Index

Numbers in italics refer to pages with figures. Numbers with ‘n’ refer to specific source notes. Numbers with ‘nn’ refer to multiple source notes on the same page.

Adams, Abigail, 126127

Adams, Henry, 108

Adams, John, 1819, 94, 126127

advertising

ballot initiative campaign using, 210n11

as channel in politics industry, 28, 29, 30

direct political spending in 2016 on, 39, 41, 184n17, 187n42

affiliation. See political party affiliation

Affordable Care Act (ACA), 5355, 8586, 194195n1, 198n37

AFL-CIO, 74

African Americans

democratic gains after the Civil War by, 101

Jim Crow laws and, 102, 108

Reconstruction limits on, 101, 102

restriction of voting rights of, 205n65

agency gaps, 182

agriculture, and industrialization, 111, 199n6

Alabama, ballot access rules in, 49

Allen, Michael, 150

Amazon, 34

American Association of Retired Persons, 149

American Association of University Women, 213n65

American Bankers Association, 163, 213n65

American Bar Association, 163, 213n65

American Century, 115, 208m87

American Civil Liberties Union, 39

American Legislators’ Association, 213n65

American Political Science Association (APSA), 139, 140141, 213n65

Americans for Prosperity, 39

Anderson, John, 42

antitrust regulation, 67, 24, 35

Arnesen, Eric, 201n46, 201202n48

Articles of Confederation, 179

Australian ballot, 111, 204n61, 204n63, 205nn54, 65, 67, 206n74

authoritarianism, 11, 72

Authority and Rules of Senate Committees, 136

average voters, as customers in politics industry, 22, 27

ballot system

Australian ballot in, 111, 204nn61, 63, 205nn64, 65, 67, 206n74

ballot access rules in, 204n63

direct democracy in, 112, 145, 174

direct election of senators in, 112113

Final-Five Voting and, 145146

flaws in reform of, 204n63

four-constituency coalition for supporting reform of, 159160

initiatives in, 112, 145146, 206nn71, 72

personal agency supporting innovation in, 174

political parties’ printing of ballots in, 106, 204n63

process used in, 145146

Progressive Era reforms of, 98, 111, 121, 143144, 204n63, 205n67, 209n4

referenda in, 112, 145, 206nn71, 72

secret ballots in, 111, 144, 206n74, 207n85, 214n68

barriers to entry

competition and, 3, 21, 3435

duopoly control and, 23, 105

Final-Five Voting’s lowering of, 130

Gilded Age and, 104105, 106

partisan legislative machinery and, 35

party primaries and, 35

plurality voting and, 35

politics industry and, 3437, 104105

presidential debate rules as, 43

three structures in, 35

Trump’s 2016 campaign’s and, 3637

Barroso, John, 184n18

Baughman, James L., 200n29

Biden, Joe, 46

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 176

bill process

Affordable Care Act changes and shutdown example of, 5355

committees in control of, 56

discharge petitions in, 193194n65

Gilded Age and, 106

Hastert Rule and, 5455

ideological divide in, 3

immigration reform and, 7374

overview of path of bill in, 6063

partisan captured committee battles in, 6061

partisan conference committees in, 62

partisan takeover of the House and, 56, 58, 59, 193194n65

party-controlled floor in, 61

political messaging in, 194195n1, 198n36

single party control for passage in, 6667

textbook Congress and, 5556

urgent crises and deficit financing in, 6769

Bipartisan Policy Center, 215n79

bipartisanship

California primary reform and, 150

Cannon Revolt to decentralize power of committees and, 113, 121, 163

Congress’s institutionalization of partisanship and, 60

declining legislative support from, 66, 67

Hastert Rule and bills and, 5455

immigration reform and, 73, 196196n15

legislative machinery against, 63

Nebraska’s legislative reform with, 164165

problem solving requiring, 6667

Social Security Act passage and, 84

Bismarck, Otto von, 134

black Americans. See African Americans

blanket primaries, 146, 148, 210nn7, 8

blogosphere, 29

Bloomberg, Michael, 36

Boatright, Robert, 181n5

Boehner, John, 5354, 189n25, 197n22

bosses, party, 46, 104, 106, 111, 112, 202203n55, 203n57, 205nn66, 69

Boston Central Labor Union, 204n61

Bowles, Erskine, 87

Brandeis, Louis, 143

brand recognition, of candidates, 34, 36

Breyer, Donald, 209n2

Brooks, David, 158159

Bull Moose Party (Progressive Party), 34, 186n34

Bush, George H. W., 43

Bush, George W., 47, 48, 73, 74, 196n14, 196n15, 197n22

businesses

contributions to campaigns by, 113114

Gilded Age and, 107108

labor clashes in, 108109

parties’ seeking contributions from, 103, 200n28

regulation of, 114

Business for America, 174

business leaders, and political innovation, 177

buyers

Five Forces framework on, 20

politics industry and, 8

See also channels; customers

Calhoun, Charles, 201n45

California

decline in polarization in, 150, 211n29

Proposition 13 in, 146

top-two primaries in, 123124, 146, 147151, 208n4, 211nn26, 27

campaign contributions

amount raised in 2018 in, 187n45

banning of corporate, 114

business reporting of, 98

corruption in elections and, 112

duopoly-created fundraising rules on, 35, 121

Progressive reforms of, 98, 113114, 143144

special interests and, 103, 200n28

See also donors

campaigns

challenges to incumbents in, 32

data analytics in, 31, 184n16

four-constituency coalition for supporting reform of, 159160

innovation in (see electoral innovation)

parties’ division of voters in, during Gilded Age, 106107

political affiliation of staff in, 32

presidential debate rules and, 4143

ranked-choice voting benefits for, 128

spending on, 50, 187n40

voter-data shops and, 32

candidates

African American, after the Civil War, 101

biased ballot access rules and, 49, 204n63

brand recognition of, 34, 36

direct political spending in 2016 by, 38

Final-Five Voting advantages for, 130

Gilded Age conventions for selection of, 105106

idea suppliers and, 32

independent (see independent candidates)

need to listen to voters by, in Final-Five Voting, 131

nonparty, in elections, 31, 34

political parties’ support for, 31

presidential debate rules and, 4143

running as a supposed “outsider” within a party by, 3637

as suppliers in politics industry, 31

third-party, 34, 51, 123, 186n34

Cannon, Joseph, 113

Cannon Revolt, 113, 121, 163

Cantor, Eric, 49, 181n6, 189n25

Carlson, Eric H., 214n72

Carlson, W. Bernard, 199n6

Carnegie, Andrew, 99

Carter, Jimmy, 42

Castle, Mike, 4648

caucus system

legislative party, 56, 110, 213214n66, 214n68

primaries and, 183n10, 205n67, 207n85

CBS, 41

Center for American Progress, 39

Center for Responsive Politics, 187n40

Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, 42

Chamberlain Project, 152

Chamber of Commerce, California, 149, 150151

channels

action seen as threat to, 85

barriers to new competition and access to, 35

direct voter contact and, 2829

disruptive new media and, 2930

duopoly control and, 23

Five Forces framework and, 20

healthy competition and, 21

intersection of rather than separation of, 39

key channels in, 28

loss of confidence in, 30

need for reestablishment of national conversation using, 3031

paid advertising and, 29

political-industrial complex and, 28

political parties’ co-opting of, 103104

politics industry and, 2831

traditional independent media and, 29

Cherny, Robert, 200n24

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), 100

Churchill, Winston, 141

citizens

ballot measures used by, 98

Constitution on role of, in self-government, 95

duopoly’s power in politics industry and, 103

Gilded Age duopoly and, 9697

lack of customer power of, 102

need for reform carried out by, 96

party affiliation and identity of, 107

Progressive Era political innovators and, 9798

political industry and, 95

top-two primaries passed and defended by, 147

citizenship, anti-immigration sentiment against, 100

Civil War, 101102, 103, 107, 108, 199n12

Cleveland, Grover, 104

Clinton, Bill, 43, 119

Clinton, Hillary, 51

closed primaries, 10, 25, 46, 146147, 149, 183n10

closed rules, 59, 194n67

CNN, 39

coalitions

four constituencies in, 159160

immigration legislation and, 196n14

joining and organizing, 174175

Colorado, redistricting referenda in, 158, 160

Comcast, 184n17

Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD), 4243, 188n13

Committee for Economic Security (CES), 84

Committee for Ranked Choice Voting, 152

Committee on Committees, Nebraska, 164

Committee on Congress, American Political Science Association (APSA), 139, 140141

