11
Energy Storage Systems and Charging Stations Mechanism for Electric Vehicles

Saurabh Ratra1*, Kanwardeep Singh2 and Derminder Singh1

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Abstract

This chapter focuses on energy storage by electric vehicles and its impact in terms of the energy storage system (ESS) on the power system. Due to ecological disaster, electric vehicles (EV) are a paramount substitute for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. However, energy storage systems provide hurdles for EV systems in terms of their safety, size, cost, and general management issues. Furthermore, focusing solely on EVs is insufficient because electrical vehicle charging stations (EVCS) are also required for the deployment of these vehicles. Because these vehicles are powered by electricity, installing these charging stations presents some challenges. Grid overloading and load forecasting were previously major issues. The latter refers to charging time and charging station traffic management. This chapter discusses the essential terms of charging stations (CS). To address these issues, various technologies are discussed, including a brief overview of lithium-ion battery charging techniques and battery management system (BMS). As the Indian government is focusing on creating an an eco-friendly system, and as part of its operation is to condense CO2 emissions from the transportation segment, the organization of EVs and the installation of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) is of utmost importance. The government has already minimized taxation on EVs and also provides subsidies for CS installation. As a result, in this context, different procedures issued by the government of India are deliberated which assist an individual in installing CS at their location.

Keywords: Storage technologies, charging stations, charging structures, electric vehicle, power system, smart grid, transport

11.1 Introduction to Electric Vehicles

With the increase in CO2 emissions and oil scarcities around the globe, a dramatic transition in the conveyence sector is reported, with an internal combustion engine (ICE) based conveyence giving way to electric vehicles (EVs). EVs are the ideal alternative because oil is the major source for ICE vehicles, which is the fundamental cause of worldwide ecological disaster [1]. The EV uses plug-in recharged storage to function on electricity from batteries, fuel cells, and ultra-capacitors; the final supply of electricity comes from power plants and renewable energy sources. EVs use thermoelectric generators and regenerative braking to cut down on energy waste. Whereas a thermo-electric generator automatically converts heat from engine to electricity, the braking mechanism of the vehicle captures this energy, and converts it back to electrical energy, thereby returning to batteries. Thus EVs rely heavily on the energy storage technologies that are currently available.

11.1.1 Role of Electric Vehicles in Modern Power System

Substituting ICE with electrical motors, these vehicles may deliver additional benefits such as fewer moving parts, extraordinary torque, huge power density, and improved efficiency, among others [2]. Electrical batteries are a major source of power for motors. The main problem for EVs is battery charging in a short amount of time, which means that in turn EV charging stations become handy. Depending on the level of charging, charging stations can be of several sorts [1]. Various standards codes, i.e., the Society for Automobile Engineers (SAE), etc., and the International Organization for Standardization, provide strategies for charging vehicles based on their rated capacity [1]. The deployment of EVCS comes with several problems. The number of vehicles on the road is growing every day, necessitating high electrical power which puts pressure on the system to generate additional electrical power that may overload the system and force power generation to expand, which, if done using fossil fuels, would be just as harmful to the atmosphere [3]. Moreover, grid congestion may result in voltage regulation issues, a loss in system dependability and efficiency, an increase in thermal loading, and the most significant impact on load forecasting. In the electrical distribution system, load forecasting is critical for predicting power generation by evaluating peak and base loads [1, 3]. However, introduction of EVs and electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS), load forecasting has become more complex, as the calculation of variable loads has proven to be the most difficult task. Moreover, the (EV) relies on plug-in rechargeable storage to run on battery power and is highly dependent on energy storage technologies.

11.1.2 Various Storage Technologies

Electric energy storage needs for EVs are taken into account in a number of ways. The key components for effective energy storage are supervision system, power electronics interfaces, safety-related power conversion as well as protection. Figure 11.1 shows EV architecture [3]. Figure 11.2 depicts the HEV series-parallel configuration. The assortment and supervision of energy storage, and supervision of storage system are important for EV future technologies. Managing energy resources, selecting ESSs, and avoiding anomalies are necessary for providing sophisticated features in an EV. In this chapter, the main aim is to include the current state of EVCS, and ESSs, their updated features, challenges, and difficulties with current systems.

Renewable energy has helped off-grid power users with ESSs during the last few decades. In that regard, EVs are developing technologies that use ESS to replace fossil fuels with energy resources obtained from renewable energy sources [4].

The utilization of energy in a certain form is used to categories ESS systems. Different categories such as electrical and chemical for storage systems are available. These systems are divided into a number of categories based on how they were formed and what materials they were composed of [5, 6].

images

Figure 11.1 Battery-powered electric vehicle architecture.

images

Figure 11.2 Series parallel configuration of HEV.

Around the world, mechanical-based storage systems are frequently utilized to generate power. The three mechanical storage systems are packed hydro storage (PHS), compressed air energy storage (CAES), and flywheel energy storage (FES). This storage technology accounts for approximately 99% of the world’s electric storage capacity or approximately 3% of global power generation capacity [7].

