have-we-been-so-disappointed-what-have-we-learned/

10. https://www.rawstory.com/2019/02/trump-loving-ex-governor-says-electoral-college-needed-stop-minorities-picking-presidents/

11. https://www.gotquestions.org/calvinism.html

12. https://oll.libertyfund.org/pages/spencer-proper-sphere-of-government-1843

13. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-Galton

14. http://eugenicsarchive.ca/discover/connections/5233dc9e5c2ec500000000c5#!

15. https://www.uvm.edu/~lkaelber/eugenics/

16. https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/1796

17. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/george-will-federal-voting-drive-makes-a-mountain-out-of-a-molehill/2012/12/19/461e17c4-494c-11e2-ad54-580638ede391_story.html

18. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/12/george-will-gets-almost-everything-wrong-about-voting-rights/266504/

19. Harold C. Syrett, ed., Papers of Alexander Hamilton, Vol. 1 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961–1979), 106.

20. Letter from John Adams to James Sullivan, May 26, 1776, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0091.

21. https://thelibertarianrepublic.com/10-reasons-democracy-is-stupid/

22. Henning W. Prentis, “The Cult of Competency,” General Magazine and Historical Chronicle, University of Pennsylvania the General Alumni Society, Vol. XLV, No. III (April 1943).

23. https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/National_Association_of_Manufacturers

24. http://commonsensegovernment.com/the-tytler-cycle-revisited/

25. https://townhall.com/columnists/walterewilliams/2018/11/07/skin-in-the-game-n2534984

26. https://everydayfeminism.com/2015/09/white-supremacy-everyday-life/

27. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2063742

28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108582/

29. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/black-children-pain-meds-er/story?id=16231146

30. https://news.virginia.edu/content/study-racial-bias-pain-perception-appears-among-children-young-7

31. http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/03/black-boys-older.aspx

32. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324432004578304463789858002

33. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/august/prison-black-laws-080614.html

34. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-08/uog-stm081106.php

35. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/mar/05/new-right-ayn-rand-marx

36. https://www.nsfwcorp.com/dispatch/milton-friedman/

37. https://harpers.org/archive/2004/09/baghdad-year-zero/

38. https://www.alternet.org/2013/09/true-history-libertarianism-america-phony-ideology-promote-corporate-agenda/

39. https://reason.com/archives/1977/02/01/marketing-libertarianism

40. Ibid.

41. https://billmoyers.com/2015/07/03/social-democracy-is-100-american/

42. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/republican-party-platform-1956

43. https://www.reaganfoundation.org/media/128614/inaguration.pdf

44. https://www.sanders.senate.gov/koch-brothers

45. http://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/GOPACtapes.pdf

46. https://fair.org/home/language-a-key-mechanism-of-control/

47. https://www.politico.com/story/2014/04/tea-party-radio-network-105774

48. https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/cancer-eating-the-heart-of-australian-democracy-20180826-p4zzum.html

49. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/thom-hartmann/why-air-america-matters_b_32096.html

50. https://www.justice.gov/crt/title-42-public-health-and-welfare-chapter-20-elective-franchise-subchapter-i-h-national-voter#anchor_1973gg

51. http://clerk.house.gov/evs/1993/roll154.xml

52. https://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=103&session=1&vote=00118#position

53. https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/2/text

54. https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/17pdf/16-980_f2q3.pdf

55. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2017/01/23/at-white-house-trump-tells-congressional-leaders-3-5-million-illegal-ballots-cost-him-the-popular-vote/?utm_term=.b1e68c665fb9

56. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Eagle_Eye_(United_States)

57. http://archive.democrats.com/view2.cfm?id=698

58. https://www.thenation.com/article/how-the-2000-election-in-florida-led-to-a-new-wave-of-voter-disenfranchisement/

59. https://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/brett-kavanaugh-florida-ties-elian-gonzalez-and-2000-election-recount/KW4h9QMoAZd7mogcLv7AdP/

60. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/01/the-gop-just-received-another-tool-for-suppressing-votes/550052/

61. https://theintercept.com/2018/11/10/democrats-should-remember-al-gore-won-florida-in-2000-but-lost-the-presidency-with-a-preemptive-surrender/

62. http://archive3.fairvote.org/articles/raskin-a-right-to-vote/#.UNN3h4njk2I

63. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/BILLS-113hjres44ih/pdf/BILLS-113hjres44ih.pdf

64. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/22/upshot/america-who-deserves-representation.html

65. Wendy R. Weiser, “Voter Suppression: How Bad? (Pretty Bad),” American Prospect, Fall 2014, https://prospect.org/article/22-states-wave-new-voting-restrictions-threatens-shift-outcomes-tight-races.

66. https://www.ajc.com/blog/politics/ebenezer-pastor-pushes-back-sunday-voting-attack/ISDuNu8aMwOTJy09qJMCKI/

67. Weiser, “Voter Suppression: How Bad? (Pretty Bad).”

68. Brennan Center for Justice, “New Voting Restrictions in America,” https://www.brennancenter.org/new-voting-restrictions-america.

69. https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2019/4/22/1852220/-Republican-states-react-to-2018-Democratic-wave-in-the-usual-way-suppressing-the-vote

70. Jonathan Brater, Kevin Morris, Myrna Pérez, Christopher Deluzio, “Purges: A Growing Threat to the Right to Vote, Brennan Center for Justice, July 20, 2018, https://www.brennancenter.org/publication/purges-growing-threat-right-vote.

71. German Lopez, “Southern States Have Closed Down at Least 868 Polling Places for the 2016 Election,” Vox, November 4, 2016, https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/11/4/13501120/vote-polling-places-elections-2016.

72. Reid Wilson, “Voter Turnout Dipped in 2016, Led by Decline among Blacks,” Hill, May 11, 2017, https://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/332970-voter-turnout-dipped-in-2016-led-by-decline-among-blacks.

73. https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/opinion-stacey-abrams-being-robbed-013625104.html

74. https://staceyabrams.com/count-every-vote/

75. https://www.gregpalast.com/martin-luther-kings-cousin-blocked-from-voting/

76. Alexandra Hutzler, “Georgia Governor Race: Hillary Clinton Says If It Were a ‘Fair Election,’ Stacey Abrams Would Have Already Won,” Newsweek, November 14, 2018, https://www.newsweek.com/georgia-governor-race-stacey-abrams-clinton-1215016.

77. https://www.cartercenter.org/news/features/p/elections/kenya-121517.html

78. http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=eim/issue18&document=p4&lang=e#ftn7

79. https://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=eim/issue18&document=p4&lang=e#ftn6

80. https://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/08/31/german_state_election_exit_polls_leaked_on_twitter/

81. https://www.apnews.com/71a7fa094885485696aa37c3b15f993a

82. https://www.apnews.com/6eb6a4ab7b044b7798eba5675db0ac00

83. https://www.apnews.com/cf3a3c2410df444090786d215234acad

84. https://www.apnews.com/21853c2187b24ffcbb22740da4162429

85. Found by using the search terms “exit polls” and “site:bbc.com” on March 10, 2019, using Google.com—all appeared within the first seven pages of results, 10 results to the page.

86. http://content.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1856081,00.html

87. https://abcnews.go.com/images/Politics/EvaluationofEdisonMitofskyElectionSystem.pdf

88. Ibid.

89. https://www.commondreams.org/views06/0601-34.htm

90. https://heavy.com/news/2016/11/2016-exit-polls-did-hillaty-clinton-win-presidential-election-voter-fraud-donald-trump-lose-rigged/

91. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/133Eb4qQmOxNvtesw2hdVns073R68EZx4SfCnP4IGQf8/htmlview?sle=true#gid=19 by Dave Wasserman for the Cook Political Report

92. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A14474-2002Jun19.html

93. https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/2002_Georgia_elections

94. https://www.politico.com/story/2019/02/12/georgia-voting-states-elections-1162134

95. Frank Bajak, “APNewsBreak: Georgia Election Server Wiped after Suit Filed,” Associated Press, October 26, 2017, https://apnews.com/877ee1015f1c43f1965f63538b035d3f.