committees in Congress

bill development bypassing, 73, 193n61, 193n63

bill process and partisan capture of, 6062

Cannon Revolt to decentralize power of, 113, 121, 163

control exerted by, 56

Gilded Age and, 106

Legislative Reorganization Act (1946) on, 140141

member fundraising and appointment to, 60

in 1950s and 1960s, 68, 191n41

partisan punishment for disloyalty and seats on, 72, 192n56

partisan takeover of Congress and attacks on, 5758

partisan task forces replacing, 61, 193n62

political machines and, 213n60

role and power of chairs in, 5556, 57, 60, 106, 141, 192n57

seniority system and chairs of, 56, 57, 113, 163

Common Cause California, 149, 159

Common School Movement, 202n49

Common Sense (Paine), 165

community organizations

nineteenth-century reforms of, 203204n59

Progressive movement with, 109110

competition

barriers to entry and, 3, 21, 3435

businesses and, 177

Congress and, 13

duopoly control and, 2324

elections and, 22

elections machinery and, 22, 45, 46, 49

Five Forces framework applied to, 78, 20, 21

legacy in political system of, 1718

legislative machinery and, 22, 52

Perot’s independent campaign and, 119

plurality voting and, 51

political industry and unhealthy aspects of, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 2223, 39, 65, 73, 118, 118

political innovation for healthy approach to, 10, 170

problem due to nature of, 19

Progressive reforms and, 109, 114

rivalry as basis for, 23

rules designed to restrict, 45, 49, 6263

substitutes and, 34

top-five primaries and, 123, 125

votes as political currency and, 23

competitiveness. See economic competitiveness

conference committees, Congress, 62

Congress

Affordable Care Act changes in, 5355, 8586, 194195n1, 198n37

choosing between public interest and reelection possibility in, 118, 119

combining public interest and reelection possibility in, 129, 129

committee control of, 56

committee proposal for redesigning, 165

conference committees in, 62

Constitution on, 13, 18, 134, 135

declining percentage of moderates in, 67, 68

direct democracy circumventing, 112

duopoly’s power in, 118, 209n2

efficiency of, 195n2

Final-Five Voting’s impact on work of members of, 132

focus on elections and legislative machinery in, 1213

Founders on system of intermediaries with, 9495

Gilded Age and, 106, 107, 108

gridlock on important issues in, 67, 68

idea suppliers and, 33

immigration reform in, 7374

incentives driving members of, 118

influence of customer power on public policy initiatives of, 28

lack of parties working together in, 107

legislative innovation in, 151

legislative process in. See bill process; legislative machinery

legislative reengineering in, 165, 215n79

Legislative Reorganization Act (1946) and, 113, 138, 140141

lobbyists and, 3334

member fundraising and power in, 5960

members as lobbyists after retiring, 2627

newspaper connections with, 200n29

nonurgent crises bypassed in, 69

omnibus bills in, 69, 177, 195n2, 213n60

parties’ rules for, 134135

partisan punishment in, 72, 192n56

partisanship institutionalized in, 60

partisan takeover of, 5559

party leaders in, 5657, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 191n40, 193n64, 193194n65, 194195n1

political-industrial complex and, 13

political innovation and, 144

political messaging in, 194195n1, 198n36

proposed laws on electoral system in, 144, 209n2

public opinion on performance of, 13, 209n14

reimagining new model for, 170

Select Committee for modernizing, 137138

seniority system in, 56, 57, 113, 163

show votes in, 86, 194195n1

single party control for legislation passage in, 6667

textbook Congress period in, 5556, 113, 163

urgent crises and deficit financing in, 6769

zero-based rule making and, 135136

See also House of Representatives; Senate

congressional and legislative staffers

campaigns’ demands on, 38, 184n22

Founders on system of intermediaries for governing with, 9495

Gingrich’s reduction in, 59

idea suppliers and, 33

legislative reform and, 113, 140, 141, 162

legislative work supported by, 59, 60, 129, 193n63

as lobbyists after retiring, 27

lobbyists’ interactions with, 33

partisanship and, 157, 193n63

political affiliation of, 3132

as talent in politics industry, 3132

Congressional Institute, 215n79

Congressional Research Service, 59, 162

“Congress That Works” project, Bipartisan Policy Center, 215n79

Connecticut, election machinery in, 48

conservative advocacy groups, 47

conservative politicians, 47, 56, 124, 189n25, 213214n66

conservative voters, 182n7, 189n25

Constitution

Congress established in, 13, 18, 134, 135

election model used in, 52

formal blueprint for democracy in, 95

political system structure and practices derived from, 2, 18

state responsibility for voting systems and, 133, 144

Constitutional Convention, 95, 179180

contributions to politicians. See campaign contributions; donors

consultants, 7, 31, 38, 42, 187n44

Coons, Chris, 47

Crane, David, 176

cross-partisan approach

electoral innovation and, 157158

Nebraska’s legislative reform with, 164165

Curry, James M., 193n63

customers

average voters as, 27

citizens’ lack of power as, in 1870s, 103

duopoly control and, 23

Final-Five Voting and power of, 130

Five Forces framework on, 20

healthy competition and, 21

military-industrial complex and, 38

nonvoters and, 27

partisan takeover of Congress and, 60

party-primary voters as, 2425

politics industry and power of, 2428, 25

special interests and donors as, 2527

Cutler, Eliot, 50

Dana, Richard Henry III, 204n61

dark money, 26

data analytics, 31, 184n16

Davidson, Roger, 161

Davis, Gray, 149

Dean, Howard, 152

debates, in presidential campaigns, 31, 4143, 63, 188nn3, 13

Debs, Eugene, 108109

deficit financing, 6769

Delaney, John, 209n2

Delaware

election machinery in, 4648

sore-loser law in, 48

Delaware way, 47

democracy

African Americans’ participation in, after the Civil War, 101

belief in change and need for constant reinvention of, 95

citizens’ power to reform politics and restore, 96

Constitution with formal blueprint for, 95

duopoly control as problem in, 23

election of representatives in, 94, 95

plurality voting’s impact on, 51

as political innovation, 9495

political parties’ role in, 19

politics industry and decline of, 39, 66

Progressive Era reforms and, 9798, 110

public loss of faith in, 72, 196n10

Reconstruction and, 101

reengineered elections and legislative machinery and, 141

Democracy Found, 156, 174

Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, 32

Democratic National Committee (DNC), 42

Democratic Party

Affordable Care Act and, 8586

California primary reform and, 149, 150151

closed primaries and, 183n10

committee control of Congress and, 56, 61

congressional bill process and, 60, 61

congressional rules and, 136

cross-partisan approach to electoral innovation and, 157158

declining percentage of moderates in, 67, 68

deficit financing used by, 69

division of voters by, in Gilded Age, 106108

Federal Election Commission members from, 35

Gilded Age and, 96, 201nn33, 45

Hastert Rule and bill support by, 54

Hayes-Tilden 1876 election and, 101102

immigration reform and, 7374, 196nn11, 12, 14, 196n15, 196197n18, 197n22

machinery of political system engineered by, 3

Maine’s ranked-choice voting and, 150, 152

newspapers backed by, 104, 109, 200n29

partisan takeover of Congress and, 5559

as part of duopoly in politics industry, 7

percentage of voters’ identification with, 71, 71

political machines in, 104, 201n33, 213n60

Populist Party and, 104105

presidential debate rules and, 42, 63

public disillusionment with, 7071

rivalries between Republicans and, in 1870s, 103

rules written by, 18

Social Security Act passage and, 84

spoiler effect and, 51

top-five primaries and, 122, 123

Trump’s election and presidency and adjustments within, 37

volatile swings of voter sentiment and, 7172

voters and competition in elections and, 119

See also duopoly; two-party system

Democratic Party of Washington v. Reed, 146

Democratic Study Group, 56

Diamond, Larry, 155

Diner, Steven, 200n25

Dingell, John, 192n56

direct democracy, 112

citizens’ influence over policy using, 111, 112, 174

Final-Five Voting and, 145146

Founders and, 94

personal agency supporting, 174

Progressive movement and, 112, 121, 143144, 145

Direct Legislation by the Citizenship through the Initiative and Referendum (Sullivan), 112

