Notes

First Note

1. eMarketer (2020).

2. OC&C (2018).

3. Minsky and Fahey (2017).

4. Minsky and Fahey (2017).

5. Ciccarelli (2019).

6. AMA (2019).

7. Jackson (2003), p. 9.

8. Jackson (2003), p. 5.

9. Jackson (2003), p. 23.

10. Jackson (2003), p. 15.

11. Bronner (2009), p. 78.

12. Renard (2017).

13. Jackson (2003), p. 9.

14. Jackson (2003), p. 9.

15. Krishnan, et al. (2012).

16. van Leeuwen (2017), p. 119.

17. van Leeuwen (2017), p. 120.

18. van Leeuwen (2017), p. 131.

19. Beckerman (2014), p. 8.

20. Jackson (2003), p. 23.

21. Treasure (2011), pp. 172–173.

22. Kellaris (2001).

Chapter 1

1. The “sound mark” registration expired on November 3, 1992. A second registration was made in 1971.

2. (15 U.S. Code § 1127)

3. U.S. Department of Commerce agency responsible for issuing trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

4. https://uspto.gov/trademark/soundmarks/trademark-sound-mark

5. Statement of Robert C. Wright, President and Chief Executive Officer. “National Broadcasting Company, Inc.” Television Network Mergers Hearings before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One hundredth Congress, first session, April 28, 29, and 30, 1987, Volume 4, page 180.

6. The NBC chimes sound mark is currently assigned to NBCUniversal Media, LLC.

7. https://trademarks.justia.com/723/49/n-a-72349496.html

8. General Electric Broadcasting Co., 199 U.S.P.Q. 560, 562–563 (T.T.A.B. 1978).

9. Shoshani (n.d.).

10. Ellerbee (2017).

Chapter 2

1. Barkan (2015).

2. Burlingame (2012).

3. http://johnwilliams.org/reference/biography

4. Ross (2020).

Chapter 3

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Note

2. https://uspto.gov/trademark/soundmarks/trademark-sound-mark-examples

3. http://jamminpower.org/index.html

4. Brownlee (2015).

5. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

6. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

7. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

8. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

9. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

10. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

11. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

12. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

13. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

14. Interview with Dr. James “Andy” Moorer (April 24, 2020).

Chapter 4

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_%26_Order#Music_and_sound_effects

2. http://mike-post.com/biography/

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Post

4. Genzlinger (n.d.).

5. Interview with Mike Post (April 24, 2020).

6. Interview with Mike Post (April 24, 2020).

7. Interview with Mike Post (April 24, 2020).

8. Interview with Mike Post (April 24, 2020).

9. Interview with Mike Post (April 24, 2020).

10. Interview with Mike Post (April 24, 2020).

11. Interview with Mike Post (April 24, 2020).

Chapter 5

1. Whitwell (2005).

2. Kaufman (1999).

3. Kaufman (1999).

4. Jackson (2003, p. 2).

5. See Intel Inside Making of the Music (2018).

6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edelweiss_(band).

7. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

8. Intel (2014).

9. Intel (2014).

10. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

11. Kaufman (1999).

12. Kaufman (1999).

13. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

14. Intel (2014).

15. Sanders (2016).

16. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

17. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

18. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

19. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

20. Interview with Walter Werzowa (April 22, 2020).

Chapter 6

1. Frere-Jones (2014).

2. Selvin (1996).

3. https://bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00k3x21

4. Van Leeuwen (2017).

5. Eno (1975).

6. Van Leeuwen (2017).

Chapter 7

1. Marsden (2014).

2. https://linkedin.com/in/lancemassey/

3. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

4. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

5. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

6. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

7. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

8. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

9. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

10. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

11. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

12. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

13. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

14. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

15. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

16. Interview with Lance Massey (April 28, 2020).

Chapter 8

1. Elliot (2003).

2. White and Leung (2003).

3. Ives (2004).

4. Interview with Bill Lamar (June 24, 2020).

5. Interview with Bill Lamar (June 24, 2020).

6. Interview with Bill Lamar (June 24, 2020).

7. Interview with Bill Lamar (June 24, 2020).

8. Interview with Bill Lamar (June 24, 2020).

9. Interview with Bill Lamar (June 24, 2020).

10. Interview with Bill Lamar (June 24, 2020).

Chapter 9

1. Moye (2013).

2. Coca-Cola (2016).

3. https://linkedin.com/in/umut-ozaydinli-0896573/

4. https://linkedin.com/in/joe-belliotti-9977161/

5. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

6. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

7. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

8. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

9. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

10. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

11. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

12. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

13. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

14. Interview with Umut Ozaydinli and Joe Belliotti (May 01, 2020).

Chapter 10

1. https://linkedin.com/in/joel-beckerman-93725/

2. Jurgensen (2012).

3. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

4. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

5. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

6. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

7. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

8. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

9. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

10. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

11. Interview with Joel Beckerman (May 24, 2020).

The Next Chapter

1. https://mastercardcontentexchange.com/newsroom/press-releases/2019/february/sound-on-mastercard-debuts-sonic-brand/

2. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

3. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

4. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

5. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

6. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

7. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

8. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

9. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

10. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

11. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

12. Interview with Raja Rajamannar (August 5, 2020).

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