Index

A

absolute temperature, 7

acentric factor, 254

acid, 704

acidity parameter, 421

activity, 428, 646, 667, 669, 739

coefficient, 413, 425, 428, 759

pressure dependence, 440

rational, 759

temperature dependence, 441

unsymmetric convention, 446

adiabat, 150

adiabatic, xxi, 46, 74, 148

reaction temperature, 664, 813

adiabatic compressibility, 246, 249

adiabatic flash, 372, 380

aggregation

state, 25

Amagat’s law, 106

amino acid, 719

anabolic reaction, 182, 734

anode, 727

anti-solvent, 570

Antoine equation, 62, 342, 847

See also vapor pressure

apparent

basis, 699

mole fraction, 772

moles, 792, 793

approach temperature, 100

association, xxi, 767

athermal, 477

ATP, 734

auxiliary property, 227

availability, 177, 672, 732

Avogadro’s number, xxv, 9

azeotrope, xxi, 393, 394, 418, 442, 473, 616, 630

double, 432

B

Bancroft point, 432, 497

barotropy, xxi

basicity parameter, 421

binary interaction parameter, 13, 468, 580, 582

binary vapor cycle, 211

binding polynomial, 733

binodal, xxi

biological systems, 119

blood, 453

boiler, 70, 201

boilup ratio, 101

Boltzmann’s constant, 9

bottoms, 101

bottoms product, 101

boundaries, 74, 85

Boyle temperature, 292

bubble line, 23, 371, 394

bubble point

pressure, 371, 376, 413, 416, 417, 586, 594, 832, 835

temperature, 371, 378, 381, 500, 549, 835

buffer, 723

C

C-mole, 732

carbohydrate, 119

carboxylic acid, 627

carboxylic acid, ideal gas deviations, 424, 769

Carnahan-Starling, See equation of state

Carnot cycle, 96, 144, 158, 199

Carnot heat pump, 99

Carnot, Sadi, 96

cascade refrigeration or cascade vapor cycle, 211

catabolic reaction, 182, 734

cathode, 727

cell (battery), 727

chain rule, 231

Chao-Seader model, 447

charge balance, 698, 704

charge-transfer complexes, 770

chemical potential, 398, 400, 427, 582, 739

ideal gas component, 402

Chemical Safety Board, 389

chemical-physical theory, 779

Clapeyron equation, 337, 338

Clausius, Rudolf, 130, 131, 233

Clausius-Clapeyron equation, 62, 337, 338

closed system, 16

coefficient of performance, 99, 158

coefficient of thermal expansion, 236

cohesive energy density, 472

coke formation, 670

colligative property, 453, 695

combinatorial contribution, 132, 506

combining rule, 13, 580, 582

compressed liquid, 25, 54, 55, 60

compressibility

See also adiabatic compressibility, isothermal compressibility

compressibility factor, 253

compressor, 73, 163, 173

multistage, 174

concentration gradient, 44

concurrent, 70

condenser, 70

configurational energy, 12, 132, 282

configurational entropy, 132

conjugate acid, 705, 709

conjugate base, 705, 708

conjugate pairs, 228

consistency

thermodynamic, 440, 441

constant molar overflow, 101

contraction/expansion work, 86

See also expansion/contraction work

control volume, 16

convenience property, 227

conversion, 110, 644

COP, 99

copolymer, 479

corresponding states, 253, 580

COSMO-RS, 520

countercurrent, 70

cricondenbar, 601

cricondentherm, 601

critical locus, 601, 614

critical point, 24, 253, 261, 262, 270, 599, 602, 614, 824

critical pressure, 24, 253

critical temperature, 24, 253

cubic equation, 260

solutions, 265, 822

D

dead state, xxi, 178

deaerator, 206

Debye, 142

Debye-Hückel, 741

degree of reduction, 731

degrees of freedom, 18, 30, 59, 241, 370

degrees of superheat, 25

delta notation, 53

density, 17

density functional theory, 521

departure function, 115, 301, 303

deviations from Henry’s law, 444

deviations from Raoult’s law, 394, 444

dew line, 24, 371, 394

dew point, 372, 812

pressure, 377, 431, 833, 836

temperature, 371, 378, 381, 488, 833, 837

diathermal, xxi, 46

dielectric constant, 741, 848

differentiation, 820

diffusion, 5, 44, 176

coefficient, 5

dipole, 8, 9

dispersion force, 10

distillate, 101

distillation column, 101

DNA, 719, 725

double interpolation, 27

downcomer, 102

Dulong and Petit, 59

duty, 101, 209

E

economizer, 211

efficiency, xxi

thermal, 96

turbine and compressor, 164

Einstein solid model, 139, 240

Einstein, Albert, 139, 239

electrolyte, 693, 813

electroneutrality, 704

electrostatic force, 9

elementary reaction, 671

endergonic, 652, 662

endothermic, 112, 119, 427, 667

energy, 6

configurational, 12, 282

of fusion, 63

of vaporization, 24, 62

See also potential energy, kinetic energy, internal energy

energy balance, 39

closed-system, 48

complete, 56

hints, 74

reaction, 113

reactions, 664

steady-state, 51

energy equation, 283

energy of mixing, 105, 106

engines, 214

enthalpy, 31, 35, 52, 57, 227

excess, See enthalpy of mixing, excess enthalpy

of formation, 113, 843

of fusion, 63, 148, 559, 846

of mixing, 105, 106, 107, 113, 427

of reaction (standard state), 112

of vaporization, 24, 62, 101, 846

See also latent heat

entity, electrolyte, 699

entrainer, 486, 490

entropy, 5, 31, 129

and heat capacity, 150, 229, 242

combinatorial, 512

configurational, 132

excess, See excess entropy

generation, 142, 164, 672

ideal gas mixture, 139

ideal solution, 139

macroscopic, 142

microscopic, 132

of fusion, 148, 559

of mixing, 105, 138, 401, 402

of vaporization, 24, 148

thermal, 132, 139

entropy balance, 153

hints, 185

Environmental Protection Agency, 386

enzyme, 719

EOS, xxi, 260

EPA, 386

equal area rule, 357

equation of state, 18, 74, 235, 251, 347, 351, 353, 579

Benedict-Webb-Rubin, 260

Carnahan-Starling, 280, 294, 357

cubic solution, 263

ESD, 280, 295, 327, 357, 802

HR-SAFT, 800

Lee-Kesler, 260, 293

MCSL, 800

PC-SAFT, 327, 800

Peng-Robinson, 262, 266, 314, 316, 320, 347, 354, 357, 585, 587, 592, 594, 599, 601, 813