Direct Legislation League (DLL), 110, 112, 206n71

direct primaries, 111112, 205n66, 206n69

discharge petitions, 193194n65

Dodson, David, 184n18

Dole, Bob, 43

donors

barriers to new competition and, 35

currency of votes and, 22

divisive legislation and, 66

duopoly in politics industry and, 7, 35

fundraising rules and, 35

paid advertising control by, 29

power of, as customers in politics industry, 24, 25, 2527

See also campaign contributions

Dorgan, Bryan, 197n19

Drutman, Lee, 52, 132, 183n14

dual political currency, 2223

Dunlap, Matthew, 152, 154

duopoly

arenas of competition for, 12, 22

average voters’ usefulness for, 27

ballot access rules and, 204n63

barriers of entry and, 23, 105

California primary reform opposition from, 149150

candidates’ running as a supposed “outsider” within a party and, 3637

channels used by, 28

competition and rules written by, 21

Congress and power of, 118, 209n2

direct voter contact and, 29

donor fundraising rules and, 35

elected officials beholden to, 120

elections and, 12, 2324, 45, 118119, 121

emergence of, after the Civil War, 103

Federal Election Commission members and, 35

Gilded Age and, 9697

Hayes-Tilden 1876 election and, 101102

idea suppliers and, 33

immigration as a wedge issue and, 75

immigration reform and, 7375

individual candidate platforms and party line and 31

lack of accountability and, 72

large-dollar donors and, 26

legislative machinery and, 12, 41, 45, 118, 134

lobbyists used by, 33

Maine’s ranked-choice voting and, 153, 154, 155

paid advertising and, 29

party primaries and, 46, 49

Perot’s independent campaign and, 119

political-industrial complex and, 24, 38

politics industry and power of, 7, 39, 9596, 103

presidential debate rules from, 4243

pushback against political innovation by, 160

Reconstruction changes and, 101102

rivalry and control in, 2324

rules and power of, 44, 45, 118

state primary reform and, 155, 156

suppliers controlled by, 23, 31, 32, 33, 184n18

talent in politics and, 3132

traditional independent media and 29

Trump as hybrid substitute to, 36

use of term, 12

voter data and, 32

voters’ rejection of, in 2016 election, 36

“Dutch Treat” Club, Boston, 204n61, 204205n64

economic competitiveness, 7578

definition of, 75

economic performance deterioration and, 76

government policy and, xiv

impact on families and communities of decline in, 77

labor-force participation and, 7677

as a politics problem, 78

productivity growth and, 76

survey (2016) on, 7778, 79

economic conditions

Americans’ views on democracy and, 196n10

Gilded Age political dysfunction and, 99100, 107, 108, 115, 201n46

globalization and, 115116

government policy and, xiv

impact of industrialization on, 100

new wave of immigration and, 116

Progressive reforms and, 98, 203n57

Economist, 149

Edison, Thomas, 143

Edwards, Mickey, 3

Eighteenth Amendment, 206207n76

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 3738

election laws

Federal Election Commission and, 35

Massachusetts ballot reform and, 204205n64

election rules and practices. See elections machinery

elections

African American participation in, after the Civil War, 101

average voters in, 27

ballot measures in (see ballot system)

campaigns in (see campaigns)

choosing between public interest and reelection possibility in, 118, 119

combining public interest and reelection possibility in, 129, 129

Congress as focus in, 1213

current state of, 47

direct political spending in, 3839, 41

direct primaries in, 111112, 205n66, 206n69

duopolistic competition and, 12, 22

duopoly control in, 2324, 118

Final-Five Voting proposal for, 10, 122

immigration reform affecting politicians’ chances in, 73

incentives driving members of Congress and, 118

innovation in (see electoral innovation)

machinery of (see elections machinery)

nonparty candidates in, 31, 34

paid advertising and, 29, 184n17, 187n42

perception of as a corrupted system, 4

plurality voting in (see plurality voting)

political disillusionment of public and, 7071

political innovation in (see electoral innovation)

political parties’ engineering of machinery of, 3

Politics Industry Theory on, 10

popular acceptance of only two choices in, 2

primaries in (see party primaries)

Progressive Era reforms of, 98

public trust in government and, 70, 70

ranked-choice voting in (see ranked-choice voting)

Reconstruction limits on black voters in, 101, 102

running as a supposed “outsider” within a party in, 3637

third-party candidates in, 34, 51, 123, 186n34

Trump Effect and, 3637

volatile swings of voter sentiment in, 7172

voters in (see voters)

votes as political currency in, 2223

See also municipal elections; presidential elections

elections machinery, 4552

barriers to new competition and access to, 35

biased ballot access rules in, 49, 204n63

Castle primary run in Delaware as example of, 4648

description of, 45

duopoly’s power in, 45, 118119, 121

innovation in (see electoral innovation)

as key rule and practice, 41

legislative machinery combined with, 120121, 141

moderates blocked by, 45, 121

money and votes as political currency in, 4445

need for changes in, 120, 141

party primaries and, 4649

plurality voting and, 5052

political innovation in (see electoral innovation)

political parties’ control of, in Gilded Age, 104

Progressive reforms in, 121

proposed federal law on, 144, 209n2

public desire for third party and, 71, 72

sore-loser laws in, 35, 4849, 121, 189n22

spoiler effect in, 6, 5051, 105, 126, 130

use of term, 12

wasted vote argument and, 52, 126, 130

electoral innovation

ballot initiatives or referenda in, 145146

California’s top-two primaries in, 123124, 147151, 208n4

cross-partisan approach to, 157158

duopoly’s attempts to repeal, 160

Final-Five Voting in, 121122

four-constituency coalition in, 159160

guiding principles for, 156157

legislative action in, 145

local leaders and state-based approach in, 158159

Maine’s ranked-choice voting in, 128, 151156

passing legislation for, 169170

planning for pushback against, 160

redistricting reform in, 150, 158, 159

states and, 143145

two major approaches in, 145146

Washington State’s top-two primaries in, 123, 146147

Evans, Eldon Cobb, 204205n64

Facebook, 29, 166

factionalism, 93

Fahrenkopf, Frank Jr., 42

Fahey, Katie, 158

FairVote, 175, 183n10

farewell addresses

Eisenhower, 37

Washington, 18, 9394

farm production, and industrialization, 111, 199n6

Federal Election Commission (FEC), 35, 209n2

federal government. See government

federalism, 143

Federalists, 93

Federal Reserve System, 114

Federal Trade Commission, 35, 114

Feder, Stanley A., 134

Fifteenth Amendment, 101

Final-Five Voting

achievable outcomes using, 133

barriers to entry lowered by, 130

benefits of, 128133, 178

combining public interest and reelection possibility in, 129, 129

customer (voter) power in, 130

description of, 10

electoral machinery reengineering with, 121122

evangelizing about, 173174

founding a campaign for, 175

incentives to divide voters diminished by, 131

legislative machinery change combined with, 133, 161

legislators’ work improved by, 132

need to spread ideas of, 166167

organizing coalitions and lobbying efforts for, 174175

passing legislation for, 169170

political innovation using, 10, 133

principles for execution of, 156

space for innovation, diversity, and new ideas in, 131132

state ballot initiatives or referenda in, 145146

state legislative action in, 145

state-level approach to, 144145

two approaches in states for, 145146

two parts of, 121122, 128

Final Four basketball tournament, 125

Five Forces framework, xiii, xv

forces examined in, 20

Gilded Age political dysfunction analyzed in, 102103

healthy competition and, 21

politics industry and, 78, 21, 21

questions to be addressed in, 89

Flanagan, Maureen A., 202n54

Food and Drug Administration, 114

Foster, Frank, 204n61

Founders

system of intermediaries for governing and, 9495

warnings on dangers of political partisanship from, 1819

Fourteenth Amendment, 101

Fox News, 39

Framers

Congress and intent of, 13

plurality voting and, 52

voting systems not specified by, 133

Franklin, Benjamin, 180

funding

barriers to new competition and access to, 35

crises and deficit financing and, 6769

See also donors

fundraising rules

duopoly and, 35

power in Congress related to member’s abilities in, 5960

Furnas, Alexander, 183n14

Gallagher, Mike, ixx, 135

Gates, Bill, 175, 176

Gates, Melinda, 175, 176

Gates Foundation, 176

Gehl, Katherine, xiii, xvxvi, 11, 156, 157, 169180

Gehl Foods, xv

George, Henry, 204n61

Georgetown University Center for Strategic and International Studies, 42

gerrymandering, 9, 24, 105, 123, 209n2

Gilded Age, 96115

ballot reform during, 111, 204n63

barriers to entry in, 104105

channels co-opted by parties in, 103104

citizens’ lack of customer power in, 103

colluding to rig the rules in, 105106

competition between parties in, 105

direct democracy in, 112

direct election of senators in, 112113

direct primaries in, 111112, 205n66, 206n69

division of voters in, 106108

duopoly in, 9697

economic and social challenges in, 99100, 107, 108109, 115, 201n46, 201202n48, 202n50

