The EOS R5 and R6 are awesome video machines, although the upscale R5 has some extra features that will be especially prized by professional videographers. The R5 can shoot 8K DCI video at up to 30 frames per second using the DCI (Digital Cinema Initiatives) specification, while the R6 can “only” capture video at up to 4K UHD at no more than 60 fps.
The R5’s capabilities become more impressive when you know that DCI is a consortium of the major motion-picture studios, including Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment, 20th Century Fox, Universal Studios, The Walt Disney Company, and Warner Brothers. The DCI specification and 8K compatibility, coupled with the R5’s support for RAW video, means that the R5 can be decked out as a professional video camera in every sense of the word. Since 8K video produces a heck of a lot of data, you can see why the R5 was endowed with its super-fast CFexpress card slot.
Not that the R6 is a slacker. Like its sibling, it has headphone and microphone jacks, focus peaking and zebra exposure indicators, and can capture both Canon Log (C-log) or HDR PQ video with view assist for both (so you can playback high-dynamic range clips on the camera or an HDMI monitor).
Although videography merits a book of its own, I hope to provide you with a good introduction to your camera’s movie-making prowess in this chapter and the next.
Shooting movies on the spur of the moment is easy, even if you are currently in any still shooting mode. With both the R5 and R6, all you need to do is press the Movie button (located on top of the camera to the southwest of the shutter release and marked with a red dot). To stop shooting, press the button again. That’s all there is to it.
If Scene Intelligent Auto is selected as your movie mode, the camera tries to detect what type of scene is being captured and displays an icon representing the selected scene in the upper-left corner of the display. There are many possible icons. Scene selection takes into account background (bright, bright/backlit, blue sky, blue sky/backlit, sunset, spotlight, and dark), as well as subject (people, people in motion, nature/outdoors, in motion, and close-up). The camera can also detect when the camera is mounted on a tripod and activate scene modes with longer shutter speeds to help brighten the background.
While Scene Intelligent Auto is fine for casual use, if you need the most flexibility and full control over your settings, you’ll want to switch to one of the “official” movie modes. The R5 and R6 switch to movie mode and begin shooting in one of two ways.
Here’s what you need to get started shooting video with your EOS R6.
Your R5 does not have a Mode Dial like the R6. By this time, you’ve learned how to use the camera’s MODE button and displays to switch among available modes. Just follow these steps:
In Still photography mode, the R6 has a ninth Photo Shooting menu. I did not describe it, because its settings are available in the full Movie Shooting menus when the R6 is in Movie mode. In that mode, a revised set of eight Movie Shooting menus appear on both the R6 and R5. (In Scene Intelligent Auto mode, there are only two, with a subset of the features I’ll describe next.)
Some of the entries in the Movie Shooting menus have exact counterparts for those available for still shooting. As they were explained in detail in Chapter 11, I won’t repeat that information here. Those duplicate entries that I don’t address in this chapter are marked with an asterisk in the list below. The rest are new or different, and I’ll explain them in more detail later in this chapter.
Here are the options found in the Movie Shooting menus:
Movie Shooting 1
Movie Shooting 2
Movie Shooting 3
Movie Shooting 4
Movie Shooting 5
Movie Shooting 6
Movie Shooting 7
Movie Shooting 8
Options: Movie Autoexposure (default), Movie Manual Exposure
This is the first entry in the R6’s version of the Movie Shooting 1 menu, shown earlier at left in Figure 16.1 You have just two options, Movie Autoexposure and Movie Manual Exposure.
Options: Movie Recording Size, High Frame Rate
Your camera has a large number of video recording quality settings, including ultra-high-resolution 4K video, and, with the R5, 8K video as well. (See Figure 16.4.) I’ll explain the use of these settings in more detail later in this chapter, but, in brief, your choices include the following.
Note: When you scroll down the quality modes with the R5, you can enable 4K HQ (High Quality) mode, which brings up additional modes: 4K-D Fine and 4K-U Fine, with 29.97P, 24.00P, and 23.98P frame rates and All-I, IPB, and IPB Lite compression options.
Note: When you scroll to enable High Frame Rate movies, your video is captured at 119.9P (NTSC) or 100.0P (PAL), but is played back at 29.97/25.00 fps speeds, resulting in 4X slow motion (one second of action takes four seconds to play back.) However, if you output your video from the camera through the HDMI port, it will be displayed in 2X slow-motion format, instead. High Frame Rate movies are recorded with ALL-I compression in both 4K and Full HD formats with the R5, and IPB compression in Full HD only with the R6.