Redlich-Kwong, 325, 357

SAFT, 799, 800

Scott, 280, 294

Soave-Redlich-Kwong, 294, 327

stable roots, 268

van der Waals, 261, 271, 280, 355, 591

virial, 258, 288, 313, 347, 580, 590, 813

equilibrium, 5

criteria

chemical reaction, 644, 813

liquid-liquid, 540

liquid-vapor, 336, 399, 401

Raoult’s law, 404

definition, 16

liquid-liquid, 539, 614, 624

liquid-liquid-vapor, 540, 614

solid-liquid-vapor, 624

equilibrium constant, 646

ideal gases, 642

ESD, See equation of state

Euler’s reciprocity relation, 233

eutectic, 561, 562, 627

exact differential, 232

Excel, 813

excess

enthalpy, 426, 440

entropy, 440

Gibbs energy, 413, 427, 440

properties, 426

volume, 426, 440, 581

exergonic, 652, 662

exergy, 177

exergy, See availability

exothermic, 112, 119, 427

exothermic reaction, 655, 666

expander, 72

See also turbine

expansion rule, 231

expansion/contraction work, 40, 86

extensive properties, 18, 398

extent of reaction, 110

extractive distillation, 392, 490

extrapolation, linear, 29

F

FAD, 735

Faraday’s constant, 728

fat, 119

feedwater preheater, 205

Fenske equation, 393

first law of thermodynamics, 4, 39

flash, 371

adiabatic, 372

drum, 378

isothermal, 372, 378, 546, 596, 812, 834, 838

multicomponent, 381

point, 389, 535

flavin adenine dinucleotide, 735

Flory equation, 474, 491, 506, 510, 514

Flory-Huggins theory, 474, 491, 541

force

frictional, 86

from potential energy, 8

formal concentration, 699

Fourier’s law, 157

free energies, 228

free volume, 475

friction, 43

friction factor, 68

fugacity, xxi, 268, 344, 400, 804

coefficient, 345, 425, 583, 585

component by EOS, 584

ideal gas component, 403

ideal gas pure, 347

liquid, 351

liquid component, 425

solid, 353

fundamental property relation, 226

fusion, 63, 559

G

gamma-phi method, 425

gas constant, 9

generalized correlation, 256, 323

Gibbs energy, 178, 228, 268

excess, See excess Gibbs energy

of a mixture, 427

of formation, 647, 843

of fusion, 558

of mixing, 105, 403, 428

of reaction (standard state), 647

Gibbs phase rule, 18, 229, 370, 617

Gibbs, J.W., 178

Gibbs-Duhem equation, 439, 440, 755

Gibbs-Helmholtz relation, 441, 653, 746

global warming factor, 497

gradient

concentration, 44

pressure, 44

temperature, 44

velocity, 44

Grayson-Streed model, 447

group contributions, 511

H

hard-sphere fluid, 285

head space, 387

heat, 6, 17, 46

of formation (standard state), 112

of fusion, See latent heat, enthalpy of fusion

of mixing, 107, 115, 427

of reaction, 60, 111

of reaction (standard state), 112

of vaporization, See latent heat, enthalpy of vaporization

sign convention, 53

heat capacity, 19, 57, 235, 244, 269, 843

and entropy, 149, 240, 242

heat conduction, 17, 157, 176

heat convection, 17

heat engine, 157

See also Carnot cycle

heat exchanger, 70, 160

heat radiation, 17

heavy key, 392, 487