EVs and power systems can utilise flywheel energy storage (FES) devices thanks to advancements in power electronics. The effectiveness and evaluated power of FESs, respectively, range from 90% to 95% and 0 to 50 MW [8]. Through the use of a transmission device, the energy maintained by the continuously rotating flywheel is transformed into electrical energy. Electro-chemical-based energy storage includes all typical rechargeable batteries (EcSSs). EcSSs use a reversible mechanism with little physical changes and high energy efficiency is required to alter chemical energy to electrical energy and vice versa [9]. However, reversible mechanism may reduce cell life.

Flow Batteries (FBs) may be recharged, and they include electroactive substances that store energy. Chemical energy is converted into electric energy by dissolving electroactive species in the liquid electrolyte in tanks and pumping the liquid through an electrochemical cell. Redox flow (RFB) and hybrid flow (HFB) are two examples of FBs [6]. The entire volume of RFB tank determines battery’s overall energy [6]. Portable energy storage for EVs is dominated by secondary batteries (SBs). These batteries generate electricity through an electrochemical reaction mechanism and stock electrical power in the form of chemical energy [6]. Good qualities of SB include its wide temperature performance range, high specific energy, and other components. Toxic elements are present in most batteries. Consequently, the environmental impact of battery disposal must be taken into account.

Chemical storage systems (CSSs) contain chemical substances that react chemically to produce other molecules while storing and releasing energy [10]. The FC is a common chemical storage device that continually transforms fuel’s chemical energy into electrical energy. The manner in which they provide energy sources is the primary distinction between an FC and a battery. To create energy in FC, energy and required oxidants are provided from outside, and these components are built within the battery. Figure 11.3 represents the ESS organization in detail [3].

images

Figure 11.3 Organization of different energy storage technologies.

11.1.3 Electric Vehicle Charging Structure

In practically every market, plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are still in the initial phases of progress. The absence of a public charging infrastructure continues to be a deterrent to PEV adoption. Key statistics, particularly the ratio of PEVs to public charging sites, are frequently used to estimate the future demands for charging infrastructure. In this chapter, the review has been reported regarding the foundation for the medium- to long-term requirement for infrastructure for charging.

Sundararajan et al. [11] have created a novel charging architecture for EVs, comprised of sensors that can interface with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology by establishing a communication link. This allows for the regular monitoring of load caused by car charging. V2G technology and the Intelligent Transportation System usage can also reduce waiting time at charging stations. Gupta et al. [12] addressed the IoT concept and automatic vehicle organization algorithm which uses the ICT technique to connect vehicles, grids, and charging stations on an internet protocol (IP) level (ICT). This may assist in reducing load congestion and long lines at EVCS. The major significant challenge in the expansion of EVs is the charging time. In these cars, lithium-ion batteries are utilised to store electrical energy, and these batteries employ graphite to store charge. Silicon is added to the graphite layer to boost the charge storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. The batteries must be charged properly in order to have an enhanced performance. Because charging of lithium-ion battery is a delicate operation prone to overvoltage and overheating, there is a variety of charging strategies available, as reported in [13]. The different level charging scheme for lithium-ion batteries is discussed by Kodali et al. [14], in which the battery is charged with five dissimilar points of current. However, adequate observing of battery State of Charge (SOC) is essential while charging these batteries, which reveals how much of the battery is charged or depleted. Battery Management System (BMS) is utilized for process monitoring and smooth functioning [1517]. The Internet of Things (IoT) can aid with load forecasting at the BMS and SOC levels, which can help with power quality and reliability issues.

11.2 Introduction to Electric Vehicle Charging Station

EVCS is a common point where EVs get charged provided with reliability, supervision, and also have conversion systems, for rapid charging through high voltage and high current. The following are certain basic EVCS terms.