Sound is not recorded, and clips are limited to 7 minutes, 29 seconds. Time codes are not recorded when Count Up is set to Free Run (as described later). Flickering may be noticeable under fluorescent or LED light sources.
All movies, except for RAW (R5 only) are stored using the MP4 format as the “container” for your video files, with the MPEG4 AVC/H.264 codec (coder/decoder). MP4 is an international standard and widely supported/used and recorded using progressive scan, described shortly. MP4 files receive the .MP4 extension, while RAW files captured by the R5 are represented by a .CRM extension. R5 owners can choose RAW+MP4 to record in both formats.
Options: Disable (default), Enable
The actual area of the sensor’s full image size that is captured is always cropped to a certain extent when shooting movies. Because the FHD, 4K, and 8K aspect ratios are 16:9 rather than the 3:2 ratio used for still photography, a certain amount is cropped off the top and bottom of your frame. The remaining area may be further cropped depending on your movie mode and the lenses you are using. This setting gives you some control over the image crop used. The croppings used for the R5 and R6 vary, so I’ll explain them after I first provide an overview of what Movie Cropping does.
Note: High Frame Rate movies cannot be captured with the R5 or R6 when using EF-S lenses or when Movie Cropping is set to Enable. An additional slight crop is applied when using Movie Digital IS. If you’re working with the R5, 8K and 4K movies cannot be captured when EF-S lenses are mounted on the camera.
Welcome to the confusing world of ultra-high-definition video—and beyond. Just when you may have become comfortable with 4K video (most new televisions are compatible with it), Canon’s video-adept EOS R5 takes you one step beyond, to a world where both 4K and its 8K (four times the resolution) counterpart come with two different resolutions and aspect ratios.
Canon labels these by appending a D (for the Cinema DCI standard used for digital motion pictures) or U (for the UHD standard used for television display). The variations use the same number of rows of pixels as their counterparts (height on the screen), but a different width. The red vertical lines in Figures 16.5 and 16.7 illustrate how much less “wide” the 8K/4K-U formats are. Table 16.1 shows you the difference.
Options: Sound Recording: Auto (default), Manual, Disable; Wind Filter: Auto (default), Disable; Attenuator: Disable (default), Enable
This setting lets you choose Auto, Manual, or Disable; plus, Enable or Disable the wind filter and attenuator. In Movie Scene Intelligent Auto (A+) mode, only On (Auto level) or Off are available. Left/right balance cannot be adjusted. (See Figure 16.8.)
You can use the built-in stereo microphone or plug in a stereo microphone into the 3.5mm jack on the left side of the camera. An external microphone is a good idea because the built-in microphone can easily pick up camera operation, such as the autofocus motor in a lens. Headphones are useful for monitoring sound. Press the Q button, select Headphone, and rotate the Main Dial to adjust headphone volume.
Options: ISO Speed, ISO Speed Range, Max for Auto, Time-lapse Max for Auto
This is the first movie-specific entry in the Movie Shooting 2 menu. (See Figure 16.9.) (The first entry, Exposure Compensation, as well as several others in this menu, function the same as in Still photo mode and are not covered in this chapter.) You can separately specify ISO parameters for movie shooting using this entry. Select a specific ISO speed or specify limits on the range of ISO settings and shutter speeds that the camera selects automatically. The subentries, shown in Figure 16.10, include:
In Movie M (Manual exposure) mode, you can select a specific ISO speed from ISO 100 to 25,600. However, you can expand the manual setting range to ISO 51,200 (R5) or ISO 204,800 (R6) using the ISO Speed Range setting described next. Oddly enough, Manual exposure mode also has an Auto setting. The latter effectively gives you an autoexposure mode when using manual exposure: you select the shutter speed and aperture manually, and the camera adjusts the ISO to produce the right exposure.
Note: The minimum speed is set to ISO 400 for Auto exposure when Canon Log is enabled. The ISO 100 and ISO 200 settings can still be specified manually, but they are labeled as expanded L settings, indicating that some quality loss should be expected.