Helmholtz energy, 179, 228, 309, 584

Helmholtz energy of mixing, 105

Helmholtz, Hermann, 179

Henderson-Hasselbalch, 724

Henry’s law, 376, 443, 457, 535, 610, 740, 749

standard state, 759

Hess’s law, 111, 119, 648

heteroazeotrope, xxi, 550, 616, 630, 633

Hilsch vortex tube, 195

Hooke’s law, 139

human blood, 453

hydrate inhibitor, 603

hydration, 694

hydrogen bonding, 8, 466, 501, 533, 550, 603, 769

hydronium, 704

hydrophilic, 421

hydrophobic, 421

hydrophobic effect, 485

hypertonic, 453

I

ideal chemical theory, 776, 813

ideal gas law, 18, 284

ideal solution, 106, 139, 403

incompressible fluid, 24

induction forces, 10

inelastic collision, 44

inert, 387, 650

infinite dilution, xxi, 434, 471

instability, 539

integration, 820

intensive, 17

internal energy, 15, 57, 226

ideal gas, 19

interpolation, 25

double, 27

interstage cooling, 174, 211

ion pair, 704

ion pair chromatography, 704

irreversible, xxi, 43, 74, 86, 142

isenthalpic, xxi

isentropic, xxi, 143, 148

isentropic efficiency, xxi

isobaric, xxi, 46, 147

isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, 236

isochore, xxii, 46, 147

isochoric, 274

isoelectric point, 724

isolated, xxii, 74

system, 16, 50

isopiestic, xxii

isopleth, 601

isopycnic, xxii

isosteric, xxii

isotherm, 23, 264

isothermal, xxii, 46, 147

compressibility, 236, 253, 824

flash, 372, 834, 838

isotonic, 453

IUPAC, 728

J

Jacobian, 242, 244

Joule-Thomson coefficient, 212, 236, 245

Joule-Thomson expansion, 68

K

Kamlet-Taft acidity/basicity, 421, 771

kinetic energy, 6, 22, 43, 66, 69

K-ratio, 372, 586

LLE, 545

modified Raoult’s law, 425

Raoult’s law, 376

shortcut, 376

SLE, 566

L

latent heat, 60, 846

laws

See Raoult’s law, Henry’s law

See zeroth law, first law, second law, third law

Le Châtelier, Henry, 649

Le Châtelier’s principle, 649, 699

Lee-Kesler, See equation of state

Legendre transformation, 228, 244, 398, 745

leveling effect, 705

lever rule, 372, 543, 551, 571, 630

Lewis, G.N., 3, 355

Lewis-Randall rule, 404, 443, 739

LFL, lower flammability limit, 389

light key, 392, 487

Linde liquefaction, 212, 320

linear extrapolation, 29

liquefaction, 212, 320

LLE, xxii, 539

local composition, 501

Lorentz and Bertholet combining rule, 13

lost work, 15, 42, 137, 142, 164, 178

low pressure steam, 172

M

M, as a generic property, 31, 303, 398, 426

MAB, Margules acid-base model, 421

Margules, 435, 812, 813

acid-base characterization, 421

one-parameter, 414, 484, 509, 542

two-parameter, 430

mass balance, 16

master equation, xxii

matrix, 817

maximum boiling azeotrope, 397

maximum pressure azeotrope, 394

Maxwell’s relations, 233

McCabe-Thiele analysis, 391

McMillan-Mayer framework, 450

mean ionic activity coefficients, 753

mean molality, 753

measurable properties, xxii, 229, 235

metastable, xxii, 269

See also unstable, equation of state (stable roots)