11.2.1 Types of Charging Station

  1. Residential Charging Station: Residential charging stations are critical for ushering in the EV age, as they will greatly lower the strain on the power system. Residential car charging can be accomplished by consuming minimum current from the system, assisting the system to meet demand required to serve additional electrical power required during peak load. According to [18], EV charging during the night is cheapest and has minimum effect on the system, which minimises the load on the system because during base load hours per unit cost of electricity is reduced for charging vehicles during the night. Level 1 charging in a residential charging station can charge vehicles in as little as 7 to 8 hours. The same is represented in Table 11.1.
  2. Charging Station Parking: EV took time to charge, but putting that duration to good use while parking, you can reduce the strain on public charging stations and the power grid. Automobiles are parked at work for nearly five hours per day, according to the National Household Travel Survey [19]. The provision is accessible for commercial sites and other areas where sufficient charging infrastructure are available, in addition to workplaces [20, 21].
  3. Public Charging Station: Public charging stations are intended to give vehicles quick charging. Traditional charging, on the other hand, takes additional time for battery charging. Different charging methodologies and fast charger configurations are used to achieve fast charging. A charging station’s charger is typically composed of AC-DC converter at front side and DC-DC converter on the rear side. The DC link capacitor connects both converters [22]. MOSFET and IGBT are used in chargers with high-frequency switching rectifiers, and they work based upon Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). The PWM technique delivers high-efficiency and precise power conversion [23]. For this, a high-quality filter is used to connect the charger to the power grid, preventing harmonics from affecting the grid and the motor attached to the car [22, 24].
  4. Battery Swapping Station: The Battery Swapping Station (BSS) was created to highlight the charging time problem and the necessity for a charged car. The exhausted battery or battery pack in a BSS car can be swapped out for a fully charged one right away, saving the time spent waiting for the vehicle’s battery to charge. The BSS looks after the battery life through BMS monitor [25]. There are certain challenges to sort when deploying a BSS. An important challenge which was addressed is the battery pack’s design which is easy to remove and reattach to cars. Brand compatibility is a different issue of the battery packs. Manufacturers can generate substitutable battery packs for BSS and EVs by using a common standard structure. There is also the issue of battery degradation and ownership, which is the most significant impediment to BSS technology.

11.2.2 Charging Levels:

The vehicle charging rate is presented in Table 11.1 [1] based on didfferent international standards and procedures for charging of vehicles.

11.2.3 EV Charging:

Based on energy transfer mode, EV charging systems are divided into two types: conductive and inductive charging systems.

  1. Conductive Charging: In this process, the system utilises a cable or connector for direct connection between vehicle and charger. It is a basic charging infrastructure at present. Based on type of charging, it is either on-board or off-board charging. This particular charging is highly efficient; moreover, every EV manufacturer provides this service. Vehicles with this charging approach are currently available, which includes Chevrolet Volt and Mitsubishi i-MiEV [1, 13].
  2. Inductive Charging: This charging provides wireless charging, which is a new emerging concept. No physical contact is required between vehicle and charger. Electromagnetic induction principle is applicable as that to transformers [13, 26]. To transfer energy through thin air, a magnetic field is used. The only disadvantage with this approach is that it has lower efficiency and power density in comparison to the above-mentioned charging and is also cost inefficient [1]. Vehicles can be charged while running if charging strips are placed along the highway. The term for this type of charging is dynamic wireless charging. Roads that can supply electrical supply to vehicles via wireless power technique (WPT) can be referred to as electrified roads [1, 27]. Charging of vehicle when driving reduces the vehicle charging time [1]. The method utilized in different countries, along with more research, are being worked upon to enhance the efficiency [28].

Table 11.1 Description of different EV chargers and charging levels.

EV charging levelsConnection segmentCharger typeUtilization and locationPower consuption (kW) and current capacity (A)
Society for Automobile Engineers AC and DC charging standards
Charging Level 1 AC 230V (EU)/120V(US)1-ΦBoardingResidence cum Office1.6kW/12.5A, 1.95kW/20.25A
Charging Level 2 400V (EU) = 240V (US)1-Φ/3-ΦBoardingPublic cum Private4.2kW/17.4A, 8.2kW/32.1A
Charging Level 3 210-599 V3-ΦOff-BoardingCommercial cum Filling StationStation 50.01kW, 100.02kW
DC Charging Level 1/200-450VOff-BoardingCommitted Charging Stations40.02kW/80.4A
DC Charging Level 2= 200-400VOff-BoardingCommitted Charging Stations90.01kW/200.05A
DC Charging Level 3= 200-600VOff-BoardingCommitted Charging Stations240.04kW/400.4A
AC and DC Charging standards for IEC
Charging Level 1 AC1-ΦBoardingResidence cum Office4.5-7.55kW/16.5A
Charging Level 2 AC1-Φ/3-ΦBoardingPublic cum Private8.2-15.1kW/32.4A
Charging Level 3 AC3-ΦBoardingCommercial cum Filling Station60.04-120.01kW/250.04A
DC Fast ChargerOff-BoardingCommitted Charging Stations1000.04-2000.05kW/400.04A
Charging Standard CHAdeMo
DC Fast ChargerOff-BoardingCommitted Charging Stations62.57kW/125.4A

11.2.4 Charging Period:

Charging period is another major task for EV technology. The battery recharging time in EV is greater as compared to oil refuelling time. Primarily there are five major factors which affect system fast charging to minimise charging time [29].

  • Sizing of battery: Charging time increases as the volume measured in kWh increases. A large amount of time is required to charge the battery.
  • State of charge (SOC): Battery state of charge (SOC) determines whether it is fully charged, fully discharged, or partially discharged, and therefore charging period differs accordingly.
  • Vehicle charging rate: The vehicle can only be charged at the extreme amount and not any higher. A battery with a maximum rate of charge of 30kW cannot be charged by means of a 60kW charger.
  • Charge point pricing: The rating of the outlet to which the battery is connected determines the charging time. If you charge a 30kW battery with a 10kW outlet, it will charge at the same rate as a 10kW battery, resulting in a longer charging time [29].