I find myself using this feature frequently to keep me from accidentally switching to a setting I’d rather (or need to) avoid. For example, at concerts I may switch from ISO 1600 to 6400 as the lighting changes, and I set those two values as my minimum or maximum. Outdoors in daylight, I might prefer to lock out ISO values lower than ISO 100 or higher than ISO 800.
Options: Disable (default), Enable
This is the next movie-oriented entry shown earlier in Figure 16.9. RF-mount lenses have apertures that can be controlled much more precisely than those found in EF/EF-S lenses, and Canon takes advantage of that by offering the ability to adjust f/stops in increments of 1/8th stop. While such fine increments are not essential for still photography, when movie shooting it’s important to have consistent exposure, especially with sequences of shots. This feature is available only in the two Movie exposure modes in which you have full control over the aperture—Av and M modes. Choose Enable to allow selection in 1/8th stop increments rather than the 1/2- or 1/3-stop jumps you may have set in the Custom Functions 1’s Exposure Level Increments entry. This feature does not work with EF or EF-S lenses.
Options: Auto Slow On (default), Auto Slow Off
Use this setting to allow the camera to select a slower shutter speed no faster than 1/30th second when shooting with Program or Av (Aperture-priority) at a frame rate of 60p. (I’ll provide more detail on how choice of frame rates affects your movies later in this chapter.) You can select Enable or Disable. Here’s the difference:
Options: Canon Log, View Assist, Color Matrix, Characteristics, Color Space
This is the only Movie Shooting–specific entry in the Movie Shooting 3 menu, which is not illustrated with a figure for that reason. Canon Log, or C-log is a type of gamma adjustment, which allows capturing as much useful tonal information as possible, thanks to the non-linear way in which humans perceive light and color. In plain English, C-log allows the camera to squeeze as much of the original scene’s dynamic range as possible into a video file with as many as 10 bits of information. It produces a “flat”-looking, low-contrast image that looks horrible when viewed before it’s post-processed in a suitable professional video-editing program, such as DaVinci Resolve, Adobe Premiere Pro, or Apple Final Cut Pro. It’s then processed during editing to create a rich, full-range video.
Theoretically, the basic Canon Log profile allows an increased tonal (dynamic) range of about 800 percent, or 12 f/stops at sensitivity settings of ISO 400 or above. (The ISO boost is needed to allow the Dual Pixel CMOS sensor to capture the extra detail in the highlights and shadows.) Canon has added a “View Assist” function available from the HDMI entry in the Setup menu that allows you to view a “corrected” version in the camera before actual processing (called grading) has taken place. Log profiles space the data captured more equally among the number of stops of exposure captured, using a predetermined number of stops, with colors desaturated (“flatter”-looking) to eliminate over-saturated parts of the scene that would interfere with corrective grading.
The technology underlying Canon Log is beyond the scope of this book, which emphasizes camera features over software processing, but videographers who perform post-processing grading will appreciate the ability to use a system of 10 “look-up tables” (called LUTs in video parlance) that substitute appropriate values to correct the recorded image’s gamma and color space for viewing on an external monitor. Canon provides useful LUT data on their website for downloading.
You should know that Canon upped the ante with its 1.3.0/1.3.1 firmware updates (and any later updates offered after this book went to press). A new Canon Log 3 profile was added with additional advantages over the original basic Canon Log profile. C-Log3 doubles the base ISO rating to 800, which effectively tells the camera to use one stop less exposure to capture a greater number of highlights. C-Log3 does a better job of not clipping black values, producing better results in shadows during grading. Compared to Canon Log, C-Log3 offers a bit more dynamic range, improved shadows, and is more compatible with the look-up tables used with Canon’s Cinema EOS models.
To capture movies with Canon Log, follow these steps:
Options: Disable (default), Enable
As none of the entries in the Movie Shooting 4 menu are movie-specific, we continue our discussion with this option, the first in the Movie Shooting 5 menu. (See Figure 16.12.)
This setting simply turns HDR movie recording on or off. There are no additional settings to make. I’ll discuss HDR movie making later in this chapter, but the important things to note here are the other settings that preclude HDR shooting. Highlight Tone Priority, Canon Log, Movie Digital IS, and Movie Cropping must be disabled. Movie recording quality is fixed at FHD 29.97P IPB. You’ll find more HDR movie information near the end of this chapter.