96. Ibid.

97. http://springfieldvt.blogspot.com/2016/11/howard-dean-hacks-central-vote.html

98. https://www.inquisitr.com/3369838/what-happened-to-howard-deans-voting-machine-interview-with-bev-harris-exposing-election-fraud/

99. https://columbusfreepress.com/article/diebold-indicted-its-spectre-still-haunts-ohio-elections

100. http://time.com/5366171/11-year-old-hacked-into-us-voting-system-10-minutes/

101. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/e-voting-machines-to-be-scrapped-1.722896

102. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/26/magazine/election-security-crisis-midterms.html

103. https://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/01/us/high-tech-voting-system-is-banned-in-california.html

104. https://medium.com/@jennycohn1/georgia-6-and-the-voting-machine-vendors-87278fdb0cdf

105. https://www.wired.com/2003/10/did-e-vote-firm-patch-election/

106. https://chicago.suntimes.com/news/2019/5/7/18619170/companies-raked-in-nearly-266m-from-parking-meters-other-city-assets-last-year

107. https://www.indystar.com/story/news/politics/2015/03/11/australian-company-buys-bankrupt-indiana-toll-road-vendor/70161160/

108. https://www.forbes.com/sites/katevinton/2016/06/01/these-15-billionaires-own-americas-news-media-companies/#62aa0b58660a

109. https://www.gregpalast.com/92-year-old-georgia-grandmother-purged-from-voter-rolls/

110. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/29/magazine/the-new-front-in-the-gerrymandering-wars-democracy-vs-math.html

111. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/politics/supreme-court-gerrymandering.html

112. Ibid.

113. https://www.alternet.org/news-amp-politics/how-gop-tax-cut-will-also-shrink-your-paycheck

114. https://theintercept.com/2015/07/30/jimmy-carter-u-s-oligarchy-unlimited-political-bribery/

115. http://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/nov/13/us-wealth-inequality-top-01-worth-as-much-as-the-bottom-90

116. http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-echochambers-27074746

117. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/1995/01/25/why-resist-the-motor-voter-law/68dd82de-9024-4151-bdd6-55de32336ff9/?utm_term=.7de94e6bbcab

118. https://prospect.org/article/republican-war-voting

119. https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/mckay-stunned-by-report-on-bush/

120. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/21/opinion/21iglesias.html

121. https://eagleton.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/VoterID_Turnout.pdf

122. Ibid.

123. https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/the-gop-war-on-voting-242182/

124. https://www.propublica.org/article/kris-kobachs-lucrative-trail-of-courtroom-defeats

125. Ibid.

126. https://web.stanford.edu/group/bps/cgi-bin/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Do_non-citizens_vote_in_US_elections.pdf

127. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/09/11/trump-voter-suppression-attempts-are-morally-wrong-and-illegal.html

128. https://www.brennancenter.org/issues/trump-fraud-commission

Part Three: Solutions

1. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2017/06/why-are-millions-of-citizens-not-registered-to-vote

2. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/05/opinion/oppression-majority.html

3. https://www.facebook.com/RepMcKinley/photos/a.130614043672264/2136066239793691/?type=3&eid=ARDJM3UYeoPf6a6AEz9zI5rjNbn_nvAuAWaNDWpnR58kQo8NDCUaG3JmrUDTIvMH4Eo4AAtT__cG2oPi&__xts__%5B0%5D=68.ARAZ1TDklWbGT6eSFBpCMIbN5zDk0zesApUDH2kZ-YNRdW-WK2pa-xAdmcYMsEcRYjTXJrB6gkhQh4xfOPbpzlMvFOqx1Ah4aXo_x7P6ONvuNub9fdNfs6ARa5Crws4y86p95pM5j_TcBxZbQDG4RGvXiH4Fr2aOKjexL6JQMBuYI-wBx1fUPiv6VFTG5-YFUVGnD5rOA3WjzaFw6EFGM3nGG53g-8ZGDcQ8U69rdBjBRUQJcHv5mfxitL7lCXbZTiFwpmCQak3wq3w7QGDlEr8cUMps-u4cHiqawf6pkIl7vxzw1vdnIcYWowd9Rv_WXKXzs3EmXa7kL0kvlfe3Tv-MqQ&__tn__=EHH-R