Five Forces analysis of political dysfunction in, 102103

intense rivalry between parties in, 103

legislative machinery in, 196, 113, 201n33

political competition undermined in, 101102

political dysfunction in, 9698

political parties’ domination in, 200n24

political polarization in, 96, 97, 198199n5

precursors of political dysfunction in, 99100

Progressive innovations and reform in, 110111

Progressive movement emerging out of, 97, 108110

regulation of money in politics in, 113114

spoils system in, 107, 198199n5, 201n44

suppliers in political-industrial complex in, 104

Twain on, 99

unhealthy competition in, 102

Gilens, Martin, 28

Gingrich, Newt, 47, 5859, 119, 162, 193n62

Giving Pledge, 175

globalization, 115

Golden, Jared, 155

Govern for California, 150, 176

government

agency gaps in, 182

dwindling public trust in, 70, 70, 108

Gilded Age duopoly and, 9697

patronage system in, 102, 103, 200n26

political disillusionment of public and, 7071

politics industry and spending by, 51, 188n48

Progressive Era reforms and citizens’ control of, 98

special interests and, 200n25

spoils system in, 107, 198199n5, 201n44

Government Accountability Office, 59

Governmental Performance Project, Pew Charitable Trusts, 149

government officials, as lobbyists, 2627, 183184n14

Government Research Association, 213n65

government staffers. See congressional and legislative staffers

governors, term limits for, 46, 214n72, 215n74

Great Depression, 84, 143, 163, 179

Great Recession, xiv, 77, 80

Greenback Labor Party, 104

Green party, 34, 51, 123, 186n34

gun lobby, 26

Hamilton, Alexander, 125126

Hanna, Mark, 103

Harvard Business School, xiv, xvi, 14, 20

U.S. Competitiveness Project, xiv, 7778, 79

Harvard Negotiation Project, 215n79

Harvard University Institute of Politics, 188n3

Hastert, Dennis, 73

Hastert Rule, 5455, 61, 73, 136

Hawkins, Zack, 210n6

Hayes, Rutherford B., 101102

health-care lobby, 26

health-care system, ranking of, 8182

Henry, Sarah, 205n63

Heritage Action, 53

Heritage Foundation, 39, 53

Hofstadter, Richard, 203n57

Houlahan, Chrissy, ixx

House of Representatives

Affordable Care Act changes and shutdown in, 5355

competitive elections in, 25

declining percentage of moderates in, 67, 68

Hastert Rule in, 5455

partisan takeover of, 5559

partisan task forces replacing committees in, 61, 193n62

party-controlled floor in, 61

party primaries’ influence on legislators in, 49

political polarization in Gilded Age and, 96, 97, 198199n5

Rules Committee in, 5758, 59, 61, 106, 113, 192n56, 193n64, 193194n65

Ways and Means Committee in, 57, 60, 192n56

See also Congress

idea suppliers, 31, 3233

identity politics, 6970, 196n10

“I’m Just a Bill” song, 5556

immigration

Congress’s choosing not to solve problems with, 7375, 196197n18, 197n22

impact of new wave of, 116

quota system in, 73, 196n11

Republic Party stand on, 49, 107

sentiment against, and passage of laws, 100

transition from farms to cities and, 100, 199n12

voting barriers for, 204n63, 205n65

as a wedge issue, 75

incumbents

electoral maps protecting, 148

ideological challenges against, 181n6

partisan primaries and lack of challengers to, 123

party affiliation and support for, 32, 184n22

ranked-choice voting (RCV) and, 155

reelection affecting votes of, 49, 88, 118, 125126

term limits and, 214n72, 215n74

to get primaried or to primary and, 5, 181nn5, 6

top-two primaries approach in California and, 123124, 208n4, 211n26

independent candidates

Anderson in 1980 election as, 42

Bloomberg’s decision to not run as, 36

CPD’s exclusion of, 188n13

donor limits for, 35

duopoly and, 51

elections machinery and, 45, 46, 48, 49, 121

party halo effect lacking for, 188n13

party primaries and, 122

penalties for firms working with, 32

Perot’s campaign in 1992 and, 119

plurality voting and the spoiler effect and, 50, 51

as substitutes in politics industry, 34

top-five primaries and, 122, 123

Trump’s decision to not run as, 36

independent parties

barriers to entry and, 34, 36, 51

biased ballot access rules and, 49, 204n63

current state of possibility of using, 56

nonvoters from, 27

presidential debates in campaigns and exclusion of, 42

voters’ identification with, 34, 71, 71

See also third parties and specific parties

Independent Voter Project, California, 148149

industrialization, 88100, 199n12

initiatives, in ballot system, 112, 145146, 206nn69, 71, 72

innovation. See electoral innovation; political innovation

Institute of Politics, Harvard University, 188n3

Interstate Commerce Act (1887), 107

Issue One, 215n79

i360, 360

Jefferson, Thomas, 18, 19, 20, 95, 126127

Jim Crow laws, 102, 108

Johnson, Gary, 51

Johnson, Lyndon, 85

Joint Committee on Direct Legislation, 206n71

Joint Committee on the Reorganization of Congress, 140

Justice Department, 35

Kennedy, John F., 163

Kennedy, Ted, 73, 74, 196n15, 196197n18, 197n19

Khanna, Ro, 124

King, Angus, 151

Ku Klux Klan, 100

labor-force participation, 7677

La Follette, Robert “Fighting Bob,” 110, 166

Lamont, Ned, 48

lawmaking. See legislative machinery

Lawrence, Eric, 206n69

Lawrence, Jennifer, 155

laws

anti-immigration sentiment and passage of, 100

Bismarck on making of, 134

Gilded Age passage of, 107

Progressive movement and, 114, 202n49

See also specific laws

leadership, in solutions, 87

Leadership Now, 174

League of Women Voters, 4142, 213n65

Lee, Frances E., 193n63

legislative machinery, 5260

Affordable Care Act and, 5354, 8586, 194195n1, 198n37

barriers to entry and partisanship in, 35

Cannon Revolt to decentralize committee power in, 113, 121, 163

commission for designing new blueprint for, 137139

Congress as focus in, 1213

current state of, 47

declining bipartisan support in, 66, 67

declining percentage of moderates in, 67, 68

description of, 45

direct democracy circumventing, 112, 145

duopolistic competition and, 12, 22

duopoly’s power in, 12, 41, 45, 118, 134

elections machinery combined with, 120121, 141

electoral innovation and, 133, 161

Final-Five Voting and need for change in, 10, 133

former regulators and congressional staffers as lobbyists and, 27

Gilded Age and, 106, 113, 201nn33, 45

gridlock on important issues in, 67, 68

Hastert Rule and, 5455

idea suppliers and, 32

identity politics in, 6970

as key rule and practice, 41

lobbyists and, 3334

member fundraising and power in, 5960

model, modern legislative machinery proposed for, 10, 13, 120, 134136

Nebraska’s Model Legislature Committee on, 163164, 165

need for changes in, 120, 134135, 141

nonpartisan, 213214n66

nonurgent crises bypassed in, 69

partisan takeover of Congress and, 5559

party bosses in, 46, 104, 106, 111, 112, 202203n55, 203n57, 205nn66, 69

party primaries’ influence on legislators in, 49, 88

path of a bill in, 6063

perception of as a corrupted system, 4

political disillusionment of public and, 7071

political machines in, 104, 201n33, 202n54, 202203n55, 204n61, 205n67, 205206n69, 206n72, 213n60