Options: Time-lapse: Disable (default), Enable; Interval, Number of shots, Movie Recording Size, Auto Exposure, Screen Auto Off, Beep As Image Taken
Time-lapse photography isn’t just for nature photographers who want to show the miracle of a flower bud gradually opening to its full blossoming glory. Time-lapse has hit the mainstream, and an amazing number of movies and television shows use it to represent the passage of time, whether it’s the march of the sun across the sky in the daytime or the changing seasons. Canon has placed this technique within your grasp, as well.
Options: Off (default), 10 seconds, 2 seconds
This is the first entry in the Movie Shooting 6 menu. (See Figure 16.14.) This is a handy feature that delays the beginning of movie capture for either 10 or 2 seconds. It gives you time to get in front of the camera yourself (choose 10 seconds if you need to comb your hair; 2 seconds if you’re ready to go or don’t care). If you don’t have a remote release, this setting also can be used to let the camera settle down after you’ve stabbed the Movie button with your index finger. (Tip: don’t stab!)
Vloggers could also use this feature for an impromptu session, but probably wouldn’t need it, as those serious enough to use an R5 or R6 (instead of a smartphone) probably also are adept at using editing tools to snip out the offending rush to make the scene.
Options: Disable (default), Enable
You’ll need to enable your camera to use a remote control to start/stop movie making. Both the R5 and R6 are compatible with the Remote Controller RC-6 and Wireless Remote Control BR-E1. The R5 can use the wired Remote Switch RS-80N3/TC-80N3, while the counterpart for the R6 is the Remote Switch RS-60E3. Consult the manual that came with your remote to learn each device’s options.
Options: Off (default), On, Enhanced
This is the first entry in the Movie Shooting 7 menu. (See Figure 16.15.) Although your camera relies on the image stabilization built into some RF- and EF/EF-S-mount lenses, it can supplement this optical image stabilization (OIS) with an electronic version called Movie Digital IS that can be activated when shooting video.
Digital image stabilization takes advantage of the fact that cropped video frames contain some image information outside the boundaries of the actual frame displayed. The camera is able to monitor movement and compensate for it by shifting the pixels of the entire frame slightly so that subject matter that is not moving remains in the same relative position in the frame. That is, if the camera image shakes a few pixels to the left, the frame area is moved an equivalent amount the same number of pixels to the right. Because some pixels at the edges of the frame must be trimmed to compensate for this adjustment, the resulting movie is slightly cropped, adding a small amount of magnification. If you’re using EF-S lenses, or have selected the Movie Cropping feature, additional cropping/magnification is applied.
You must use this feature in conjunction with the built-in optical image stabilization of your lenses that have stabilization (it won’t work if your lens has IS and it is turned off). Canon provides a list of lenses that are compatible with what it terms “combination IS” (when both digital and optical image stabilization are combined). Movie IS does not work with lenses with a focal length greater than 800mm and is not recommended with tilt/shift (TS-E), fisheye, or third-party lenses. Your options are as follows:
Options: Half-press: Metering+Movie Servo AF (default), Metering+One-Shot AF, Metering Only; Fully-press: No Function (default), Start/Stop Movie Recording
This entry allows you to define a function for the shutter button during movie shooting, overriding any setting you may have specified using the Custom Functions 3 menu’s Customize Buttons options. Separate behaviors can be set for a half-press and full press of the button.
Options: Zebra Off (default), On; Zebra pattern (Zebra 1, Zebra 2, Zebra 1+2); Zebra 1 Level (5–95 percent), Zebra 2 Level (50–100 percent)
This feature warns you when highlight levels in your image are brighter than a setting you specify in this menu option. It’s somewhat comparable to the flashing “blinkies” that digital cameras have long used during image review to tell us, after the fact, which highlight areas of the image we just took are blown out.
Zebra patterns are a much more useful tool because you are given an alert before you take the picture and can specify exactly how bright too bright is. The Zebra feature has been a staple of professional video shooting for a long time, as you might guess from the moniker assigned to the unit used to specify brightness: IRE, a measure of video signal level, which stands for Institute of Radio Engineers.
When you want to use Zebra pattern warnings, access this menu entry, choose your pattern, and specify an IRE brightness value from 5 to 100 (depending on pattern selected). Once you see the results on your display, you can adjust your exposure settings to reduce the brightness of the highlights, as described in Chapter 4.
