Index

Numbers and Special Characters

2D transformations, math for, 3438

rotations, 3437

scaling, 3738

translations, 34

3D in Hollywood, 4

3D motion, 249259

3D shuffle, 71

3D transformations, math for, 3849

GLKit, 49

inverse transformations, 4748

projecting object onto screen, 4347

quaternions, 49

3D worlds, 5190

clipping regions, 7375

coordinates for

eye coordinates, 54

OpenGL coordinates, 5153

face culling, 7677

FOV in, 7576

frustum

creating, 6769

defined, 5455

geometry for, 6063

simple demo of, 5659

solar system example, 7790

spinning, 6973

A

Adding interface, 286

alpha, 82

alpha blending, 167179

functions, 178

multicolor, 178179

ambient lighting, 109110

anaglyph technique, 4

angle of incidence, 95, 116117

angle of reflectance, 116

API Expert, 305

Api Statistics, 306

APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), OpenGL ES, and textures, 137141

APPLE_texture_2D_limited_npot extension, 281

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), OpenGL ES, and textures, 137141

attenuation, 112113, 118

B

backface elimination, 65

baseModelViewMatrix, 2225

batching, 295296

bilinear sampling, 156

billboarding, 260

binary space partitioning (BSP), 130

blending, 167200

alpha, 167179

blending functions, 171178

multicolor blending, 178179

texture, 180200

mapping with bumps, 191200

multitexturing, 184200

Blinn, Jim, 7

Blinn-Phong model, 110

blob shadows, 229

bouncy square example, 143159

filtering, 155157

mipmaps, 152155

OpenGL ES API extensions and PVRTC, 157159

BSP (binary space partitioning), 130

buffer-matrix, 36

buffer objects

frame. See FBOs

Hedley

overview, 202207

sun buffer objects, 208210

bumps, mapping with, 191200

C

CADisplayLink, 287

Call Tree, 306

Carpenter, Loren, 10

Cartesian coordinates, 52

Catmull, Ed, 67

CGPoint m_PointerLocation, 251

Clark, Jim, 7

clipping, regions, 7375

clouds, over earth at night, 329

CMYK mode, 9394

color

components in lighting, 9495

factors in, 118119

formats, 297298

and light, 9194

color. glLightfv( ) method, 98

colorIncrement, 81

COM interface, 12

computer graphics

analysis of OpenGL program, 1429

shaders, 2729

showing scene in display, 2226

tweaking values, 26

development of, 411

in Hollywood, 811

MIT, 56

University of Utah, 67

history of, 34

OpenGL architecture, 2931

opening OpenGL ES project, 23

toolkits, 1114

Direct3D, 1112

OGRE, 13

OpenGL, 11

OpenSceneGraph, 13

others, 1314

QuickDraw 3D, 1213

Unity3D, 13

Controller file, 67

coordinate transformation, 34

coordinates

eye coordinates, 54

OpenGL coordinates, 5153

CoreGraphics, 281

creating lights, 95104

Crow, Frank, 10

cube map, 334339

cubeColors, 61, 6566

cubeVertices array, 61, 63, 6566

D

depth sorting, 129130

Detailed pane, for OpenGL analyzer, 305306

development of computer graphics, 411

in Hollywood, 811

at MIT, 56

at University of Utah, 67

diffuse reflectance, 115

Direct3D, 1112

displays

Retina, 245246

showing scenes in, 2226

drawFrame method, 48

drawInRect( ) method, 58, 69, 85, 147, 179, 186, 210, 222, 320, 337

drawLight( ) method, 232234, 240

drawShadow( ) method, 232, 238, 240241

E

EAGLView, 20

earth, at night

clouds, 329

overview, 318

specular reflections, 325328

effects, lens flare, 259270

emissive materials, 110111

execute( ) file, 102, 126

execute method, 83, 85, 88, 122, 124, 128

execute( ) method, 164, 197, 208, 247, 259, 266, 270, 273, 276, 293

executePlanet( ) method, 127, 197198, 266268, 270

executePlanets( ) method, 126

executeVBO( ) method, 292