political messaging in, 194195n1, 198n36

political parties’ control of, 3, 200n24

Politics Industry Theory on, 10

problem solving decline in, 66

Progressive reforms of, 113, 114, 121

public desire for third party and, 71, 72

public trust in government and, 70, 70

reimagining new process for, 170

rules used in, 136

Select Committee for modernizing, 137138

show votes in, 86, 194195n1

single party control for passage in, 6667

textbook Congress and in, 5556, 113, 163

urgent crises and deficit financing in, 6769

use of term, 12

volatile swings of voter sentiment in, 7172

Washington State’s reengineering of, 215n79

zero-based rule making and, 135136

Legislative Machinery Innovation Commission proposal

earlier commission proposals and, 137138

earlier successful models and, 139141

functions of, 138139

purpose of, 137138

zero-based approach used by, 136

Legislative Reorganization Act (1946), 113, 138, 140141

legislative staffers. See congressional and legislative staffers

legislators

Final-Five Voting’s impact on work of, 132

new model, modern legislative machinery and reactions of, 139

newspaper reporters working for, 200n29

nonpartisan, 213214n66

reelection affecting votes of, 49, 88, 118, 125126

LePage, Paul, 50, 151, 154, 155

Level the Playing Field, 188n13

Levine, Marc, 150

liberal politicians, 56, 213214n66

liberal voters, 182n7

Libertarian party, 34, 51, 123, 186n34

Lieberman, Joe, 48

Lincoln, Abraham, 87

Link, Arthur, 203nn55, 57

Lippmann, Walter, 203n57

lobbying

citizen coalitions for reform and, 174175

direct spending at federal level in, 33, 3839, 185n32

elections and, 2627

Gilded Age businesses and, 113

legislation and regulation and, 31, 3334

number of jobs in, 51, 187n44

political-industrial complex and, 63

“returns” associated with, 185186n32

special interests’ funding of, 26

lobbyists

dedicated citizens in Progressive Era as, 166

duopoly in politics industry and, 7

former government officials as, 2627, 183184n14

number of, 187n44

registration requirements for, 149

revolving door for, 183184n14

success of, 183n14

as suppliers in politics industry, 3334

localism movement, 158159

long ballot. See Australian ballot

Los Angeles Times, 149

Luce, Henry, 208m87

Lucy Burns Institute, 208n4, 211n26

machines, political, 104, 201n33, 202n54, 202203n55, 204n61, 205n67, 205206n69, 206n72, 213n60

Madison, James, 87

Maine

initiative process in primary elections in, 206n74

plurality voting in, 50, 51, 151

ranked-choice voting (RCV) in, 128, 151156, 158, 160, 165, 182n9, 212n54

Maldonado, Abel, 149

Martin, Bradley and Cornelia, 96

Masket, Seth, 213214n66, 214nn67, 68, 215n74

Massachusetts

Australian ballot in, 111, 204n61, 205n64

ranked-choice voting proposal in, 128

McCain, John, 73, 74, 127128, 167, 196n15

McCarthy, Kevin, 124

McClure’s Magazine, 110

McCormick, Cara Brown, 151152, 153, 154, 158

McCormick, Richard, 201n33, 203n55, 203n57

McGhee, Eric, 211n29

Mead, Margaret, 175

media

California primary reform in, 149, 150151

direct political spending in 2016 on, 3839, 41

disruptive new media and, 2930

duopoly in politics industry and, 7

as key channels in politics industry, 28, 2930

loss of confidence in, 30

polarization of, 184n18

political advertising spending in, 184n17, 187n42

Progressive movement and, 109, 110, 203n55

traditional independent media and, 29

Trump’s 2016 campaign’s access to, 36

See also newspapers; social media

Medicare, 114

Merriam, Charles Edward, 205n66, 206n69

military-industrial complex, 3738

Miller, Arthur, 30

Minnesota

nonpartisan legislature in, 213214n66

ranked-choice voting in, 212n54

Ventura’s election as governor of, 186n34

Minow, Newton, 188n3

Mississippi

African American voter registration in, 101

sore-loser law in, 48

Mitchell, George, 151

Model Legislature Committee, Nebraska, 163164, 165

moderates

declining percentage of, 67, 68

legislative mechanics and, 194195n1

Maine’s election of, 151

nonvoters as, 27

partisan elections machinery blocking, 45, 121

party-line legislation and, 67

transformational changes and consensus among, 131132

Mondale, Walter, 42

money

divisive legislation and, 66

duopoly control of elections and, 23

Final-Five Voting’s impact on, 130

importance of, in 1870s politics, 103

large-dollar donors and, 26

parties’ search for supporters able to deliver, 103

as political currency, 2223, 45

power of special interests and donors to deliver, 25

Progressive reform of, 113114

regulation and oversight of, 26

rules of politics industry and, 4445

special interests and, 103

Morey, Marcia, 210n6

Morgan, J. P., 99

Moss, David, 204n63

Mounk, Yascha, 196n10

MSNBC, 39

muckrakers, 109, 110

Mugwumps, 104

municipal elections

Australian ballot in, 204n61, 206n74

ranked-choice voting in, 128, 212n54

Naismith, James, 44

National Basketball Association (NBA), 44

National Collegiate Athletic Association, 125

National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, 8788

National Conference on Practical Reform in Primary Elections, 111

national debt, 2, 69, 93, 132, 189n25

National Municipal League, 110

National Republican Senatorial Committee, 32

National Rifle Association, 26, 39

Nebraska

Model Legislature Committee in, 163164, 165

party-line votes in, 164, 214n72

term limits in, 215n74

top-two primaries in, 164, 213nn61, 62

unicameral legislature in, 175176, 213n65, 213214n66, 68

New Deal era, 139140

new entrants

barriers to entry and, 34 (see also barriers to entry)