micelle, 691

microstate, 132

minimum boiling azeotrope, 394

minimum pressure azeotrope, 397

mixing rule, 466, 580, 840

differentiation, 588

molecular basis, 466

mixture

combining rule, 13

modified Raoult’s law, 412, 427

molal standard state, 759, 849

molality, 700

molecular asymmetry, 619

molecular simulation, 276

Mollier diagram, 166

monomer, 772

MOSCED, 480

mutual solubilities, 423, 540, 544

N

NAD, 735

negative deviations, 413, 444

Nernst equation, 728

Newton-Raphson, 265

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, 735

nominal, 699

noncondensable, 387, 487

normal boiling temperature, 61

normalization, 488, 595, 833

nozzle, xxii, 69, 74, 162

NRTL model, 508

O

one-root region, 264

open system, 16, 51

osmotic coefficient, 742

osmotic pressure, 449, 743, 755

osmotic virial coefficient, 451

overall

molar volume, enthalpy, etc., 31

mole fraction, 371

overall property, 31

overhead product, 101

oxidation, 727

oxidation state, 729

P

packing fraction, 273

packing, column, 102

parameter

binary interaction, 13, 582

cross, 467

parity plot, 578

partial condenser, 101, 378

partial molar

excess volume, 426

Gibbs energy, 398, 400, 427

properties, 398

volume, 398, 426

partial pressure, 403, 424

path properties, 46

PC-SAFT, See equation of state

Peng-Robinson, See equation of state

permutations, 135

pH, 701

phase behavior classes, 617

phase envelope, 23, 370, 601, 617

photosynthesis, 182

pI, 724

Pitzer correlation, 256, 323, 349

Plait point, 552

pMg, 736

polytropic, xxii

positive deviations, 413, 444

potential

energy, 8, 66

hard sphere, 277

Lennard-Jones, 10

square-well, 10, 274, 829

Sutherland, 10

potential energy, 6

Poynting correction, 350, 353, 425, 667, 669

Prausnitz-Shair, 447

preheater, 205

pressure, 20

bubble, See bubble-point pressure

dew, See dew-point pressure

equation, 283

gradient, 44

reduced, 64, 254

reference, 63

See also reference state

probability, 133, 467

process simulators, 839

properties

convenience, 227

measurable, 229

protein, 119, 719

protein engineering, 479

proton condition, 706

pseudoisomer, 736

pump, 73, 163, 173, 202

purge gas, 387

P-x-y diagram, 370

Q

quadratic equation, 817

quadratic mixing rule, 467

quadrupole, 8

quality, xxii, 30, 167, 336

R

Rackett equation, 351

radial distribution function, 284, 828

Rankine cycle, 200

Raoult, François-Marie, 376, 695

Raoult’s law, 405, 443

modified, 412, 427

negative deviations, 394, 444, 781

positive deviations, 394, 444, 781

rdf, See radial distribution function

reaction

coordinate, 110, 643

elementary, 671

reboiler, 101

reciprocity relation, Euler, 233

rectifying section, 101

Redlich-Kister activity coefficient model, 429

Redlich-Kwong, See equation of state, 325

redox reactions, 727

reduced, 254

pressure, See pressure, reduced

temperature, See temperature, reduced

reduction, 727

reference state, xxii, 6, 63, 112, 113, 314, 318, 652

reflux, 101

ratio, 101, 393

refrigerant choice, 210

refrigeration, 208

regular solution theory, 468

See also van Laar, Scatchard-Hildebrand theory

relative volatility, 392, 394, 456, 490

repulsive force, 10

reservoir, 17

residual contribution, 506

residue curve, 630, 813

retrograde condensation, 601

reverse osmosis, 449

reversible, 42, 74, 142

internally, 158

work, 41

roots

See quadratic, cubic

three- and one-root regions, 264

rotational energy, 43, 59

rules of thumb

plotting on logarithmic coordinates, 712

S

SAFT, See equation of state

salting in, out, 725

saturated

liquid, 23

steam, 24

saturation, 23

pressure, 23

temperature, 23

scalar, 20

Scatchard-Hildebrand, 471, 812