So, exactly how bright is too bright? A value of 100 IRE indicates pure white, so any Zebra pattern visible when using this setting indicates that your image is extremely overexposed. Any details in the highlights are gone and cannot be retrieved. Settings from 70 to 90 can be used to make sure facial tones are not overexposed. Generally, Caucasian skin falls in the 80 IRE range, with darker skin tones registering as low as 70, and very fair skin or lighter areas of your subject edging closer to 90 IRE. Once you’ve decided the approximate range of tones that you want to make sure do not blow out, you can set the camera’s Zebra pattern sensitivity appropriately and receive the flashing striped warning on your display. (See Figure 16.17.) The pattern does not appear in your final image, of course—it’s just an aid to keep you from blowing it, so to speak. Maximum brightness value can vary, depending on your Canon Log, Highlight Tone Priority, Picture Style, and HDR-PQ settings.
Your adjustments, shown in Figure 16.16, include:
Options: Screen Information Settings, VF Info/Toggle Settings, Grid Display, Histogram Display, Focus Distance Display
Options: Display 1, Display 2
These two entries function virtually identically to their Still photography counterpart and, indeed, any settings you make in still or movie modes are used in the other mode as well. The only difference is found in the Shooing Information Display entry, as the movie version does not have the Viewfinder Vertical Display option, nor apply it if enabled in still mode.
Options: On (default), Off
This is the first entry in the Movie Shooting 8 menu. (See Figure 16.18.) The sensor is energized and memory card storage is active continuously as you preview or capture video. Autofocus, exposure metering, and other functions are also hard at work. Shooting 4K and 8K (with the R5) video at high speeds and fast transfer rates generates a lot of heat. This Overheat control helps prevent the camera from becoming over-warm and, perhaps damaging the sensor while idling. If these concerns don’t worry you, you can switch from the default On setting to Off. Your chief gain is faster response when you resume capture, and improved display on the standby screen.
Options: Camera+External (default), External Only
When directing video to an external device, you can choose whether your output is displayed on your camera and on the external device, or only on the external recorder or monitor.
You might want to use this mode to be able to monitor your recording at the camera, as well as on the HDMI device (which may be physically separated and connected by a long cable).
Options: Count Up, Start Time Setting, Movie Rec. Count, Movie Play Count, HDMI, Drop Frame
Advanced video shooters find SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers)-compatible time codes embedded in the video files to be an invaluable reference during editing. To oversimplify a bit, the time system provides precise hour:minute:second:frame markers that allow identifying and synchronizing frames and audio. The time code system includes a provision for “dropping” frames to ensure that the fractional frame rate of captured video (remember that a 24 fps setting actually yields 23.976 frames per second while 30 fps capture gives you 29.97 actual “frames” per second) can be matched up with actual time spans.
As I noted in the introduction to this book, I won’t be covering the most technical aspects of movie shooting in great detail (including time codes, raw HDMI streaming, etc.). If you’re at the stage where you’re using time codes, you don’t need a primer, anyway. However, the Time Code submenu, shown in Figure 16.19, does include the following options:
The latter is useful when you want to synchronize clips between multiple cameras that are shooting the same event. When using Free Run, even if the cameras record at different times, you’ll be able to match the video that was captured at the exact same moment during editing. When Free Run is selected, the time code will always be recorded to the movie file (except for HFR clips).
When you’ve switched to one of the movie shooting modes, a revised set of four Movie Autofocus menus (see Figure 16.20) appear with a total of 17 entries. Most are identical to their exact counterparts for still shooting and were explained in Chapter 12, and, again, I won’t repeat those descriptions here.
Instead, I’ll explain the differences and describe the three new entries, which relate to differences in autofocus when shooting movies. Your other movie AF settings, such as AF Method, will be familiar to you from still shooting. First the menu differences:
Options: Enable (default), Disable
With either camera, this function operates similarly to Continuous AF described in Chapter 12, but, when enabled, uses only Movie Servo AF. When disabled, you can initiate autofocus by pressing the shutter button halfway or the AF-ON button. When active, focus is adjusted constantly without the need to press the shutter release halfway. To lock focus or pause continuous focusing (say, to eliminate the sound of the lens’s motor as it refocuses), tap the Servo AF icon at the lower left of the LCD screen. Tap again to resume. Movie Servo AF will also be reactivated if you press the MENU or Playback buttons, or change the AF method. You can specify how the camera responds using the Movie AF Speed entry, described next.