competition and, 34

Five Forces framework on, 20

healthy competition and, 21

politics industry and, 8, 21, 21, 34

newspapers

as channel in politics industry, 28, 30

Gilded Age polarization of, 103104

government subsidies to, 200n29

historical role in politics of, 28

Jefferson on value of, 30

party affiliations in campaigns reported in, 214n67

party backing of, 104, 109, 200n29

Progressive movement and, 109, 110

New York Times, 43, 134, 150151, 152, 155, 158

NGP VAN, 32

Nineteenth Amendment, 206207n76

Nonpartisan Direct Legislation League, 206n71

nonpartisan primaries, 121122, 123, 150, 189n22

nonvoters, power of, as customers in politics industry, 27

Norris, George, 113, 163, 164, 213n60

North Carolina, election reform in, 209210n6

Norton, John N., 213n62

Nunemaker, Andy, 157

Obama, Barack, 71, 74, 86, 87, 88, 128, 196197n18, 197n21

O’Donnell, Christine, 47, 48

Office of Technology Assessment, 59, 162

omnibus bills, 69, 177, 195n2, 213n60

Open Primaries, 175

Oppenheimer, Bruce, 193n64

Orbán, Viktor, 82

Oregon

state “primary” for senators in, 112113, 207n78

U’ren’s state ballot reforms in, 206n71, 207n78

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 8082, 81

Orman, Greg, 32, 52

“outsider” candidates, 3637

Overacker, Louise, 205n66, 206n69

Page, Benjamin, 28

Paine, Thomas, 165

parties. See political parties

partisan primaries. See party primaries

partisanship

California politics and, 147, 148

conference committees and, 62

congressional committee battles and, 6061

congressional punishment of members related to, 72, 192n56

Congress members’ complaints about, 132

Congress’s institutionalization of, 60

divisive legislation and, 66

duopoly control and, 23

Founders on dangers of, 1819

Gilded Age and, 97, 100, 107

Hastert Rule and, 5455, 61

immigration reform and, 74

legislative machinery and, 52, 5455

legislative problem solving and, 66

party-controlled House floor in bill process and, 61, 193194n65

plurality voting and, 50

political innovation and, 157

Progressive reforms and, 114

rules in politics and, 118

show votes and, 86, 194195n1

spoils system and, 107, 198199n5, 201n44

takeover of Congress and, 5559

think tanks and, 33

US credit downgrades and, 63

voter data availability control and, 32

party bosses, 46, 104, 106, 111, 112, 202203n55, 203n57, 205nn66, 69

party halo effect, 188n13

party primaries (partisan primaries), 5

average voters in, 27

barriers to entry and, 35

blanket primaries and, 146, 148

California’s reform of, 147151

closed, 10, 25, 46, 146147, 149, 183n10

currency of votes in, 22

current state of, 56

direct primaries reform and, 111112, 205n66, 206n69

duopoly and, 46, 49

elections machinery and, 45, 4649

Final-Five Voting proposal for, 10, 122

ideological challenges in, 181n6

ideological voters in, 25, 46, 118, 182n7

legislative votes influenced by reelection possibilities in, 49, 88, 118, 125126

nonpartisan, 121122, 123, 150, 189n22

percentage of eligible voters participating in, 25

political innovation and, 144

power of voters in, as customers in politics industry, 2425, 25, 27

Progressive Era reforms of, 98, 202n54

Reconstruction limits on black voters in, 101

redistricting reform in, 150, 158, 159

semi-closed, 25, 183n10

state laws on, 205n67

“to get primaried” or “to primary” in, 5, 181nn5, 6

Washington State’s reform of, 146147

patronage system, 102, 103, 200n26

Pear, Robert, 134

Pearson, Kathryn, 192n56, 193n64, 193194n65

Pelosi, Nancy, 124, 192n56

Pendleton Act (1883), 200n26, 201n44

People’s Veto campaign, Maine, 153154, 155

Perot, Ross, 43, 69, 119, 132, 186n34

Pew Charitable Trusts, Governmental Performance Project, 149

Philadelphia Reform Association, 204n61

philanthropy

funding of innovation using, 175176

political philanthropy, 175176, 178

Phillips, David Graham, 112

plurality voting

barriers to entry and, 35

current state of, 6

elections machinery with, 45, 5052, 126

example of percent of votes in, 50

Final-Five Voting proposal for, 10, 122

Gilded Age political parties and, 106

impact on democracy of, 5152

Maine example of, 5051, 151

political innovation and, 144

ranked-choice voting as replacement for, 126

spoiler effect in, 6, 5051, 105, 126

wasted vote argument in, 52, 126, 130

political-industrial complex

action seen as threat to, 85

channels used by, 28

Congress and, 13

consequences of, 6263

direct political spending by, 38, 41

duopoly control and, 24, 38

Eisenhower’s warning on military-industrial complex and, 3738

identity politics in, 6970

money as political currency in, 2223

polarization in, 174

political system serving private interests of, 1920

politics industry and, 3739

Trump presidency and, 37

use of term, 12, 181n4

political innovation

achievable innovations in, 9

American commitment to, 94

American democracy as, 9495

business leaders and, 177

conditions for, 115116

direct democracy and, 112

elections and (see electoral innovation)

evangelizing about, 173174

Final-Five Voting proposal and, 10, 131132, 133

organizing coalitions and lobbying efforts for, 174175

personal agency investment in, 170173

philanthropic funding of efforts in, 175176

planning for pushback against, 160

Politics Industry Theory and, 89, 10, 20

powerful innovations in, 9

Progressive Era and need for, 98

Progressive reform strategy and, 110111, 114115

realities of politics industry and need for, 89

reform of political system using, 9

state ballot initiatives or referenda in, 145146

state legislative action in, 145

state primary reform and, 143, 144, 156

two elements of, 9

ways to invest in, 173178

political-innovation industry, 174175

political leadership, in solutions, 87

political machines, 104, 201n33, 202n54, 202203n55, 204n61, 205n67, 205206n69, 206n72, 213n60

political parties

ballot reform and, 111, 204n63

candidate selection and support by, 31

candidates’ running as a supposed “outsider” within a party and, 3637

Cannon Revolt to against committee power of, 113, 121, 163

channels co-opted by, in Gilded Age, 103104

colluding to rig the rules by, 105106

competition in Gilded Age between, 105

congressional leaders from, 5657, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 191n40, 193n64, 193194n65, 194195n1

congressional punishment for disloyalty to, 72, 192n56

congressional rules and, 134135

democracy and role of, 19

direct political spending in 2016 by, 38

direct primaries and power of, 111112, 205n66, 206n69

division of voters in Gilded Age by, 106108

earlier period of progress under, 19

Founders on dangers of partisanship in, 1819

Gilded Age barriers to entry for, 104105

government and state regulation of, 205n67

Hayes-Tilden 1876 election and, 101102

independent candidates and, 32, 51

intense rivalry between, in Gilded Age, 103

machinery of political system engineered by, 3

nature of competition for, 19

paper ballots controlled by, in Gilded Age, 106, 204n63

party bosses in, 46, 104, 106, 111, 112, 202203n55, 203n57, 205n66, 205n69

political machines in, 104, 201n33, 202n54, 202203n55, 204n61, 205n67, 205206n69, 206n72, 213n60

political polarization in Gilded Age and, 96, 97, 198199n5

primaries and (see party primaries)

Reconstruction changes and, 101102

rivalries between, in 1870s, 103

Senate polarization and, 194n67

show votes in, 86, 194195n1

sore-loser laws and, 48

spoils system and, 107, 198199n5, 201n44

top-two primaries and reaction of, 124

voter data availability control of, 32

Washington’s address on dangers of, 93

See also Democratic Party; duopoly; Republican Party; third parties;two-party system; and specific parties

political party affiliation

citizens’ identity and, 107

closed party primaries and, 25, 46

disillusionment with political parties and dropping of, 71, 195n7

of elected officials, 176, 214n67

newspaper reporting of, in campaigns, 214n67

of primary voters, 25

staff members and, 3132

top-five primaries and, 122

political philanthropy, 175176, 178

political system

antitrust regulation and, 67, 24, 35

citizens’ power to reform, 96

Constitution as basis of, 2

desired outcomes of competition in, 8283

earlier period of politicians and parties working for public interest in, 17

effective solutions for problems in, 8385

Five Forces analysis of, 21, 21

Founders on dangers of partisanship in, 1819

Gilded Age dysfunction in, 9698, 99

Golden Age economic and social conditions and, 101103

nature of competition in, 19

perception of as a broken system, 34

political-industrial complex’s private interests served by, 1920

political parties’ engineering of machinery of, 3

political polarization in Gilded Age and, 96, 97, 198199n5

popular acceptance of, 12

as private industry, 3 (see politics industry)

Progressive Era reforms and, 9798, 110

public interest and, 34, 24

public opinion on current state of, 18

questions to be addressed in analysis of, 89

politics industry, 1739

antitrust regulation and, 67, 24, 35

barriers to entry in, 3437, 104105

channels in, 2831, 103104

citizens’ lack of customer power in, 103

citizens’ mobilization for reform of, 109

consequences of, 65

current political system as, 2

customer power in, 2428, 25

declining bipartisan support for legislation in, 66, 67

declining percentage of moderates in, 67, 68

democracy and, 39, 66

direct political spending in 2016 and, 3839

divided country and, 6970, 116

dual political currency in, 2223

duopoly attempts to repeal, 160

duopoly control of elections in, 2324

duopoly power and, 7, 39, 9596, 103

dwindling public trust in government and, 70, 70

early efforts to reform, 9

economic competitiveness decline and, 7578

Five Forces framework applied to, 78, 102103

forces shaping competition in, 8

founding a campaign for, 175

Gilded Age competition in, 101102

government spending and, 51, 188n48

gridlock on important issues in, 67, 68

healthy approach to competition restored by, 10, 170

immigration as a wedge issue and, 75

immigration reform failure and, 7375

increasing number of independents and, 71, 71

intense rivalry between parties in, 103

lack of accountability in, 7273, 119

lack of problem solving and, 6667

lack of regulation of, 35

party-line legislation in, 6667

perception of a broken political system and, 34

personal agency to fix, 170173

political disillusionment of public and, 7071

political-industrial complex and, 3739, 104

political innovation need for fixing, 89

as private industry within a public institution, 1920

public desire for third party and, 71, 72

public interest and, 7

quality-of-life recession related to, 8082

questions to be addressed in analysis of, 89

rules in, 4163, 117118

substitutes in, 3437

suppliers in, 3134, 104

Trump presidency and, 37

unhealthy competition in, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 2223, 39, 65, 73, 118, 118

