Index

Note: Page numbers in italic indicate a figure and page numbers in bold indicate a table on the corresponding page.

A/B-ing 42, 88

A/B listening tests 69, 90

absolute digital measurement 15

absolute measures 15

Absolute Sound, The 4

absorbers 33, 38

absorption 35

absorptive materials 35

AC cords 43

accommodating frequency 13

acoustical testing and treatments 37

acoustic properties, and sound 3435

acoustics 16; common issues 36

acoustic treatments 3334, 37

active speakers 38, 3940

AD converter 44, 45, 4951, 65, 67, 87, 91, 121; selecting 117

ADDA converter 21

advanced approaches 1011

analog compressors 5762

analog domain vs. digital domain 21

analog tape compression 128

Antelope 45

apparent loudness 25

apparent volume 14, 122

Apple Digital Masters (ADM) file 99

archive master 102

artifacts 65, 100, 118, 153, 154, 155

assembly 9396

attack 26

attack time 57, 59, 61, 70n10

audio fidelity 2529, 82

audio frequencies 12, 13

audio level 8, 25

audio mastering tools 1015

audio restoration 153157

Audiophile 4

audiophile 46

audiophile recordings, ideology behind 4

audiophile test disc 5

bandwidth 45, 51, 70n4, 73; and high-resolution audio 21; and ITB 150; and sampling frequency 5, 20, 20

bass traps 33, 37

Baxandall EQ 52

bit depth (BD) 5, 20; selecting for mastered audio 85; verifying 7374

bit rate 73

blossom 2829, 120

Blumlein stereo setup 4, 22n4

brainworx 146

brickwall limiter (BWL) 6567, 87, 122

burn 100

buss compression 59

cabling 4344

capture 92

CD master designations 102

CD Text 94

Cedar 155156

Chesky Records 45

circuit design topologies 11

clarity 27

client: communication with 105, 106, 109; difficult 113

clipping 128130

clouds 33

cohesion 93

coloration 4, 8, 10, 12, 55, 57, 59, 60

comb filtering 36

Complete Guide to High-End Audio, The 7

compressing 88

compression 5557, 59, 88, 120

compression/limiting 91; multiband 125126

compressors 12, 5557, 88, 91; analog 5762

compressors/limiters 55; controls 5557

connectors 43

converters: AD 44, 4950, 121; ADDA 21; DA 43, 44, 45, 4951; selecting 117

Crane Song 41, 51, 61

critical listening 68, 33

crossfades 94

crossover network 38

DA converter 43, 44, 45, 4951; selecting 117

Dangerous 42, 43

DAWs see digital audio workstation (DAW)

dBFS meter 1415

dB/octave ratio 52

DDP folder 97, 98

decibels full scale (dBFS) 28, 50, 76; see also dBFS meter

decibels unterminated (dBu) 14

de-essing 121

definition 27

delay compensation 121

deliberate listening 6, 81

Deliberate Practice 6

Delivery 17, 19, 45, 69, 97

de-noising 153157

depth 26, 27

detail 27

diffusers/diffusion 34, 37

digital audio files 98100

digital audio workstation (DAW) 5, 14, 16, 69; de-noise functions 156; and digital clocking 4445; digital processing precision 21

digital clocking 44

digital domain vs. analog domain 21

digital look-ahead peak limiter 65, 122

digital signal processing (DSP) 21, 44, 118119

disc description protocol CD master 97

dither 44, 100, 119, 122

DMG 56, 68

documentation 109

downward compressor 55

dynamic EQ 127

dynamic range 20, 20; and audio fidelity 28; and loudness 25, 26

dynamics 28, 91, 122; see also macro-dynamics; micro-dynamics

ear plugs 16

electronic components 11

electro-optical compressors 57, 121

Eleven Qualities of Superb Audio Fidelity, The 25, 82, 83, 93, 107, 118, 132, 159

EQ 120, 121; adjustments 122; dynamic 127; see also equalizers (EQ); equalizing (EQing)