Options: When Active, AF Speed
This choice is available when Movie Servo AF is set to Enable. The function is also enabled when using lenses released after 2009 that have USM or STM motors. Your choices are as follows:
Options: –3 (Locked On) to +3 (Responsive)
Here you can specify how quickly the Movie Servo AF tracking locks onto a moving subject. Movie Servo AF must be enabled. It’s similar to the Tracking Sensitivity that you can set in the Autofocus 1 menu, as described in Chapter 12. As with its still photo counterpart, changing the tracking sensitivity can come in useful when an intervening subject passes through the frame in front of the subject you were capturing. It’s also helpful when panning. A sliding scale can be adjusted from Locked On (–3 to –1) to Responsive (+1 to +3) or standard at the 0 position. (See Figure 16.22.) Locked On tells the camera to stick with the subject currently in focus—like that referee at a football game, or a passerby in an urban scene. Responsive settings tell the camera to switch to track a subject located at the current focus point, even if it’s the same subject now moving toward you at a rapid rate, or a different subject that comes into view.
I’ve explained how to make and use settings first, and saved explanations of some of the technical terms for now. The information in this section will help you make your choices. Even intermediate movie shooters can be confused by the number of different options for compression, resolution, and frame rates. This section will help clarify things for you.
Compression is easiest to understand, so I’ll get it out of the way first. As I mentioned earlier, the camera stores files using the standard H.264/MPEG-4 codec (“coder-decoder”). For many of the Movie Size options listed earlier, you can select either ALL-I or IPB compression methods (either Standard or Light).
However, the reduced compression puts extra demands on your camera and memory card as video is stored, especially when shooting 4K movies. Canon says that transfer rates average 480Mb/s when using ALL-I for UHD video. IPB compression (discussed next) requires only one-quarter that transfer rate—120Mb/s.
Video encoded using IPB must be converted, or transcoded to a format compatible with your video-editing software. The compression scheme can produce more artifacts, particularly in frames with lots of motion throughout the frame. I use this method only when the ability to shoot longer is very important.
The video is directed through the HDMI port with embedded time code to an external monitor or recorder. As mentioned earlier, you can simultaneously display the video on the color LCD as it is recorded to your memory card. You can choose whether to display the captured image and scene and camera shooting information on the LCD as you shoot. This capability allows professional videographers (or other advanced shooters) more latitude in color correction through the enhanced color space, improved monitoring during the shoot, and more versatile post-production workflow. You can, for example, synchronize the camera’s video capture with the start/stop of the external video recorder.
Movie files are limited to 4GB in size if you are using an SDHC card (those with a capacity of 32GB or less). Such cards are formatted using the FAT32 file system, which cannot store files larger than 4GB. If a clip stored on such a card reaches that size, the camera will create a new file and continue shooting. The separate files must be viewed separately and/or combined in a movie editor.
On the other hand, SDXC cards (with capacities of 64GB or more) and CFexpress cards (used by the R5) are formatted in the camera using the exFAT file system and files can exceed 4GB. However, your computer’s operating system may have some restrictions on file size.
In any case, the maximum recording time for a movie clip (other than High Frame Rate movies) is 29 minutes, 59 seconds, regardless of file size. (High frame rate clips are limited to 7 minutes, 29 seconds.) Movie shooting will stop automatically, but you can begin shooting a new movie immediately. The EOS Movie Utility can merge multiple MOV files into one longer file. You can also use third-party movie-editing software to edit and combine your clips.
ALL-I files will reach the 4GB limit in about five minutes at 685MB/minute. So, if you really need to capture a continuous shot in one file (say, a performance), you might want to use IPB. The 4GB limitation is not as noxious as you might think, and you can continue capture without, in practice, an interruption. Roughly 30 seconds before the 4GB file size is reached, the elapsed shooting time/time code displayed on the LCD will begin blinking. If you continue past 4GB, a new movie file will be created automatically. This process continues until you’ve reached the maximum shooting time of 29 minutes, 59 seconds (established because some jurisdictions classify equipment that can capture more than 30 minutes as “camcorders” at higher tax rates). You can patch two or more clips together in editing. Note that the camera will not switch to your second memory card during capture even if Auto Switch Card is activated.