Extended Detail pane, for OpenGL analyzer, 305

eye coordinates, 54

F

face culling, of 3D objects, 7677

face normals, 65, 82, 99

FBController object, 208

FBOController, 202, 205206, 209

FBOs (Frame Buffer Objects), 201243

Hedley

overview, 202207

sun buffer objects, 208210

lens flares, 210218

reflective surfaces, 218225

shadows, 226243

blob, 229

mapping, 227

projection, 229243

volumes, 227228

field of view (FOV), 55, 7576

filtering, 155157

float m_FieldOfView variable, 251

formats, color, 297298

FOV (field of view), 55, 7576

FPS (frames per second), 294

Frame Buffer Objects. See FBOs

Frame Statistics, 304, 306

frames per second (FPS), 294

Fresnel Law of Reflection, 117

frustum

creating, 6769

defined, 5455

G

gColor4f( ) method, 169

geometry, for 3D worlds, 6063

getPosition( ) method, 253, 256, 268

GL Utility Toolkit (GLUT), 77

glActiveTexture( ) method, 187, 195, 330331

GL_ADD, 188191

GL_ALPHA_TEST, 298

GL_ALWAYS function, 220

GL_AMBIENT parameter, 109, 114

GL_APPLE_texture_2D_limited_npot GL. NPOT, 158

GL_BACK, 65, 76, 83

glBindBuffer( ) method, 290, 292293

glBindTexture( ) method, 202, 206207, 209, 215, 330

GL_BLEND, 171, 182, 188190

glBlendEquation( ) method, 176, 178

glBlendEquationSeparate( ) method, 176

glBlendEquationSeparateOES( ) method, 177

glBlendFunc( ) method, 171174, 176, 179, 182

glBlendFuncSeparateOES( ) method, 177

glBufferData( ) method, 290291

glClear( ) method, 25

glClearColor( ) method, 25, 129

glClientActiveTexture( ) method, 186187, 197

glColor( ) method, 196

glColor4f( ) method, 168169, 173, 183, 195

GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0_OES, 203204

glColorMask( ) method, 177178

glColorPointer( ) method, 179, 182, 198

GL_COMBINE, 188, 190191, 195

GL_COMPRESSED_RGBA_PVRTC_2BPPV1_IMG, 159

GL_COMPRESSED_RGBA_PVRTC_4BPPV1_IMG, 159

GL_COMPRESSED_RGB_PVRTC_2BPPV1_IMG, 159

GL_COMPRESSED_RGB_PVRTC_4BPPV1_IMG, 159

GL_CONSTANT_ATTENUATION, 112, 115

glCreateShader( ) method, 312

GL_DECAL, 188190

GL_DECR type, 221, 228

glDeleteBuffer( ) method, 291

GL_DEPTH_ATTACHMENT_OES, 203204

GL_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT, 204

glDetachShader( ) method, 315316

GL_DIFFUSE parameter, 98, 106, 114, 120, 124125

glDisable( ) method, 292, 295, 303

GL_DOT3_RGB, 191193, 195196

GL_DOT3_RGBA, 191192, 196

glDrawArray( ) method, 171, 207

glDrawArrays( ) method, 25, 66, 207, 209, 222, 234, 289, 292, 303, 306

glDrawElements( ) method, 66, 224, 232, 238239, 241, 289, 303

glDrawTexfOES( ) method, 281282

GL_DST_ALPHA, 176

GL_DST_COLOR, 176

GL_EMISSION, 110111, 125

glEnable( ) method, 76, 171, 181182, 186, 197198, 292, 295, 303

glEnableClientState, 145, 147, 153, 164, 168, 181182, 186, 197

glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY) method, 5859, 65, 83

glEnable(GL_COLOR_MATERIAL) method, 111

GLenum light, 112

GLenum pname, 112

GLenum type file, 16, 311

GL_EXT_blend_minmax, 176

GLfloat, 9899, 102, 106, 109, 114, 120, 123, 125, 128

glFlush( ) method, 303

gl_FragColor, 317, 322323, 328, 331

GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER file, 312, 314

GL_FRONT, 76

GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, 106109, 111, 120, 124125

glFrontFace( ) method, 110

glFrustum( ) method, 338

glFrustumf( ) method, 67

glGet*, 9596

glGetError( ) method, 298

glGetFloatv( ) method, 48, 265, 275, 277

glGetIntegerv, 185

glGetLight, 121

glGetLightfv( ) method, 98

glGetUniformLocation( ) method, 315, 320, 330

GL_INCR type, 221, 228

GL_INTERPOLATE, 191

GL_INVERT type, 221

GLKBaseEffect class, 16, 18, 22, 2425, 94