urgent crises and deficit financing in, 6769

volatile swings of voter sentiment related to, 7172

Politics Industry Theory

Five Forces framework applied to, 78

fundamentals of, 710

political innovation and, 89, 10, 20

questions to be addressed in analysis of, 89

pollsters, 7, 3132, 38

Populist Party, 104105, 109, 206n71

Porter, Michael E., xiiixvi, 11, 170, 174, 180

presidential elections

1876, 101102

1896, 200n32

1912, 186n34

1980, 42

1984, 42

1992, 43, 69, 119, 132, 186n34

2000, 187n40

2012, 71, 197n22

2016, 3637, 3839, 41, 5051, 71, 187n40

2020, 1314, 36, 51

Australian ballots and voter participation rate for, 204n63

Bloomberg’s run as Democrat in, 36

debates in, 31, 4143, 63, 188nn3, 13

direct political spending in, 3839, 41

Mugwumps as swing vote in, 104

spending on, 50, 187n40

spoiler effect in, 5051

Trump Effect in, 3637

presidents

length of term of, 94

See also specific presidents

primary elections. See party primaries

problem solving, in legislation, 6667

productivity

immigration and, 116

impact of slow growth in, 76

Profiles in Courage (Kennedy), 163

Progressive Era, 133, 145

Constitutional Amendments passed during, 206207n76

innovations and reform strategy in, 110111

lessons learned from, 98

need for political innovation and, 98

reforms during, 9798, 143144, 206n74

spread of innovation in, 166

Progressive movement, 108115

ballot reform in, 111, 121, 144, 204n63, 206n74

community-level organizations in, 109110

direct democracy and, 112, 144, 145

direct election of senators in, 112113

direct primaries in, 111112, 205n66, 206n69

Gilded Age background and emergence of, 97, 108110

ideological diversity in, 109, 203n57

legacy of innovations of, 114115, 203n57

legislative machinery reforms in, 113, 114, 121

as national movement, 122, 204n60

political competition transformed by, 114

political system transformation in, 9798, 110

regulation of money in politics in, 113114

shortcomings of, 114, 202n54

structural innovations and reform strategy in, 110111, 114115

unintended consequences of some efforts of, 114

vision of reform in, 109, 203204n59

Progressive Party, 34, 186n34

propaganda, 30

Proposition 13, California, 146

public education, 108, 202n49

public interest

choosing between reelection possibility and, 118, 119

combining reelection possibility with, 129, 129

decision to run for office and, 6

duopoly control and, 23

earlier period of politicians and parties working together for, 17

elected officials and competition in politics and, 5, 118, 118

legislators and, 120

lobbyists and, 34

party primaries and, 49

political system and, 34, 24

politics industry and, 4, 7

public opinion

Congress’s performance in, 13, 209n14

current state of political system in, 18

new model, modern legislative machinery and, 138139

solutions and, 8687

public policy

demands on government to innovate in, 116

influence of customer power on, 28

lobbying spending on, 33, 39, 185n32

political parties’ domination of, 200n24

show votes on, 86, 194195n1

think tanks and, 33

Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC), 211n29

Putnam, Robert, 203204n59

Pyhrr, Peter, 135136

quality-of-life recession, 8082

Quincy, Josiah, 205n67

quota system, in immigration, 73, 196n11

ranked-choice voting (RCV), 126128

benefits of, 128

cities using, 128

customer (voter) power in, 130

description of mechanics of, 126127

Final-Five Voting proposal with, 10, 122, 128

Maine’s adoption of, 128, 151156, 182n9

McCain’s support for, 127128

North Carolina’s adoption of, 209210n6

plurality voting replaced by, 126

sample ballot in, 127

states’ adoption of, 128, 155, 212nn54, 55

State Senator Obama’s support for, 128

RCV. See ranked-choice voting

Reagan, Ronald, 42, 85

Rebuild Congress Initiative, Harvard Negotiation Project, 215n79

Reconstruction, 101102, 108

redistricting reform, 150, 158, 159

Reed, Sam, 210n9, 210n11

Reed, Thomas, 106

referenda, in ballot system, 112, 145, 206nn69, 71, 72, 209n4

Reform Party, 34, 36, 43, 186n34

regulation

Gilded Age passage of, 107

new media and, 29

of political parties, 205n67

politics industry and lack of, 35, 73

Progressive reform of, 114

regulators

duopoly control and, 24

as lobbyists after retiring, 27

regulatory capture, 35

Reid, Harry, 196n15

Rendon, Anthony, 151

RepresentUs, 175

Republican Mainstream Partnership, 47

Republican National Committee (RNC), 42, 103, 197n22, 200n32

Republican Party, 93

Affordable Care Act and, 8586

California primary reform and, 149, 150

closed primaries and, 183n10

committee control of Congress and, 56

conference committees and, 62

congressional bill process and, 60, 61, 62

congressional rules and, 136

cross-partisan approach to electoral innovation and, 157158

declining percentage of moderates in, 67, 68

deficit financing used by, 69

division of voters by, in Gilded Age, 106108

Federal Election Commission members from, 35

Gilded Age and, 96, 104

Hastert Rule and bill support by, 54

Hayes-Tilden 1876 election and, 101102

immigration reform and, 7374, 196nn11, 12, 14, 196n15, 196197n18, 197n22

machinery of political system engineered by, 3

Maine’s ranked-choice voting and, 150, 152, 154

Mugwumps breaking away from, 104

newspapers backed by, 104, 109

partisan takeover of Congress and, 5559

as part of duopoly in politics industry, 7

party primaries’ influence on legislators in, 49

percentage of voters’ identification with, 71, 71

political machines in, 104, 201n33, 213n60

presidential debate rules and, 42, 63

primary challenges by, 181n5

Progressive Party and, 186n34

public disillusionment with, 7071

Reconstruction state governments and, 102

rivalries between Democrats and, in 1870s, 103

rules written by, 18

Social Security Act passage and, 84

spoiler effect and, 51

top-five primaries and, 122, 123

Trump’s election and presidency and adjustments within, 37

volatile swings of voter sentiment and, 7172

voters and competition in elections and, 119

Whig Party and formation of, 34

See also duopoly; two-party system

return on investment (ROI), and dual political currency, 2223

revolving-door lobbyists, 183184n14

Ridings, Dorothy S., 42

rights, ranking of nations for, 82

Riis, Jacob, 202n50

rivals

Five Forces framework on, 20

healthy competition and, 21

See also Democratic Party; Republican Party

Rivkin, Jan W., xiv

Rockefeller, John D., 99, 112

Rockne, A. J., 213n66

Romney, Mitt, 197n22

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 84, 85

Roosevelt, Teddy, 110, 112, 172, 186n34, 200n28

Roukema, Marge, 192n56

R Street Institute, 215n79

Rubenstein, Harry, 94

rules

description of two parts in, 45

duopoly’s power in, 44, 45, 118

following the money in, 4445

former regulators and congressional staffers as lobbyists and making of, 27

players’ setting of, 44

political parties’ colluding to rig, in Gilded Age, 105106

political parties’ writing of, 18

politics industry and, 4163, 117118

presidential debates example of, 4143

See also elections machinery; legislative machinery

Rules Adopted by the Committees of the House of Representatives, 136

Rules Committee, House of Representatives, 5758, 59, 61, 106, 113, 193n64, 193194n65

Rules of the Committee on Rules, 136

Rules of the House of Representatives, 136

Russell, Ray, 210n6

Ryan, Paul, 61, 70, 86, 88

San Francisco Chronicle, 149

Schaffner, Brian F., 214n72

Schoen, Douglas, 188n13

Schoolhouse Rock Congress, 5556, 163

Schultz, Howard, 51

Schumer, Chuck, 196n15

Schumpeter, Joseph, 182n4

Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 124, 149

secondary school enrollment, ranking of, 81

secret ballots, 111, 144, 206n74, 207n85, 214n68.

See also Australian ballot

Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress, 137138, 139, 162163

semi-closed primaries, 25, 183n10

Senate

competitive elections in, 25

conference committees and bill process in, 62

declining percentage of moderates in, 67, 68

direct election of senators in, 112113

immigration reform in, 7374

polarization in, 194n67

political polarization in Gilded Age and, 96, 97, 198199n5

Republican Party and creation of new seats in, 106

sore-loser laws and elections for, 4748

See also Congress

seniority system, 56, 57, 113, 163

Seventeenth Amendment, 112, 113, 206207n76

shadow lobbying, 39, 183n14

Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), 107, 114

Shor, Boris, 211n29, 214nn67, 72, 215n74

show votes, 86, 194195n1

Sierra Club, 39

Simpson, Alan, 87

Simpson-Bowles report, 8788

Sixteenth Amendment, 206207n76

Snowe, Olympia, 151, 198n36

social conditions

African Americans after the Civil War and, 101

Gilded Age political dysfunction and, 99100, 108109, 115, 201202n48, 202n50

government policy and, xiv

industrialization and, 88100, 199n12

new wave of immigration and, 116

Progressive reforms and, 203n57

social media, 29, 31, 155, 184n16, 196n10

social performance rankings, 8082, 81, 202n50

Social Progress Index, xiv, 80

Social Security Act (1935), 84, 85, 114

solutions

action and, 8586

balance of short- and long-term needs in, 8788

broad-based buy-in over time for, 8687

definition of, 83

description of effective, 8385

political leadership required in, 87

Simpson-Bowles example of failure to deliver, 8788

Social Security Act passage example of, 84

sore-loser laws, 35, 4849, 121, 189n22

special interests

action seen as threat to, 85

Affordable Care Act changes and, 53

currency of votes and, 22

divisive legislation and, 66

duopoly in politics industry and, 7

elected officials influenced by, 26

funding from, 26

government as captive of, 200n25

immigration reform and, 73

large-dollar donors and, 26

members of Congress and, 118

parties’ seeking money from, 103, 200n28

partisan takeover of Congress and, 60

power of, as customers in politics industry, 24, 25, 2527

spoiler effect

Final-Five Voting’s nullification of, 130

plurality voting resulting in, 6, 5051, 105, 126

spoils system, 107, 198199n5, 201n44

Sprague, H. H., 204n61, 205n64

staffers. See congressional and legislative staffers

state elections

African American participation in, after the Civil War, 101

Australian ballot in, 111, 204n61, 205nn64, 65, 67, 206n74

ballot measures for bypassing politicians in, 98

biased ballot access rules in, 49

campaign spending in, 51, 187n45

Castle primary run in Delaware as example of, 4648

direct democracy in, 112, 113

Final-Five Voting and, 133, 144145

ranked-choice voting in, 128, 155, 212nn54, 55

Reconstruction limits on black voters in, 101, 102

sore-loser laws in, 35, 4849, 121

state rules governing, 144

state primaries

blanket primaries in, 146, 148

closed, 10, 25, 46, 146147, 149, 183n10

direct primaries in, 111

independent and third-party candidates in, 49

influence of ideological voters in, 25

participation in, 46, 48

semi-closed, 25, 183n10

top-two primaries in, 123124, 146

US senator selection using, 112113

voter eligibility rules in, 122

states

ballot initiatives and referenda in, 209n4

direct political spending in, 39

election laws passed in, 144

electoral innovation with leaders based in, 158159

failed attempts at regulation by, 107

founding a campaign for Final-Five Voting in, 175

gerrymandering in, 105

one-house legislatures in, 175176, 213n65

organizing coalitions and lobbying efforts for innovation in, 174175

political innovation in, 143, 144, 156

political party regulation by, 205n67

Progressive movement with organizations in, 109110

redistricting reform in, 150, 158, 159

term limits for governors in, 46, 214n72, 215n74

US senator selection by legislators in, 112

voting-system reforms accomplished in, 146

voting-system selection by, 133

Steffens, Lincoln, 202n55

Stein, Jill, 51

Stern, Scott, xiv

Strauss, David, 206207n76

substitutes

accountability to customers and, 73

barriers to entry and, 34

competition and, 8, 21, 34

Five Forces framework and, 20

healthy competition and, 21

politics industry and, 8, 21, 21, 34

Trump’s campaign and duopoly and, 3637

Sullivan, James, 112, 206n71

Sun Journal (Maine), 151

super PACs, 7, 38

suppliers

barriers to new competition and access to, 35

candidates as, 31

duopoly control of, 23, 31, 32, 33, 184n18

Five Forces framework on, 20

healthy competition and, 21

idea suppliers, 3233

lobbyists as, 3334

main groups in, 31

political-industrial complex in Gilded Age and, 104

politics industry and, 3134

talent as, 3132

voter-data shops as, 32

Supreme Court, 143, 147, 148, 210n8

talent, as suppliers in politics industry, 3132

Tammany Hall, New York City, 202n51

task forces, House of Representatives, 61, 73, 193n62

Tea Party, 47, 48, 50, 189n25

term limits, 9, 46, 214n72, 215n74

textbook Congress, 5556, 113, 163

Theriault, Sean, 194n65

think tanks

direct political spending on, 38, 187n42

duopoly in politics industry and, 7

as idea suppliers, 31, 3233

number of and budgets of, 3233, 185n25

partisan identity of, 33

third parties

barriers to entry and, 34, 36

biased ballot access rules and, 49, 204n63

current candidates run by, 34, 186n34

elections machinery and, 45, 46, 49, 121

party halo effect lacking for, 188n13

party primaries and, 122

presidential debates in campaigns and exclusion of, 42

public desire for, 71, 72

Teddy Roosevelt’s presidential campaign and, 112

See also independent parties

Thiry, Kent, 158, 160

Thomas, Bill, 60

Thomas, Clarence, 147

Tilden, Samuel, 101, 102

Tolbert, Caroline J., 206n74

top-five primaries, 122126

Final-Five Voting proposal with, 10, 121122, 128

description of mechanics of, 122123

reasons for adopting, 125126

state top-two primaries similar to, 123, 146

top-four primaries, 209210n6

top-two primaries, 123124, 146147

California’s adoption of, 123124, 146, 147151, 208n4, 211nn26, 27

congressional races and, 209n2

criticism of, 124

states’ adoption of, 123124, 146, 209210n6

unintended consequences of, 124

Washington State’s adoption of, 123, 146147, 210nn9, 11

Trump, Donald, 35, 3637, 51, 71, 157

Twain, Mark, 99

Tweed, Boss, 202n51

Twitter, 29, 36

two-party system

antitrust regulation and, 67, 24, 35

as part of duopoly in politics industry, 7

political parties’ engineering of political system for, 3

questions to be addressed in analysis of, 89

See also duopoly

Uber, 34

Uihlein, Lynde, 157

unions, 26, 38, 108109, 196n14, 204n61

Unite America, 174, 178

Unite America Fund, 175, 178

United Labor Party, 204n61

U.S. Competitiveness Project, Harvard Business School, xiv, 7778, 79

US Supreme Court, 143, 147, 148, 210n8

U’ren, William Simon, 206n71, 207n78

Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 99, 112

Ventura, Jesse, 186n34

Villaraigosa, Antonio, 148

voter data

data analytics of, 31, 184n16

duopoly control of, 32

suppliers of, 31, 32

target direct voter contact using, 29

voter-data shops, 31, 32

voters

affiliation of (see political party affiliation)

average voters, power of, 22, 27

candidates’ need to listen to, in Final-Five Voting, 131

competition in elections and, 119

direct contact with, 2829

divisive legislation and, 66

duopoly control of elections and, 2324

Final-Five Voting and fewer incentives to divide, 131

Final-Five Voting and power of, 130

identification as independents, 34, 71, 71

parties’ division of, in Gilded Age, 106108

party-primary voters, power of, 2425, 25

Perot’s support among, 43

political disillusionment of, 7071

political-industrial complex in Gilded Age and, 104

volatile swings of sentiment expressed by, 7172

wasted vote argument and, 52, 126, 130

votes

divisive legislation and, 66

parties’ attempt to control, in Gilded Age, 106

parties’ search for supporters able to deliver, 103

as political currency, 2223, 45

power of special interests and donors to deliver, 25

rules of politics industry and, 45

winning elections without majority of (see plurality voting)

voting

African American participation in, after the Civil War, 101

Fifteenth Amendment on, 101

Jim Crow laws and, 102, 108

Reconstruction limits on black voters in, 101, 102

state responsibility for systems for, 133, 144

Wallace, David Foster, 1

Ware, Alan, 205n64, 206n69

Warner, Charles, 164

Washington, George, 18, 9394, 126, 180

Washington Post, 162

Washington State

blanket primary in, 210nn7, 8

top-two primaries in, 123, 146147, 210nn9, 11

Washington State Grange, 210nn7, 8, 9, 11

Washington State Grange v. Washington State Republican Party, 147

wasted vote argument, 52, 126, 130

Watergate, 35, 71

water safety, ranking of, 82

Ways and Means Committee, House of Representatives, 57, 60, 192n56

Whig Party, 34

White, William Allen, 207n85

“Why Competition in the Politics Industry Is Failing America” (Gehl and Porter), xvi, 20

Wright, Gerald C., 214n72

Wyden, Ron, 62

Young, Clifford, 188n13

YouTube, 29

zero-based budgeting, 135136

zero-based rule making, 136

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