4. https://www.foxnews.com/politics/democrats-vote-against-motion-condemning-illegal-immigrant-voting

5. https://www.foxnews.com/politics/house-democrats-pass-sweeping-voting-rights-bill

6. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/politics/house-passes-election-and-ethics-overhaul-but-mcconnell-says-its-dead-on-arrival

7. https://thehill.com/policy/transportation/312055-feds-closing-driver-license-offices-in-alabama-violates-civil-rights

8. https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/minds-business/the-opt-out-option.html

9. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2017/06/why-are-millions-of-citizens-not-registered-to-vote

10. https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/automatic-voter-registration

11. https://www.apnews.com/07409d1e264549f093a554b38ccd82f3

12. https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/6-million-lost-voters-state-level-estimates-felony-disenfranchisement-2016/

13. https://www.economist.com/united-states/2018/08/09/many-states-are-purging-voters-from-the-rolls

14. http://www.jewishpublicaffairs.org/jcpa-urges-house-members-to-support-h-r-1-the-for-the-people-act/

15. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/06/01/dislike-of-candidates-or-campaign-issues-was-most-common-reason-for-not-voting-in-2016/

16. https://qz.com/1418567/us-elections-are-held-on-a-tuesday-thanks-to-19th-century-farmers/

17. https://www.seniorliving.org/history/1800-1990-changes-urbanrural-us-population/

18. https://ourworldindata.org/employment-in-agriculture

19. http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/all-mail-elections.aspx

20. https://electionlab.mit.edu/research/voting-mail-and-absentee-voting

21. https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugdef45f5_13d9763efa1f4b6fb3d4a8782f98c376.pdf

22. https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/anchorage/2018/04/04/anchorages-vote-by-mail-election-was-supposed-to-boost-turnout-its-now-shattered-a-record/

23. http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/all-mail-elections.aspx

24. https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/expand-early-voting

25. Ibid.

26. https://www.organicconsumers.org/news/robert-kennedy-jr-will-next-election-be-hacked-electronic-voting-machines-cant-be-trusted

27. Ibid.

28. https://truthout.org/articles/privatizing-our-vote-the-ultimate-crime/

29. https://qz.com/61209/e-voting-is-failing-the-developing-world-while-the-us-and-europe-abandon-it/

30. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/paloma/the-cybersecurity-202/2018/09/10/the-cybersecurity-202-the-u-s-is-warning-congo-that-using-electronic-voting-machines-could-backfire/5b953d2f1b326b47ec9594d2/

31. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/11/17/the-electoral-college-badly-distorts-the-vote-and-its-going-to-get-worse/?utm_term=.b152d5f88cc8

32. https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/politics/a26575193/paul-lepage-electoral-college-white-people-say/

33. https://www.commondreams.org/views/2019/03/14/good-bye-electoral-college-popular-vote-movement-gaining-steam

34. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duverger%27s_law

35. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/australia-compulsory-voting_us_5a9deac4e4b0479c02563d9a

36. https://www.futurity.org/mandatory-voting-pros-cons-1922322-2/

37. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/politics/wp/2018/07/12/in-about-20-years-half-the-population-will-live-in-eight-states/?utm_term=.44ec59b29535

38. https://population.us/nd/

39. https://population.us/sd/

40. http://worldpopulationreview.com/states/

41. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/12/dc-has-more-people-than-wyoming-and-vermont-still-not-a-state/437661/

42. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2017_Puerto_Rican_status_referendum

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