GLKBaseEffects class, 333

GL_KEEP type, 220221

GLKEffectPropertyMaterial class, 333

GLKEffectPropertyTransform object, 338

GLKEffects library, 333334

GLKit tool, 333339

GLKEffects library, 333334

GLKReflectionMap class, 334339

overview, 49

GLKMatrix4MakePerspective, 22, 24

GLKQuaternion m_Quaternion, 254

GLKReflectionMap class, 333339

GLKReflectionMapEffect, 336

GLKSkyboxEffect class, 333

GLKTexture, 143

GLKTextureInfo object, 143144, 146, 163, 337

GLKTextureLoader( ) method, 143, 146, 152, 159

GLKTextureLoaderGenerateMipmaps, 152, 159

GLKVector3 objects, 255

GLKVector3 type, 256

GLKVertexAttribNormal, 18, 21

GLKVertexAttribPosition, 18, 21

GLKView class, 20, 245, 285, 320, 333, 338

GLKViewController object, 24, 333

glLight*, 114, 121

glLightfv( ) method, 98

glLightModel, 121

glLightModelfv, 109110

GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDE, 110, 120121, 124

GL_LINEAR, 153154, 156157

GL_LINEAR_ATTENUATION, 112, 115

GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR, 156

GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_NEAREST, 156

GL_LINE_LOOP, 63

GL_LINES, 63

GL_LINE_STRIP, 63, 88

glLineWidth( ) method, 283

glLinkProgram( ) method, 312

glLoadIdentity( ) method, 206207, 209, 215, 224, 232

glMakeAwesomeLightsDude( ) method, 96

glMapBufferOES( ) method, 290291

glMaterial*, 108

glMaterialfv, 106107, 109, 111, 120121, 124126

glMaterialfv( ) method, 305

glMatrixMode( ) method, 55, 127

glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW) method, 55

GL_MAX_COMBINED_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS, 185

GL_MODELVIEW, 55, 57, 65, 67, 8384

GL_MODULATE, 187188, 190191, 195

GL_NEAREST, 153, 156157

GL_NEAREST_MIPMAP_NEAREST, 156

glNormal, 122

glNormal3f, 103

glNormalPointer, 102, 122

GL_OES_blend_equation_separate, 176

GL_OES_blend_func_separate, 176

GL_OES_blend_subtract, 176

GL_ONE, 172174, 176, 178180, 182

GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA, 172, 174, 176, 182

GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_COLOR, 215, 224225

glOrthof( ) method, 215216, 261, 263

GL_POINTS, 63, 88

GL_POINT_SMOOTH, 275276

glPolygonOffset( ) method, 236

glPopMatrix, 122, 125127

gl_Position, 316317, 322, 327

GL_POSITION parameter, 98, 106, 114, 120, 124125

GL_PREVIOUS, 195196

GL_PRIMARY_COLOR, 196

GL_PROJECTION, 215216

glPushMatrix, 122, 125126, 209, 216, 222, 224, 234235, 238

GL_QUADRATIC_ATTENUATION, 112, 115, 120, 124

GL_REPLACE function, 188, 191, 220221

glRotate( ) method, 54, 248, 307, 338

glRotatef( ) method, 64, 72

glRotatef ( ) method, 125, 127

glRotatef( ) method, 247, 255

glRotation( ) method, 126, 248

glScale( ) method, 72

glScalef( ) method, 64, 81

glScalex( ) method, 64

glShadeModel, 98, 106, 120, 122, 124

glShadeModel( ) method, 258, 266

GL_SMOOTH, 258, 266, 275

GL_SOURCE0_RGB, 190

GL_SPECULAR parameter, 107, 114, 120, 124125

GL_SPOT_CUTOFF, 113115

GL_SPOT_DIRCTION, 113

GL_SPOT_DIRECTION, 113114

GL_SPOT_EXPONENT, 113115

GL_SRC_ALPHA, 172, 174, 176, 182

GL_SRC_COLOR, 176

glStencilOp( ) function, 220221, 228

glTexCoordPointer( ) method, 181, 186, 190, 197

glTexEnvf( ) method, 185, 187, 190, 195

GL_TEXTURE_2D, 143, 145146, 153154, 164165

GL_TEXTURE_CROP_RECT_OES, 281282

GLTextureInfo, 143

GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, 143, 153154

GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, 143, 153154

GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, 143, 146

GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, 143, 146