EQ/Rundown card 1719, 18

equalizers (EQ) 10, 11, 12, 21, 51, 88; configurations 5255; parametric 5255, 91

equalizing (EQing) 88, 90, 91

equipment sequencing 117; Zone 1 moves 118121; Zone 2 moves 121; Zone 3 moves 122123

expanders 65

extension 2728, 52

external clock 44

external master clock 44

fabfilter 56, 68

Fairchild 61, 70n10, 70n11

FET compressors 59

filtering EQ 52

Five Step Mastering Process, The 71, 103, 108, 159

fixed parametric EQ 52

flat mix 88, 90, 113, 125

Fletcher-Munson Equal Loudness Contours 8, 90, 107

flutter echo 36

Fourier Transform methodology (FFT) 113

four-way speakers 38

freestanding speakers 3939

frequencies 7, 21, 27; see also audio frequencies

frequency analysis 113

frequency balances 111112

frequency imbalance 113

frequency response curves 113

front/back designs 37

full-range mastering speakers 39

gain distribution 90, 91

gain-reduction circuits 57

gain structure 14, 90, 91, 121, 122

game plan 8592

gates 65

genres 56; and recording approaches 9; and subjective assessment 82

genre-specific considerations 105, 112

graphic EQ 52

grounding 38

halo 28

HDtracks 5

headphones 8

headroom 51

height 26

Helmholtz resonators 34

hidden tracks 94

high-resolution audio (HRA): files 98, 101; formats 4; sampling frequency and bit depth in 5, 21

high-resolution mastering 17

Hollywood Bowl 16, 26, 27

HRA files 98, 101

hybrid chain 21

hybrid domain system 132

image 67; and audio fidelity 26

image smearing 36, 150

imaging 26

instrument balance 111

interconnects 4344

intercuts 133

internal clock 44, 44

internal processing precision 21

in-the-box (ITB) mastering 113, 149150

inverse macro-dynamics 28

inverted dynamics 112

ISRCs 94

Izotope RX7 154

jitter 44

Lavry 50

leading edge transients 120

limiter 26, 57, 91; see also brickwall limiter (BWL); compressors/limiters

line amps 132

listening experience 5, 6, 8, 16, 25; see also audio fidelity

LKFS 15

look-ahead 65

lossless format 4, 21, 98

lossy format 4, 21, 99

loudness 14; and audio fidelity 2526; see also perceived loudness

loudness K-weighted full scale (LKFS) 15

loudness metering/level measurements 1415

loudness units (LU) 15

loudness units relative to full scale (LUFS) 15

loudness wars 26, 65, 99

L/R integrity, verifying 89

LU meter 123n2

LUFS/LKFS reading 15

LUFS meter 123n2

macro-dynamic automation 119120

macro-dynamics 6, 28, 108, 112, 123

Magic Death Eye 63, 129

Manley 41, 55, 60, 63

master, generating 17, 100

master clock 44

Mastered for iTunes (MFiT) 21, 65, 98, 99

mastering 3, 20; primary colors of 1011

mastering chain 42, 69, 88, 90, 112, 113

mastering console 42, 121

Mastering Engineer 34; key understandings to possess 2021

Mastering Engineer, competencies 3; acoustics and listening environments 16; audio frequencies 12, 13; audio mastering tools 1015; demeanor 19; generating audio masters 17; becoming an audiophile 46; critical listening 68; digital audio workstations 1617; QC methods 17; recallable workflow approaches 1719; recording methods/technologies 910;

mastering game plan 8592

mastering notes 17

mastering studio 33; cabling/interconnects/AC cords 4344; digital clocking and dither 44; mastering console vs. point-to-point 42; monitor path/monitor control 4041; power amplifiers 40; room 3337; signal path 42; speakers 3839; Three Zone Mastering System 4546

MBC/L 125126

metadata 94

metering scales 15

MFiT file 21, 65, 98, 99

micro-dynamics 28

microphones 9

mid-side processing (M/S) 132, 137139; creating matrix in Pro Tools 140, 143; decoding (DAW example) 140141; decoding out of M/S back into stereo 140; encoding (DAW example) 140; encoding from stereo into M/S 139140; hardware processors for mastering 144; plug-ins for mastering 146; practical applications in mastering 142

mixes, organizing 89

mix evaluation 111112

mix playback level, setting optimal 118

mixing sessions 10

monitor path/monitor control 4041

monoblock power amplifiers 40

mult 49

multiband compression/limiting (MBC/L) 125126

musical genres 56; and recording approaches 9; and subjective assessment 82

musicality 6, 28

naming conventions 19

near-field monitors 39

Neve 64, 144

noise shaping 100

notes 109

Nyquist frequency (N) 5, 20, 73, 74, 85, of high-resolution audio 21; and ITB mastering 150

objective assessment 20, 7380

off-axis listening (OAL) 39

optimal playback level 118

order 52

original master 97, 102

oscillator sweep 8889, 112113

panning 13, 14

parallel compression 27, 87, 130

parallel processing 120 121, 130

parametric equalizer 5255, 91

passive EQ 52

passive speakers 38, 39

PBDAW 15, 19, 45, 45, 49, 69, 118, 119; adjustments 118; advanced adjustments 120121