Resolution choices are a little less techie:
In the digital camera world, in which all video is shot using progressive scan with no interlaced scan option, frame rates are easy to choose. (Interlacing is a capture method in which even/odd numbered lines of each frame are captured alternately; with progressive scan, all the lines in a frame are captured consecutively.) Fortunately, one seemingly confusing set of alternatives can be dispensed with quickly: The 50/25 fps and 60/30 fps options can be considered as pairs of video-oriented frame rates. The 60/30 fps rates are used only where the NTSC television standard is in place, such as North America, Japan, Korea, and a few other places. The 50/25 frame rates are used where the PAL standard reigns, such as Europe, Russia, China, Africa, Australia, and other places. For simplicity, I’ll refer just to the 60/30 frame rates in this section; if you’re reading this in India, just convert to 50/25.
The third possibility is 24 fps, which is a standard frame rate used for motion pictures. Keep in mind that the rates are nominal. A 24 fps setting yields 23.976 frames per second; 30 fps gives you 29.97 actual “frames” per second. As I mentioned earlier, the R5’s and R6’s High Frame Rate option captures video at 119.99 fps or, nominally, 120 fps for NTSC and 100 fps for PAL. (See the section that follows for more on High Frame Rate video.)
The difference lies in the two “worlds” of motion images—film and video. The standard frame rate for motion picture film is 24 fps, while the video rate, at least in the United States, Japan, and those other places using the NTSC standard, is 30 fps. Computer-editing software can handle either type and convert between them. The choice between 24 fps and 30 fps is determined by what you plan to do with your video.
The short explanation is that shooting at 24 fps gives your movie a “film” look, excellent for showing fine detail. However, if your clip has moving subjects, or you pan the camera, 24 fps can produce a jerky effect called “judder.” A 30 or 60 fps rate produces a home-video look that some feel is less desirable, but which is smoother and less jittery when displayed on an electronic monitor. I suggest you try both and use the frame rate that best suits your tastes and video-editing software.
Another consideration that we can’t do much about is the difference between a rolling shutter and global shutter. In progressive scan mode, each line is captured one after another, so that a moving subject may have perceptibly relocated (part of it anyway) during the capture of a frame. The rolling shutter may produce Jell-o-like effects with such motion. A global shutter, like those used in professional video cameras, captures the entire frame at once, eliminating that problem. Without benefit of a global shutter, we at least need to be aware of the possible result when shooting action.
The High Frame Rate slow-motion video option allows you to capture movies that play back at 1/4 speed—not slow enough to highlight the flaws in your golf swing, but enough of a special effect to allow you to add Baywatch-style running sequences to your next Dwayne Johnson (or David Hasselhoff) parody.
The cool feature comes at a cost. Your high-definition video is Standard HD (1280 × 720) resolution and is silent. The maximum recording time is 7 minutes, 29 seconds, which should be sufficient for most purposes; a longer slo-mo clip would be excruciating to watch. Autofocus is disabled, so Movie Servo AF is out of the picture, and the high frame rate renders digital IS non-functional as well.
The slow-motion secret, of course, is that the video is recorded at nominally 120p (actually 119.9) for NTSC and 100p (PAL), and then played back as if it were captured at 30/25 fps. So, each frame is displayed for 4X longer than the time at which it was actually captured. The resulting sequences are pretty good, although you can expect some flickering when shooting under fluorescent or LED lighting, and other weirdness when outputting to HDMI. Time codes are not recorded when Count Up is set to Free Run. Canon cautions you to check your Movie Recording Size Setting once you’ve disabled High Frame Rate video.
You can extend the dynamic range of your movies in high-contrast situations by shooting HDR movies. Effectively, this mode is a type of in-camera bracketing to provide an expanded dynamic range and improved highlight rendition. The Movie Recording Size setting under Movie Recording Quality must be set to Full HD 29.9P IPB or Full HD 25.00P IPB. Highlight Tone Priority and Time Lapse Movies must be disabled.
Then, press the Q button to produce the movie version of the Quick Control screen, and navigate to the HDR setting at the bottom of the right-hand column. Scroll down to the HDR Movie Shooting entry and enable it. Then shoot a movie conventionally. Multiple frames are merged to create an HDR movie. You may see excessive noise or some distortion, so you’ll want to experiment with this feature to see how useful it is to you.