glTranlsation, 126

glTranslate( ) method, 233, 307, 338

glTranslatef( ) method, 58, 66, 71, 209, 216, 224, 234, 238, 267, 269

glTranslation( ) method, 207

GL_TRIANGLE_FAN, 63, 65

GL_TRIANGLES, 63

GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP, 58, 63, 65, 83, 88

gluGetScreenLocation( ) method, 264266, 269270

gluLookAt( ) method, 254255

gluMultMatrixVector3f( ) method, 264266

glUnmapBufferOES( ) method, 291

gluProject( ) method, 264266

glUseProgram( ) method, 2526, 318, 330

GLUT (GL Utility Toolkit), 77

glVertexPoint( ) method, 59

GL_VERTEX_SHADER file, 312, 314

glViewPort( ) method, 245

GL_ZERO type, 176, 221, 238

Gouraud shading, 110, 119

GPU (graphics processing unit), 289

grazeDist value, 267268, 270

Greek identifiers, 82

H

handlePanGesture( ) method, 250251

handlePinchGesture( ) method, 250251

Hasselblad cameras, 210

Hedley buffer objects

overview, 202207

sun, 208210

history of computer graphics, 34

Hollywood, computer graphics development at, 811

homogeneous coordinates, 37

HSV color wheel, 93

I, J

image formats, 142143

image textures, 136137

init( ) method, 78, 8485, 96, 128, 159160, 163, 196

initGeometry( ) method, 84, 87, 96, 122123, 246

initLighting( ) method, 98, 104105, 109110, 112, 119, 123

InitLighting( ) method, 123

initWithAPI, 17, 19

inspectors, instrument, for OpenGL analyzer, 302304

instrument inspector, for OpenGL analyzer, 302304

intensity of color, factors in, 118119

interferes, 92

interleaved data, 295

interpolative shading, 110

inverse transformations, 4748

K

kEAGLRenderingAPIOpenGLES1 flag, 56, 58, 85

L

Lambert lighting model, 115

lens flares, 210218, 259270

LensFlare object, 214, 216

LensFlare.mm, 263

light parameters, 114115

lighting

and color, 9194

color components in, 9495

creating and positioning lights, 95104

math behind shading, 115116

with other materials, 105115

ambient lighting, 109110

attenuation, 112113

emissive materials, 110111

light parameters, 114115

shading models, 110

specular lighting, 107108

spotlights, 113114

secondary lights, 119122

in solar-system model, 122

specular reflections, 116119

attenuation, 118

benefits of understanding, 119

factors in color and intensity, 118119

Line Graph in the Track Display section, 303

loadShaders( ) method, 313314, 317, 319320, 330

loadTexture( ) method, 143144, 146, 159, 163, 182, 197, 259260

lookAtTarget( ) method, 250, 252253, 257

M

magnification, 143, 155

main( ) method, 309, 316317, 321323, 326, 328, 331

mapping

with bumps, 191200

shadow, 227

materials, and lighting, 105115

ambient lighting, 109110

attenuation, 112113

emissive materials, 110111

light parameters, 114115

shading models, 110

specular lighting, 107108

spotlights, 113114

math behind shading, 115116

math coordinates, 5152

math for transformations, 3349

2D transformations, 3438

rotations, 3437

scaling, 3738

translations, 34

3D transformations, 3849

GLKit, 49

inverse transformations, 4748

projecting object onto screen, 4347

quaternions, 49

max( ) method, 317

maxSize, 144

m_Eyeposition type, 246, 254, 258, 267268

m_FieldOfView, 251252, 268

minification, 143, 156

miniGLU, 254, 258, 264, 270, 273

Minnaert model, 110

mipmaps, 152155, 297

MIT, computer graphics development at, 56

modelMatrix, 264265

modelview, 24, 5455, 58, 66, 68

modelViewMatrix, 41, 48, 238239, 337338

modelViewProjectionMatrix, 315316, 321322, 326327, 331

motion, 3D, 249259

m_Pos variable, 256

MSAA (multisampled anti-aliasing), 285

m_Scale variable, 78, 80, 82, 270

m_Squash, 78, 80, 82