PCs 69

peak levels 76

peak-limited/peak-limiting 26, 67, 7880; see also serial peak-limiting

peak-limiter 65, 77, 80, 113, 122, 123; plug-in 67

perceived loudness 8, 9

perceptual measures 14

phantom center 26

pink noise 37

pink noise generator 37

plant master compact disc (PMCD) 97, 100

playback DAW 44, 45, 49, 69

playback level 37, 90, 118119

playback system 79

playback volume setting 25

plug-in folder 19

plug-in parametric EQs 5557

point-to-point 42

polarity-reversed 138, 139, 140

power 38

power amplifiers 40

PQ encoding/indexing 94

PQ sheet 95, 94, 97, 100, 101

precision resistors 18

pricing 106

Primary Colors of Mastering 1011, 49, 51

Prism 50

Pro Tools 19, 69, 7374, 74, 76, 89, 90, 121; creating an M/S matrix in 140, 142, 143; Gain plug-in 76

production master 102

prominent frequency 13; of common instruments 13; and panning 13

PSP 15, 119

psychoacoustics 8, 22n8, 107108, 110n1

QCing 17, 100101

quality control (QC) 17, 100102

quantization error 44

ratio 57

raw archive master 17

RDAW 15, 17, 45, 49, 69

recallable workflow approaches 1719

record DAW 15, 17, 44, 45, 49, 69

Red Book CD Master 97, 100

Red Book specifications 98, 99

reference copy 102

reference level15, 5051; calibration 51

reflection 35

reflective materials 35

relative analog measurement 15

relative measure 14

release times 57, 59

remastering 4

rendering 100

resonant shelf 52

reverberation 133134

revisions 106, 109, 110, 113

root mean square (RMS) 15, 28, 57, 76, 78

sample rate conversion (SRC) 44, 69, 150

sampling frequency (S) 5, 20, 44, 45; and audio bandwidth 20; and ITB mastering 150; selecting for mastered audio 85; verifying 7374

sampling rate 45

sampling theorem 2021, 73; and ITB 150

saturation 127

sensitivity to the music 4, 6, 81

serial peak-limiting 127

session folder 19

Sheffield Labs 5

shelving EQ 52

shoot-out 106

side-chain compression (s.c.) 125

signal flow 44

signal path 42; adjustments 121; monitoring positions in 88; oscillator sweep of 8889, 112113; selecting 8587, 117

single-DAW setup 69

soffit-mounted speakers 38

song spacing 94

Sonic Solutions NoNoise 153154

sound pressure level (SPL) 9, 2526, 37

soundstage 67

speaker monitor calibration 37

speakers 3839

spectrum analyzer 36, 74, 76, 113

SPL 144

SPL meter 37

standard mix level 111, 118

standing waves 36

Steinberg WaveLab 69, 74, 75, 76, 77

stem mastering 132133

stepped attenuators 18

Stereophile 4

streaming platforms/services 15, 65, 98, 99, 120

subjective assessment 8183; and deliberate listening 6, 81; and genres 5

subwoofer 38

Super Audio Compact Disc (SACD) 4

tape compression 128

target level 26, 65, 67; and gain structure 90; of mastered audio by genre 78

Three Zone Mastering System 4546, 118; gain distribution in 90, 91; Zone 1 moves 118121; Zone 2 moves 121; Zone 3 moves 122123

three-way speakers 38

threshold 5557, 59, 65

tilt EQ 52

tops and tails 45, 93, 94, 100

transformer 132

transient peaks 55, 57, 59

transients/transient response 8, 26, 40, 57, 88, 128; see also leading edge transients

two-DAW setup 69

two-way speakers 38

UAD 126, 145, 151

up-sampling 150

upward compression 57

UTA 62

variable-gain compressors 6062, 121

VCA compressors 61

vinyl albums 8

vinyl mastering, files for 99100

vocal placement 112

Voxengo 67, 77

VU meter 14, 15; matching mix and master metering 122123; reading 78

Walt Disney Concert Hall 16

waveform inspection 7980

WaveLab 69, 74, 75, 76, 77

Waves 145

Weiss 55, 126, 154

width 26

wiper 19

work habits 108

Zone 1 moves 118121

Zone 2 moves 121

Zone 3 moves 122123

zones 15, 4546, 118; see also Three Zone Mastering System

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