Table 11.2 Vehicle time of chargers.

Battery specificationCapacity (kWh)Range (miles)Charging period (hours)
3.7 kW7 kW22 kW43-50 kW150 kW
Model I40.514512772NA
Model II75.082402212632
Model III14255551NA

When charged with a 10kW charger, the charging time is less than 8 hours, and the battery can travel 50-60 miles. Table 11.2 demonstrates the amount of time mandatory to charge the batteries of various corporation. Model I is the 2018 Nisan Leaf, Model II is the 2019 Tesla Model S, and Model III is the 2018 Mistubishi Outlander PHEV.

11.3 Modern System Efficient Approches

The placement of a huge number of CS increases electrical power demand. Since large power is taken from the generating source, the grid may get overloaded, causing different power-related issues such as voltage fluctuation, voltage regulation issues, etc. These problems have an impact on the inclusive efficiency of the system that is unacceptable for EV and EVCS development. To address these issues, different approaches are presented as below.

11.3.1 Smart Grid Technology

The use of smart grid technology can help to alleviate the problem of uncoordinated power supply and reliability. The smart grid established a communication channel between the grid and the user to ensure proper load monitoring based on the area [30]. Because remote terminal units are installed at each feeder, they send information about any fault conditions as well as power usage at each feeder; smart grid implementation ensures the system’s safe operation. This technique can provide the grid with load information in advance, ensuring smooth generation and, as a result, no reliability issues [30, 31]. Furthermore, this technique is useful in load forecasting and is linked to the vehicle so that the SOC of a battery can be shared with the grid and the grid can trace the nearby charging station from which feeder will take the load [34].

11.3.2 Renewable Energy Rechnology

Fossil fuels are both the primary cause of environmental degradation and the primary source of electricity generation today. More electrical power is required as electric vehicle adoption grows. As a result, using these fossil fuels in a different way to meet needs is not a wise decision. Renewable energy sources are the best option for charging electric vehicles because they reduce both carbon emissions and grid load [32, 33]. Solar energy is the most basic and least expensive renewable energy source available in many parts of the world today. Installing a solar power plant at home is also the most straightforward and secure method of obtaining electricity. To reduce direct load on the grid, solar panels can be installed on the roofs of public EVCS, shopping malls, offices, and other large-surface-area buildings [33]. Although the initial cost of installing a solar plant on a roof is high, the operating costs are very low, lowering the operating costs of EVs in comparison to ICE-powered vehicles.

11.3.3 V2G Technology

To maintain power system balance, active power and frequency must be balanced, as overloading and underloading can cause a frequency mismatch, affecting system stability. As a result, a bidirectional energy flow system is recommended, in which the grid supplies power to the vehicle and the vehicle feeds power back to the grid when not in use. This system is also referred to as a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system [34]. According to statistics, 90% of electric vehicles are idle every day, and they can contribute to meeting the high energy demand by supplying power back to the grid [35]. To maintain a balanced load, automatic generation control (AGC) was introduced to control the modern power network. Traditional AGC regulates the generating unit in response to load changes. Residential small solar plants that are not currently charging vehicles can help to reduce grid load by generating power that can be fed back into the grid. This will be a clean, green, and cost-effective form of electricity [18, 35].

11.3.4 Smart Transport System

To enhance the system’s acumen, an intelligent transportation system (ITS) has been introduced. It is made up of sensors, actuators, and an embedded processor that aids in tracking the specific area’s traffic congestion. In other words, it establishes an open communication channel between two or more people using the parking lot or charging station. Using the internet as a medium or cellular network with on-board geographic information Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and advanced traffic flow modelling techniques this correspondence can be easily accomplished [12, 36]. The process can be monitored and controlled using the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is also useful in determining the SOC of the EV battery and transmitting this information to the grid so that proper load monitoring can be carried out. Apart from that, using this technology it is easy to pre-book a slot at a charging station and check the status of an empty slot [12, 18, 36]. This technique improved load forecasting and allowed for easy communication with renewable energy-based generating plants located at home, office, parking lot, shopping mall, or charging station [12].

11.4 Battery Charging Techniques

While considering energy density and EVs permanence, lithium-ion batteries are presently the most well-known batteries. These are built through different cells which are associated through series connection and then through parallel to make a segment, and different segments are associated in series to make a single source of battery. The use of different cells aids in battery upkeep and observing [37]. The most difficult challenge is the efficient and quick charging of these batteries. Different charging techniques of the battery are mentioned below.

(a) Continuous current charging

Battery charging is done through constant current in this scheme. If a higher quantity of cells are connected, this approach will not be successful as it can affect cell balancing problem. As a result, this approach is quite incompetent and may cause stress in the cells [14]. To use this approach, a large amount of current is obligatory, which will certainly do the fast charging of the battery, but the temperature of the battery will increase, potentially leading to the battery’s sudden death [14, 15].

(b) Constant voltage constant current charging

There are four charging modes in this scheme [14].

  • Pre-Charge Mode: To avoid cell overheating, nearly 9% of the battery is charged at maximum current in this mode.
  • Constant Current Mode: Until it reaches 4.2 V, the battery operates at less than 1 C per second. This voltage will rise.
  • Constant Voltage Mode: Battery charging at 4.2V constant voltage till it is fully charged. Because the constant current method causes overheating, the battery will be charged by constant voltage even though it is fully charged.
  • Charge Termination Mode: The charge is terminated by monitoring the charge current and terminating it when it reaches 0.02-0.07C using the minimum charge current method.

Despite these benefits, this method is still not widely used as it requires a higher period for charging the battery completely.

(c) Scheme for charging in stages

All of the methods mentioned above have the disadvantage of taking longer to charge. However, there is also battery charging for different current profiles, each within voltage limits. This approach was developed because large current can raise the battery temperature [14]. When the internal resistance of the battery is low, a high current is required to charge the battery. Charging currents and threshold voltage limits are determined by the charging rate and SOC. This method charges batteries faster and more efficiently while preserving battery life [16].

11.4.1 Electric Vehicle Charging Station in Modern Power System

EV charging can be accomplished using AC or DC power supplies. Based on the country’s electrical system, AC charging has varying voltage and frequency levels. AC charging is classified into three voltage level 1, level 2, and level 3. Level 1 and level 2 CS may be placed in a secluded location, whereas Level 3 CS require distinct electrical setup, require consent from power providers and are typically manufactured for public CS. DC charging is faster and has larger capacity to charge at the same voltage level. EV can be charged minmum to minimum in 20 minutes. However, different charging modes are available for EV charging in modern power systems.

11.5 Indian Scenario

The government is putting additional emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions and is doing every required phase. India is in the top ten nations in terms of automobile arcade size [38]. As a result, the use of more and more oil-based vehicles has conflicting influence on the atmosphere. The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 [39] estimates that 7 to 10 million electric vehicles will be on the road by 2025, reducing vehicle carbon emissions by 1.3%. According to the Indian government’s vision for renewable energy generation, only clean energy sources can generate around 175GW of power by 2022, with solar accounting for 100GW of that total [40, 41].

Major guidelines for installing a public charging station are provided by the Ministries of Power and Housing and Urban Affairs [4244] as follows:

  • It is a prohibited activity, which means that anyone can set up a charging station. However, the individual must notify the electricity distributor in order to obtain a proper electricity supply.
  • Charging station may borrow electrical power from any generation company, either by their own power generation or through the use of solar panels, windmills, or other means [45].
  • The station for charging requires a special transformer with all protection devices coupled to the substation.
  • There is enough space inside the station for vehicles to manoeuvre.
  • Civil and firefighting work should be done properly.
  • For the installation of a public charging station, a minimum set of 5 charging points as shown in Table 11.3 are required. There is no requirement to use only the chargers listed in Table 11.3. Owners are free to use any connector they want, as long as it meets the same standards and specifications as these chargers and the BIS standards. The number of charging points can be increased based on the number of EVs, but a minimum of 5 chargers is required.
  • In terms of distance, it is recommended that charging stations be placed every 3 kilometers in cities and every 25 kilometers on highways. This distance can be reduced by adding more stations but not increased [46].

Table 11.3 Different types of EV chargers.

Charger typeCharger connectionMinimum electrical power (kW)Voltage (V)No. of charging points
FastCCS60230-11002
CHAdeMO60230-11002
AC Type 2 AC30350-4502
Slow/ Moderate001 DC2070-2102
001 AC152204

11.6 Energy Storage System Evaluation for EV Applications

Specific characteristics are used to evaluate ESSs for EV applications as reported above as well as the required demand for EV charging. Figure 11.4 demonstrates the operating time of various ESSs based on their power releases. Figure 11.5 depicts the applications of various ESSs as the demand for EVs and other modes of transportation generally requires. For EV applications, a power range of 10 kW to several hundred kW is required for a few hours of operation [47, 48].

images

Figure 11.4 Different technologies associated to energy storage.

images

Figure 11.5 Efficiency distribution of different energy storage technologies.

As shown in Figure 11.5, the ESS technologies distribution can be assessed through efficiency and predictable life cycle. SMESs and flywheels has relatively large efficiencies and a enhanced life cycle at 80% DOD. Li-ion, Ni-Cd batteries have efficiencies around 70-85% and a life cycle of 2000-4500 cycles. ESS techniques are crossbred by merging batteries with UCs, flywheels, as well as the growth and obtainability of standard EVs for next-generation mode of conveyance [49].

11.7 ESS Concerns and Experiments in EV Solicitations

The current state of ESS development is adequate for EV energy storage and powering. These applications, however, continue to face issues such as raw material support and disposal, energy management, power electronics interface, sizing, safety measures, and cost. The following sections address the key issues and make recommendations.

11.7.1 Raw Materials

The availability of raw materials and supplies for the production of ESSs and the development of related products is a difficult issue. Electrode, electrolyte, separator materials, and chemical solutions for batteries, UCs, and FCs; flywheel materials; superconducting materials for SMES; and hydrogen fuel for FCs are critical components in ESS manufacturing. The most significant advancement in ESS design and technology for EV applications is the consideration of high-grade ESS materials, alloys, and solution preparation, as well as the use of ESSs with high charge capacities. Current and future research considers recycling, refurbishing, and reusing used ESS materials [50].

11.7.2 Interfacing by Power Electronics

Unspecified and unorganized power storage and distribution may reduce ESS performance, life cycle duration, and efficiency, as well as cause extreme power loss and abuse, unexpected explosions and damages, and restricted load behavior and life. The power electronics interface deals with situations involving power conditions, controls, and conversions for storing and supplying ESS and load requirements in order to optimize the system’s overall performance, durability, and efficiency. For power conversion, power flow control, power management control, motor drive, energy management, charge balancing, and safe operation, ESSs in EV applications require a power electronics interface [51].

11.7.3 Energy Management

After each life cycle, EESs must be recharged using either ultimate or temporary energy resources. An energy management system (EMS) manages all possible energy resources for powering EV ESSs. Energy resource systems, ESSs, and power electronics are all dealt with by EMS. Grid power, solar energy, hydrogen energy, regenerative braking, thermal energy, vibration energy, flywheel system, SMES, and other energy sources are all possibilities for recharging ESSs in EVs. Modern EV systems are designed to effectively and intelligently manage all energy resources [52].

11.7.4 Environmental Impact

Despite EV usage, demand for oil has been significantly reduced, EV ESSs have had little influence on environmental pollution during manufacturing, disposal, and recycling of ESSs. Furthermore, the dispensation and manufacturing of ESS causes respiratory, pulmonary, and neurological problems. As a result, safety measures and sophisticated tools are critical in managing the entire production and maintenance processes of ESSs, particularly in EV applications [53].

11.7.5 Safety

Safety measures ensure that ESSs operate at demand rates while also improving their lives and performances. Li-ion batteries require protection from overcharging and over-discharging in EV applications, Zn-Air batteries require protection from short-circuit, Na-S batteries require safety from high-temperature and ZEBRA batteries require thermal management system. Power electronics interfaces are used in modern EVs for power management, power convertors, and controller to institute effective facilities and benign ESS operations [54].

11.8 Conclusion

Considering that traditional ICEs vehicles donate truncated efficiency and increased CO2 and greenhouse gases emissions, the EV approach offers substitutes to ICE-based conveyence.

However, it is impossible to create EV systems without taking energy storage technology into account. The ESS technologies and their designs are covered in this chapter along with a variety of features for EV storage systems. Furthermore, ESS technologies, efficiency, and characteristics of EVs are presented. Problems and difficulties with the ESS approach in EV solicitations are also covered. With advancements in technology, ESSs are maturing more and more. The correct disposal, power electronics interfacing, safety precautions, and pricing of ESS remain issues. For improving energy and power density, high-quality ESS constituents, and organic solutions could be optimized in ESS design for EV solicitations.

Moreover, organizing CS concerns are studied with respect to grid overloading and battery charging time, which is instigated by additional CS waiting at EVCS. Various charging methods are available, and the battery is the primary constituent of an EV which must be efficiently charged without any destruction. Multi-stage charging is highly desired for fast charging because it does not degrade the battery.

References

  1. 1. Aghajan-Eshkevari, Saleh, et al. “Charging and discharging of electric vehicles in power systems: An updated and detailed review of methods, control structures, objectives, and optimization methodologies.” Sustainability, 2022, 14(4): 2137.
  2. 2. J. G. West, “DC induction, reluctance and pm motors for electric vehicles,” Power Engineering Journal, 1994, 8(2):77–88.
  3. 3. S. F. Tie, C.W Tan, “A review of energy sources and energy management system in electric vehicles”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2013;20:82–102.
  4. 4. D. Hardin, “Smart grid and dynamic power management. Energy management systems, Giridhar Kini (Ed.), InTech. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/energymanagement-systems/smart-grid-and-dynamic-powermanagement; 2011. [30.6.2015].
  5. 5. KT Chau, YS Wong, CC Chan, “An overview of energy sources for electric vehicles. Energy Convers Manag 1999;40:1021–39.
  6. 6. Electrical Energy Storage. White paper. International Electrotechnical Commission. (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland; 2011.
  7. 7. A. G. Olabi, T. Wilberforce, M. A., Abdelkareem, & M. Ramadan, “Critical review of flywheel energy storage system. Energies, 2021, 14(8), 2159.
  8. 8. M. A. Hannan,. M. M. Hoque, A. Mohamed, & A. Ayob, “Review of energy storage systems for electric vehicle applications: Issues and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017, 69, 771–789.
  9. 9. N. Hiroshima, H. Hatta, M. Koyama, J. Yoshimura, Y . Nagura, K. Goto, Y. Kogo, “Test of three-dimensional composite rotor for flywheel energy storage system. Compos Struct 2016;136:626–34.
  10. 10. I. Dincer, MA Rosen, Thermal energy storage: systems and applications, 2nd ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
  11. 11. Sundararajan, Raghul Suraj, and M. Tariq Iqbal. “Dynamic Modelling of a Solar Energy System with Vehicle to Home and Vehicle to Grid Option for Newfoundland Conditions”, European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2021, 5(3): 45-53.
  12. 12. Gupta, Manik, et al. “Lightweight branched blockchain security framework for Internet of Vehicles”, Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, 2022: e4520.
  13. 13. F. Zhang, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, and A. S. Edmonds, “Literature review of electric vehicle technology and its applications,” in 2016 5th International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology (ICCSNT). IEEE, 2016, pp. 832–837.
  14. 14. S. P. Kodali and S. Das, “Implementation of five level charging scheme in lithium ion batteries for enabling fast charging in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,” in 2017 National Power Electronics Conference (NPEC). IEEE, 2017, pp. 147–152.
  15. 15. Y. Yin, Y. Hu, S.-Y. Choe, H. Cho, and W. T. Joe, “New fast charging method of lithium-ion batteries based on a reduced order electrochemical model considering side reaction,” Journal of Power Sources, 2019, 423: 367–379.
  16. 16. Qin, Yudi, et al. “A rapid lithium-ion battery heating method based on bidirectional pulsed current: Heating effect and impact on battery life”, Applied Energy, 2020, 280: 115957.
  17. 17. Wu, Sen-Tung, et al. “A fast charging balancing circuit for LiFePO4 battery”, Electronics, 2019, 8(10): 1144.
  18. 18. Burkert, Amelie, and Benedikt Schmuelling, “Challenges of conceiving a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles-An overview”, 2019 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC). IEEE, 2019.
  19. 19. Visakh, Arjun, and Selvan Manickavasagam Parvathy, “Energy-cost minimization with dynamic smart charging of electric vehicles and the analysis of its impact on distribution-system operation”, Electrical Engineering, 2022: 1–13.
  20. 20. J. Babic, A. Carvalho, W. Ketter, and V. Podobnik, “Evaluating policies for parking lots handling electric vehicles,” IEEE Access, 2017, 6: 944–961.
  21. 21. Habib, Salman, et al. “Contemporary trends in power electronics converters for charging solutions of electric vehicles”, CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 2020, 6(4): 911–929.
  22. 22. Yan, Xiangwu, et al. “Virtual synchronous motor based-control of a three-phase electric vehicle off-board charger for providing fast-charging service”, Applied Sciences, 2018, 8(6): 856.
  23. 23. Liu, Guozhong, et al. “Charging station and power network planning for integrated electric vehicles (EVs)”, Energies, 2019, 12(13): 2595.
  24. 24. M. Di Paolo, “Analysis of harmonic impact of electric vehicle charging on the electric power grid, based on smart grid regional demonstration project los angeles,” in 2017 IEEE Green Energy and Smart Systems Conference (IGESSC). IEEE, 2017, pp. 1–5.
  25. 25. Soares, Filipe Joel, PM Rocha Almeida, and JA Pecas Lopes. “Quasi-real-time management of electric vehicles charging”, Electric Power Systems Research 108 (2014): 293–303.
  26. 26. Habib, Salman, et al. “A Comprehensive Topological Assessment of Power Electronics Converters for Charging of Electric Vehicles”, Flexible Resources for Smart Cities. Springer, Cham, 2021. 133–183.
  27. 27. Lin, Yuping, et al. “Multistage large-scale charging station planning for electric buses considering transportation network and power grid”, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 2019, 107: 423–443.
  28. 28. N. Shinohara, “Wireless power transmission progress for electric vehicle in japan,” in 2013 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium. IEEE, 2013, pp. 109–111.
  29. 29. Liu, Yayuan, Yangying Zhu, and Yi Cui, “Challenges and opportunities towards fast-charging battery materials”, Nature Energy, 2019, 4(7): 540–550.
  30. 30. Bilal, Mohd, and Mohammad Rizwan. “Integration of electric vehicle charging stations and capacitors in distribution systems with vehicle-to-grid facility.” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects (2021): 1–30.
  31. 31. Zhang, Wei, and Chunting Chris Mi. “Compensation topologies of high-power wireless power transfer systems”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2015, 65(6): 4768–4778.
  32. 32. Wu, Xiaohua, et al. “Stochastic control of smart home energy management with plug-in electric vehicle battery energy storage and photovoltaic array”, Journal of Power Sources, 2016, 333: 203–212.
  33. 33. Domínguez-Navarro, J. A., et al. “Design of an electric vehicle fast-charging station with integration of renewable energy and storage systems.”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 2019, 105: 46–58.
  34. 34. Peng, Chao, Jianxiao Zou, and Lian Lian. “Dispatching strategies of electric vehicles participating in frequency regulation on power grid: A review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017, 68: 147–152.
  35. 35. Bae, Youngsang, Trung-Kien Vu, and Rae-Young Kim. “Implemental control strategy for grid stabilization of grid-connected PV system based on German grid code in symmetrical low-to-medium voltage network”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion , 2013, 28(3): 619–631.
  36. 36. Ratra, S., Singh, D., Bansal, R. C., & Naidoo, R. M. (2021, December). Stochastic Estimation and Enhancement of Voltage Stability Margin considering Load and Wind Power Intermittencies. In 2021 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA) (pp. 744–748). IEEE.
  37. 37. Wu, H., Pang, G. K. H., Choy, K. L., & Lam, H. Y., “An optimization model for electric vehicle battery charging at a battery swapping statio”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2017. 67(2): 881–895.
  38. 38. Akhtar, Nadeem, and Vijay Patil. “Electric Vehicle Technology: Trends and Challenges”, Smart Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, 2022, 2: 621–637.
  39. 39. Azadfar, Elham, Victor Sreeram, and David Harries. “The investigation of the major factors influencing plug-in electric vehicle driving patterns and charging behaviour”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015, 42: 1065–1076.
  40. 40. Bandyopadhyay, Santanu, “Renewable targets for India”, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 2017, 19(2): 293–294.
  41. 41. Rubio-Aliaga, Álvaro, et al. “Multidimensional analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigation purposes: Economic, energy and environmental characterization for PV power plant integration”, Renewable Energy, 2019, 138: 174–186.
  42. 42. M. Patrick, P. Weldon, and M. O’Mahony, “Future standard and fast charging infrastructure planning: An analysis of electric vehicle charging behaviour”, Energy Policy, 2016, 89: 257–270.
  43. 43. Alosaimi, Wael, et al. “Toward a Unified Model Approach for Evaluating Different Electric Vehicles.” Energies, 2021, 14(19): 6120.
  44. 44. “Guidelines for Implementation of Scheme for Farmers for Installation of Solar Pumps and Grid Connected Solar Power Plants ,” NoticeInviti 2019, [Online; accessed 28 July 2019]
  45. 45. Charging infrastructure of electrical vehicles Guidelines and Standards,” 2019, [Online; accessed 28-July-2019] ngCommentsonGuidelines.pdf/, 2019, [Online; accessed 28 July 2019].
  46. 46. “Electrical vehicle charging station Guidelines by ministry of housing ,” 2019, [Online; accessed 28 July 2019].
  47. 47. GS Li, XC Lu, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, HJ Chang, NL Canfield, VL Sprenkle, “Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultrahigh energy densit”, Nat Commun 2016;7:10683.
  48. 48. B. Zakerin, S. Syri, “Electrical energy storage systems: a comparative life cycle cost analysis”, Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015;42:569–96.
  49. 49. P. Keil, M. Englberger, A. Jossen, “Hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicles: an experimental analysis of performance improvements at subzero temperatures”, IEEE Trans Veh Technol 2016;65(3):998–1006.
  50. 50. J.B.Dunn, L. Gaines, J. Sullivan, M.Q. Wang, “The impact of recycling on cradle-to-Gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive lithiumion batteries”, J Chem Educ, Environ Sci Technol Am Chem Soc Publ 11 2012;46(22):12704–10.
  51. 51. L. Fang, H.Y. Luo, Advanced DC/DC converters. Power electronics and applications series, Singapore: CRC Press; 2003. p. 792.
  52. 52. Sulaiman N, Hannan MA, Mohamed A, Majlan EH, Daud WRW. A review on energy management system for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle: issues and challenges. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015;52:802–14.
  53. 53. L. Li, J.B.Dunn, XX Zhang, L. Gaines , R.J.Chen, F. Wu, K. Amine,. “Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries with organic acids as leaching reagents and environmental assessment”, J Power Sources, 7 2013;233:180–9.
  54. 54. D. Moon, J. Park, S. Choi, “New interleaved current-fed resonant converter with significantly reduced high current side output filter for EV and HEV applications”, IEEE Trans Power Electron 2015;30(8):4264–71.

Note

  1. *Corresponding author: [email protected]
..................Content has been hidden....................

You can't read the all page of ebook, please click here login for view all page.
Reset
3.227.240.72