m_Texture0, 181182, 187, 194

multicolor blending, 178179

multisampled anti-aliasing (MSAA), 285

multiTexture, 187

multiTextureBumpMap( ) method, 194

MultiTextureBumpMap( ) method, 194

multiTextureBumpMap( ) method, 197198

multitexturing, 180, 184200

multTexture( ) method, 196

N

NewTek, 9

nonstenciled pixels, 228

normalized vectors, 99

normalMatrix, 315317, 321, 326327, 331

nPtrs value, 102

NSData object, 282

O

Objective-C object, 84

OGRE, 13

OpenGL

analysis of, 1429

shaders, 2729

showing scene in display, 2226

tweaking values, 26

analyzer, 299306

context-sensitive settings, 305

Detailed pane, 305306

Extended Detail pane, 305

instrument inspector, 302304

Record/stop button, 302

Target Selector pane, 304

Track Display pane, 304

architecture, 2931

coordinates, 5153

ES API

extensions, and PVRTC, 157159

and textures, 137141

Game template, 3

general discussion, 11

lights, 94

opening projects, 23

OpenGLCreateTexture.mm file, 260

OpenGLCreateTexture:renderTextureInRect( ) method, 269

OpenGLOutlines, 272, 282

OpenGLSolarSystemController, 8485, 122123

OpenGLSolarSystem.h file, 97, 122

OpenGLSolarSystemViewController, 129

opening OpenGL ES project, 23

OpenSceneGraph, 13

Oren-Nayer, 110

orthogonal, 99

orthographic projection, 44, 55

outlines.plist file, 278

P

painter's algorithm, 130

parallel projection, 44

parameters, light, 114115

pattern-matrix, 36

percentVisible, 267268, 270

performance, 289306

OpenGL analyzer, 299306

context-sensitive settings, 305

Detailed pane, 305306

Extended Detail pane, 305

instrument inspector, 302304

Record/stop button, 302

Target Selector pane, 304

Track Display pane, 304

VBOs, 289299

batching, 295296

color formats, 297298

interleaved data, 295

mipmaps, 297

sprite sheets, 296297

textures, 296297

tips on, 298299

Performance Detective, 294295, 299, 305

perspective projection, 4445, 55

phiIdx, 79, 82

Phong shading, 110

physiological optics, 93

pipelines, shaded, 308, 318

restrictions on shaders, 310, 318

shader structure, 309310

two cubes example, 308309

Planet object, 78, 8384, 88

Planet.h file, 163

Planet.m file, 96, 99, 102, 127128

point sampling, 156

pos vector, 112

positioning lights, 95104

POT (power-of-two), 143144, 147, 158

PowerVR graphics, 158

PowerVR Texture Compression (PVRTC), 157159, 297

prepareToDraw( ) method, 338

primitive, 63

projecting object onto screen, 4347

projection shadows, 229243

PVRTC (PowerVR Texture Compression), 157159, 297

PVRTexTool, 158159

Q

quaternions, 49, 248249

QuickDraw 3D, 1213

R

rasterization, 30

Record/stop button, for OpenGL analyzer, 302

red, green, blue, and alpha (RGBA), 142

red-green-blue (RGB), 93

reflect( ) method, 327

reflections, specular, 325328

reflective surfaces, 218225

regions, clipping, 7375

render parameter, 260, 263, 267269, 276

renderAtPoint( ) method, 279, 281282

renderFlareAt( ) method, 263264

rendering, FBOs, 201243

Hedley, 202207

lens flares, 210218

reflective surfaces, 218225

shadows, 226243

rendering order, 129

renderStage( ) method, 221

renderTextureAt( ) method, 261, 263

renderToStencil( ) method, 219220, 223, 225

Retina displays, 245246

RGB (red-green-blue), 93

RGBA (red, green, blue, and alpha), 142

roll, pitch, and yaw (RPY), 42

rotation matrix, 36

rotations, 3437

RPY (roll, pitch, and yaw), 42

S

scaledX value, 214216

scaledY value, 214216

scaling, 3738

scenes, showing in display, 2226

screen, projecting object onto, 4347

secondary lights, 119122

setClipping( ) method, 69, 75, 86, 154, 239240, 247, 252, 263, 266

setHoverPosition( ) method, 250252, 256

setHoverPostion( ) method, 256

setupGL( ) method, 59, 318319, 330, 336

shaders, 2729, 307340

earth at night, 318

clouds, 329

specular reflections, 325328

GLKit tool, 333339

GLKEffects library, 333334

GLKReflectionMap class, 334339

pipelines, 308318

restrictions on shaders, 310318

shader structure, 309310

two cubes example, 308309

shading

math behind, 115116

models of, 110

overview, 94

shadow volume, 227228

shadows, 226243

blob, 229

mapping, 227

projection, 229243

volumes, 227228

shininess, 108, 117

showing scene in display, 2226

sizeWithFont( ) method, 281

slerping, 249

so glScale, 64

solar system example, 7790

solar system model, 245288

3D motion, 249259

lens flare effect, 259270

lighting in, 122

quaternions, 248249

Retina display, 245246

stars, 271285

textures, 159165

UI, 285287

SolarSystemController, 266

specular exponent, 117

specular lighting, 107108

specular reflections, 116119, 325328

attenuation, 118

benefits of understanding, 119

factors in color and intensity, 118119

specularColorVarying variable, 326328, 331

spherical linear interpolation, 249

spinning, 3D objects, 6973

spotlights, 113114

sprite sheets, 278, 296297

squareColors, 5758, 66

SS_FILLLIGHT1, 119120, 124

SS_FILLLIGHT2, 119120, 124

stars, for solar system model, 271285

sun buffer objects, 208210

surfaces, reflective, 218225

T

Target Selector pane, for OpenGL analyzer, 304

texels, 137, 140, 144, 155156

texture blending, 180200

mapping with bumps, 191200

multitexturing, 184200

texture combiners, 184, 191192, 197

texture environment, 185, 187

texture units, 184185

textureCoords, 145, 147, 149, 151, 153, 190

textureCoords2, 190

textures, 133, 166, 296

bouncy square example, 143159

filtering, 155157

mipmaps, 152155

OpenGL ES API extensions and PVRTC, 157159

description of, 134136

image, 136137

image formats, 142143

OpenGL ES API and, 137141

solar system model, 159165

uploading, 297

tFan, 66

tiling model, 140

timeSinceLastUpdate, 23, 25

toolkits, 1114

Direct3D, 1112

OGRE, 13

OpenGL, 11

OpenSceneGraph, 13

others, 1314

QuickDraw 3D, 1213

Unity3D, 13

Track Display pane, for OpenGL analyzer, 304

transformations, 60

translating, 53

translation matrix, 24, 60

translations, 34

triangle fans, 6264, 66

triangle pairs, 104

trilinear sampling, 156

tweaking values, 26

U

UIButtons, 285

UIImageView object, 34

UIs (User Interfaces), for solar system model, 285287

UIView object, 20, 285

unitless entities, 138

Unity3D, 13

University of Utah, 67

update( ) method, 337338

User Interfaces (UIs), for solar system model, 285287

V

values, tweaking, 26

vanishDist value, 267268, 270

VAOs (vertex array objects), 21, 318

VBOs (Vertex Buffer Objects), 289299

batching, 295296

color formats, 297298

interleaved data, 295

mipmaps, 297

sprite sheets, 296297

textures, 296297

tips on, 298299

vertex array objects (VAOs), 21, 318

vertex buffer, 21

Vertex Buffer Objects. See VBOs

vertex shader, 308, 310311, 314, 316317, 320322, 326

viewcontroller, 15, 56, 58, 85, 250, 252, 256

viewDidLoad( ) method, 68, 85, 97, 154, 194, 205, 230, 239240, 250

viewing frustum, 24

viewport, 4548

volumes, shadow, 227228

von Helmholtz, Hermann, 92

vPtr value, 99, 101102

W

Warnock, John, 7

Whitted, Turner, 10

WiFi activity, 299

winding, 65

windingness, 66

X, Y

xyz coordinates, 265266

Z

Z-axis, 58, 75, 85

z-buffering, 130131

zFar, 67, 7475

zNear, 6768, 7475, 8889

zoomBias affects, 216

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