Schrödinger equation, 8

Scott, See equation of state

second law of thermodynamics, 4, 130, 131, 143

sensible heat, xxii, 60, 111

separation of variables, 75, 77

separatrices, 631

separatrix, 631, 635

shortcut distillation calculation, 393, 442, 630

sign convention

heat and work, 53

mass balance, 16

work, 40

simple system, 131, 226

sink, 17

SLE, xxii, 556

Soave, See equation of state

solubility, 540, 560, 726

parameter, 472, 621

solubility product, 726

solvation, xxii, 521, 694, 767

speciation, 697

specific heat, xxii

specific property, xxii, 17

spinodal, xxii, 269, 553

split, 392

SSCED model, 482

stability check, 358

stable roots, 268

stage, separation, 102

standard conditions, xxii

standard hydrogen electrode, 728

standard state, xxii, 112, 425, 428, 645

Gibbs energy of reaction, 648

heat of formation, 112

heat of reaction, 111

Henry’s law, 759

molal, 759, 849

state, 18

of aggregation, xxii, 25, 60, 63, 113, 318

property, 46

reference, 63, 318

variable, 18

statistical thermodynamics, 59

steady-state, xxiii, 18, 74

energy balance, 51

steam properties, 811

steam tables, 24, 854

steam trap, 92

Stirling’s approximation, 136

stoichiometric coefficient, 109

stoichiometric number, 109

stoichiometry, 109

STP, xxiii

strategy

problem-solving, 74, 165, 177, 179, 373

stripping section, 101

strong acid, 704

strong base, 704

strong electrolyte, 694

subcooled, xxiii, 25

supercritical, 24, 376

superficial basis, 699

superheated, xxiii, 25

superheater, 71, 201

surface fraction, 510

surfactant, 691

sweep gas, 387

system, 15

closed, 16

isolated, 16

open, 16

point, 713

simple, 131, 226

T

temperature, 6, 254

absolute, 7

bubble, See bubble-point temperature

dew, See dew-point temperature

gradient, 44

reduced, 62, 64, 253

reference, 63, 115

See also reference state

state variable, 18

thermal efficiency, xxiii, 97

thermodynamic efficiency, xxiii

third law of thermodynamics, 33, 63, 728

three-root region, 264

throttle, xxiii, 68, 74, 162

tie line, 23, 371, 551

ton of refrigeration capacity, 209

total condenser, 101

trays, 102

triple product rule, 231, 246

true concentrations, 699

true mole fraction, 772

true moles, 792, 793

turbine, 72, 163, 166

multistage, 172

two-fluid theory, 504

T-x-y diagram, 370

U

UCST, 552

UFL, 390

UNIFAC, 500, 514, 529, 562, 812

UNIQUAC, 509, 529, 812

unstable, xxiii, 268

unsteady-state, 74

unsymmetric convention

activity coefficients, 446

upper critical solution temperature, 550

upper flammability limit, 390

V

valve, 68, 162

See also throttle

van der Waals, 253, 261, 469

area, 511

equation, See equation of state

loop, 352

volume, 511

van Laar, 468, 470, 471, 474, 476, 812

van’t Hoff, 469, 653, 746

van’t Hoff equation, 653

shortcut, 655

vapor pressure, 24, 62, 254, 342, 353, 357, 376, 400

shortcut, 62, 339

See also Antoine equation

vector, 20

velocity gradient, 44

virial coefficient

See equation of state, virial

viscosity, 43

viscous dissipation, 43

VLE, xxiii, 372

VLLE, 434, 540, 548, 550

VOC, 387

volatile organic compounds, 387

voltage, 727

volume

saturated liquid, 351

van der Waals, 511

volume fraction, 472, 510

volume of mixing, 105, 106

W

wax, 564, 813

weak acid, 704

weak base, 704

weak electrolyte, 694

wet steam, xxiii, 24

Wilson equation, 505, 513

work, 15

expansion/contraction, 40

flow, 41

maximum, 164

minimum, 164

optimum, 158, 177

pump, 55, 202

shaft, 41, 54, 214

sign convention, 40

X

x-y plot, 376, 419

Z

Z, compressibility factor, 253

zeroth law of thermodynamics, 7

zwitterion, 721

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