You should be using an RF- or EF-mount lens to shoot HDR movies in Full HD. If you’re using EF-S lenses with an adapter or when you use the Movie Cropping entry, movies are recorded in Standard HD. HDR movies are not available when using Highlight Tone Priority, Canon Log, or when shooting time-lapse movies.
You can select fully automatic exposure, elect to specify exposure manually, or choose a shutter speed or aperture setting that you prefer for creative reasons. The system will select an ISO speed for you automatically in all cases, generally sticking to the range ISO 100–12,800. (Some oddball exceptions are applied for various combinations of exposure mode and ISO speed settings made in the Shooting 2 menu.) Exposure can be locked with the * button, and cancelled with the AF-point selection button located to the right of the * button.
The R6 has only Program and Full Manual exposure modes, while the R5 offers a complete range of exposure adjustments. Here are your options:
Choosing the shutter speed yourself offers two advantages. Even though each frame is captured in about 1/60th–1/30th second, slicing up the time the sensor is exposed to light allows capturing video in a much broader range of lighting conditions. Outdoors in full daylight, 1/30th second would produce an overexposure even with a very small f/stop and an ISO 100 sensitivity setting. In addition, opting for a higher shutter speed allows you to freeze action within each individual frame, reducing or eliminating blur. You might want to use 1/500th second when shooting movies of sports, or stick to 1/30th second when you want to include a little motion blur in your video for effect.
When choosing shutter speed or aperture, you can monitor exposure using the exposure level scale at the bottom of the LCD screen. For an additional check, you can press the INFO button to view a live histogram.
You might think that setting your camera to a faster shutter speed will help give you sharper video frames. But the choice of a shutter speed for movie making is a bit more complicated than that. As you might guess, it’s almost always best to leave the shutter speed at 1/30th or 1/60th second, and allow the overall exposure to be adjusted by varying the aperture and/or ISO sensitivity. We don’t normally stare at a video frame for longer than 1/30th or 1/24th second, so while the shakiness of the camera can be disruptive (and often corrected by your camera’s in-lens and in-body image stabilization), if there is a bit of blur in our subjects from movement, we tend not to notice. Each frame flashes by in the blink of an eye, so to speak, so a shutter speed of 1/30th or 1/60th second works a lot better in video than it does when shooting stills. Even shots with lots of movement are often sufficiently sharp at 1/60th second.
Higher shutter speeds introduce problems of their own. If you shoot a video frame using a shutter speed of 1/250th second, the actual moment in time that’s captured represents only about 12 percent of the 1/30th second of elapsed time in that frame. Yet, when played back, that frame occupies the full 1/30th of a second, with 88 percent of that time filled by stretching the original image to fill it. The result is often a choppy/jumpy image, and one that may appear to be too sharp.
The reason for that is more social imprinting than scientific: we’ve all grown up accustomed to seeing the look of Hollywood productions that, by convention, were shot using a shutter speed that’s half the reciprocal of the frame rate (that is, 1/48th second for a 24 fps movie). Professional movie cameras use a rotary shutter (achieving that 1/48th-second exposure by using a 180-degree shutter “angle”), but the effect on our visual expectations is the same. For the most “film-like” appearance, use 24 fps and 1/60th-second shutter speed.
Faster shutter speeds do have some specialized uses for motion analysis, especially where individual frames are studied. The rest of the time, 1/30th or 1/60th of a second will suffice. If the reason you needed a higher shutter speed was to obtain the correct exposure, use a slower ISO setting, or a neutral-density filter to cut down on the amount of light passing through the lens. A good rule of thumb is to use 1/60th second or slower when shooting at 24 fps; 1/60th second or slower at 30 fps; and 1/125th second or slower at 60 fps.
Select a movie during playback and press SET to commence viewing. As a movie is being played back, press the SET button again to pause and produce a screen of options at the bottom of the screen. When the icons are shown, use the QCD-1, touch screen, or directional controls to highlight one, and then press the SET button to activate a function. Left to right at the bottom of the figure in the upper-left corner of Figure 16.23, they are as follows:
When you select Edit, the screen shown at upper left in Figure 16.23 appears. While reviewing your video, you can trim from the beginning or end of your video clip. Press SET to pause the video at the edit position, and select the scissors symbol. The icons that appear have the following functions: