Index

Note: Page numbers followed by t refer to tables.

abortion, 115

Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), 13, 100

African-Americans

discrimination against (see racism)

police shootings of, 116–119

in presidential election of 2016, 110

as social conservatives, 111, 112

stereotypes of, 63, 117

work ethic and family values of, 62

in working class (see black working class)

agricultural workers, 115–116

alienation, among white working class, 4, 129

“All in the Family” (television show), 2

ambit of responsibility, 68–69, 71, 130

ambition, among elites, 37–38

American dream, 32, 69, 70

American Federation of Teachers, 126

Ammerman, Colleen, 81

AMTEC (Automotive Technical Education Collaborative), 88

anger, in presidential election of 2016, 3, 6

Arizona State University (ASU), 86

aspiration, family values as, 40–41

ASU (Arizona State University), 86

authoritarian nationalism, 4

automation, 83

Automotive Technical Education Collaborative (AMTEC), 88

avant-garde, elite embrace of, 32, 110

Bettie, Julie, 60

bias. See also racism; sexism

prove-it-again, 62, 71, 79

tightrope, 79

Black Lives Matter, 117–118

black working class

on government benefits, 22–23

liberals’ connection to, 111

moral traits valued by, 16–17, 18t, 111

on structural inequality, 23, 111

women in, 77

Blair-Loy, Mary, 37

blue-collar workers

disability benefits to, 98–99

fictional depictions of, 2–3

future of jobs for, 93–95

permanent decline of jobs for, 44, 83

resentment of professionals among, 30

sense of loss among, 69–70

sexism among, 75

technical expertise of, 30

blue states, 40, 78

Boeing, 89

Bourdieu, Pierre, 43

breadwinners, men as, 76, 78, 80, 91, 92

capital, cultural, 28

Casey, Liam, 89–90

caste system, college as perpetuating, 46–47

Center for Manufacturing Technology Excellence, 88

character, working-class emphasis on, 31, 33

charitable giving, 39

Chicago, Democratic convention of 1968 in, 123

child care, 14–16

costs of, 14–16, 39

shortage of options for, 15, 23, 75–76

by working-class vs. elite men, 80

children

born outside marriage, 41

cousins in social lives of, 40

elites’ talk with, 28–29

of other families, working class caring for, 39

parenting approaches to, 53–57

poverty among, 3, 102

civics education, 105–106

civil liberties, 116

civil rights legislation, 122–123

class. See also elites; middle class; poor, the; working class

as cultural tradition, 12

definitions and use of terms for, 9–12

education as proxy for, 12, 43

shared language for, lack of, 11

class callousness, 2, 130

class cluelessness

benefits of ending, 110–112

among politicians, 12, 73, 121–122

rise of, 2–4, 130

class comprehension gap, 4

class condescension, 6, 67, 130

class conflict

in abortion debate, 115

need to defuse, 119, 131

in working-class resentment of the poor, 13

class consciousness

decline of, 2–3

history of, 2

self-employment as expression of, 26

class culture gap

class migrants’ experience of, 50–51

how to bridge, 33–34

in politics, 121–124

class migrants

on admiration of the rich, 26

ambivalence of, 33

on class culture gap, 50–51

college experience of, 47, 51–52, 111–112

definition of, 4–5, 26

family relationships of, 29, 36, 50–51, 111–112

on fears of Trump supporters, 65

class privilege

displays of, 31

and gender in hiring, 55

and racism, 63

climate change, 116

Clinton, Bill, 23, 123, 125

Clinton, Hillary

arguments against Trump, 77, 78–79

on “deplorables,” 68

educational level of supporters of, 12

on glass ceiling, 73–74, 77

Trump’s threats to jail, 106

union support for, 126–127

white working class in coalition of, 125

and working-class men, 78–80

and working-class women, 75, 77

clique networks, 35–36, 48

coalitions

evolution of, 111–113, 122–125

family as metaphor for, 112–113, 131

interracial, 59–60, 71–72, 131

coffee, class structure of, 27

college education, 43–52

alternatives to, 86–88

for class migrants, 47, 51–52, 111–112

debt in, 49

in definition of elites, 10

elite vs. working-class views on necessity of, 43–45, 86

impact on income, 45, 49

jobs for class migrants, 45–46

and middle-skill jobs, 84

prevalence of, 44–45, 85

relocation for, 47–49

at selective schools, 46–49

in up-credentialing, 85–86

value of, to working class, 45–46, 49–50, 86

community, working-class ties to, 36, 38–40

community colleges, 88

concerted cultivation, 54–57

condescension, class, 6, 67, 130

Conner, Alana, 65–66

conservatives

and industrial policy, 84

negative attitudes toward government encouraged by, 100, 101

range of sexualities embraced by, 32–33

unions opposed by, 26

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, 103, 105

Cooper, Marianne, 38

Cooperative Extension Service, 102

Corbett, Rachel, 44

corporations

on government regulation, 103–104

negative public opinion on, 102–103

credential programs, 87–88

cross-racial coalitions, 59–60, 71–72, 131

Crow, Michael, 86

cultural capital, 28

cultural traditions, class as, 12. See also folkways

cultural voting, 122

culture gap, class. See class culture gap

Dawkins, Richard, 28

debt, college, 49

democracy, political polarization as threat to, 3–4, 130

Democratic Party

African-Americans’ connection to, 111

class cluelessness in, 111, 121–122

cross-racial coalitions in, 59

evolution of coalition of, 122–125

policy recommendations for, 114–119

vs. Republican Party, connection with working class, 121–127

strategies for connecting with working class, 109–119

on trade policy, 114

white southerners in, 122–123

Dempsey, Rachel, What Works for Women at Work, 79

dependability, as working-class value, 33

“deplorables,” 68

despair, among white working class, 4

dignity

of professional elite, 31

of working class, 5, 22, 91–92

dinner parties, 28, 30

disability benefits, 21–22, 98–99

discrimination. See racism; sexism

disruption, 20

divorce rates, 76

doctors

potential use of technology, 94

working-class resentment of, 25, 26

work devotion of, 37

domestic violence, 81

Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 104–105

economic justice, interracial coalition for, 60, 71–72, 131

economic stability, government role in, 101, 102

educational levels, 43–52. See also college education; high school education

in definition of elites, 10

in presidential election of 2016, 12

as proxy for class, 12, 43

education deserts, 47–48

education-to-employment system, 86–88

EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit), 104–105

elderly, poverty rates among, 102

elections. See presidential election; primary elections of 2016

Electoral College, 125–126

elites. See also professional elites; rich, the

antiracism norm among, 60–63

approach to the poor vs. working class, 4, 5

class cluelessness among, rise of, 2–4, 130

on college, necessity of, 43–45, 86

definition and use of term, 10

family of (see families, elite)

folkways of, 12, 33–34, 36, 45

income of, 10, 91

parenting approaches of, 54–57

racism among (see racism)

social networks of, 29–30, 47

values of (see values)

women (see women, elite)

working-class resentment of, 25–34

Ely, Robin, 81

emergency medical technicians (EMTs), 80

empathy, 6, 66, 129

EMTs (emergency medical technicians), 80

energy refugees, 103

engineers, 61–62

entrepreneurial networks, 29

environmental policy, 116

equality

gender, 74, 76, 77, 80–82

marriage, 32–33, 66

social, 4, 71–72, 130

structural nature of inequality, 23, 111

ethics. See morality; values; work ethic

Europe, class culture gap in, 122

families, elite

college prospects of, 47, 48

nonfamily priorities in, 54

parenting approaches in, 54–57

and relocation for jobs, 36–37, 41

talk in, 28–29

families, working-class

of class migrants, 29, 36, 50–51, 111–112

college prospects of, 47–48

in identity, 39–40, 75

parenting approaches in, 53–57

in resistance to relocation, 36, 39–41

social lives built around, 40

talk in, 28–29

as top priority, 31–33, 80

family, as metaphor for coalitions, 112–113, 131

family values, of working class

as aspiration, 40–41

in cultural voting, 122

meaning of, 31

and racism, 62

reasons for embrace of, 31–33

farm workers, 115–116

fears, of Trump supporters, 65–66

Federal Trade Commission, 101–102

feeling rules, 67

femi-nazis, 77–78

FiveThirtyEight (website), 11–12

folkways

definition of, 12

of elites, 12, 33–34, 36, 45

of white working class, 12, 70

food

as class divide, 28, 30

government role in, 101, 102

Food and Drug Administration, 101

food stamps, 21–22, 98, 105

Forging Rivals (Schiller), 59

Frank, Thomas, What’s the Matter with Kansas, 124

Freedom Budget, 72

free trade, 114

Friel, Edward, Jr., 78

Garner, Eric, 117–118

gay marriage, 32–33, 66

gay rights, 109–113

gender

in hiring decisions, 55

meaning in working-class context, 74, 77

gender bias, 79. See also sexism

gender equality

elite men’s views on, 80–82

working-class men’s views on, 80–81

working-class women’s views on, 74, 76, 77

gender roles, shifting attitudes toward, 81

geographic mobility

for college, 47–49

for jobs, 35–41

Germany

blue-collar jobs in, 94

manufacturing in, 84, 90

glass ceiling, 73–74, 77

globalization, 83

global outsourcing, 89, 114

Golden Triangle Link, 88

good men, 78

government, negative attitudes toward, 100–107

government benefits, 97–107. See also subsidies

disability, 21–22, 98–99

gaps in public understanding of, 97–101

how to improve public understanding of, 101–107

means-tested, 21–22

unemployment, 21–22

working-class views on, 21–23, 100, 124

Grapes of Wrath (Steinbeck), 2

hard-living families, 14, 17–19, 62, 63

hard work, value of, 17, 18t, 20, 66

Harris, Angela, 130

Head Start, 14

health care

under Medicare, 97, 100, 102

under Obamacare, 13, 100

technology in, 93–94

helicopter parenting, 57

higher education. See college education

high school education

civics courses in, 105–106

income effects of, 45, 49, 91

as indicator of Trump support, 12

vocational training in, 85

Hillbilly Elegy (Vance), 14, 17–21, 29, 45, 106

Hispanic Americans, 110–111

Hochschild, Arlie

on dinner parties, 28

on family ties, 40

on hostility to government, 101

on importance of jobs, 124

on Limbaugh, 70, 77–78

on regulatory capture, 103

on whites’ sense of loss, 67–70

on working-class women, 74, 75, 77–78

home health care aides, 93

home mortgage interest deduction, 100

home ownership, 102

honor. See social honor

hooks, bell, 53–54

Human Rights Campaign, 110

human rights issues, 113

identity

of professional elites, role of work in, 37–38

of working class, role of family in, 39–40, 75

identity politics, 6

immigrants

government policy on, 115–116

Latino views on undocumented, 110–111

in rural areas, 66

Trump’s rhetoric on, 64

white working-class views on, 66–67

implicit association test, 60–61, 117

income

of college graduates, 45, 49, 86

of elites, 10, 91

of high school graduates, 45, 49, 91

as measure of masculinity, 91

of middle class, 3, 9–10

of the poor, 11

universal basic, 84

of working class, 3, 10, 11

independence, of nonelite children, 56

industrial policy, 84, 90, 99

inequality. See equality

Inglis, Robert, 100

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, 87

international trade policy, 114

interracial coalitions, 59–60, 71–72, 131

Iraq, 118–119

irony, vs. sincerity, as class divide, 30

“It Gets Better” Project, 105

jobs. See also specific types

challenges and demands of working class, 14–15

vs. character, in working-class values, 31

elite devotion to, 37–38, 57, 77

future of working-class, 93–95

gender in hiring for, 55

in identity of professional elites, 37–38

questions about, as elite icebreaker, 31

race in hiring for, 61

relocating for, 35–41

for working-class college graduates, 45–46

Joffe-Walt, Chana, 98–99

justice, economic, interracial coalition for, 60, 71–72, 131

Justice Department, 117

Kefalas, Maria, 19–20

King, Martin Luther, Jr., 60, 71–72

labor mobility, 35–41

labor unions. See unions

Lamont, Michèle

on admiration of the rich, 26

on antiracist whites, 62–63

on class migrants, 51

on values of immigrants, 66

on values of working class, 17, 17n, 19, 31, 111

Lareau, Annette

on family in social lives, 40

on parenting, 53, 54, 55, 56

on resentment of professional elites, 25–26

Unequal Childhoods, 53

Lathan, Brenda, 88

Latinos

in presidential election of 2016, 110

as values voters, 110–111

lawyers

role of class in hiring of, 46, 55

role of gender in hiring of, 55

working-class resentment of, 25

learning disabilities, 48

Lebsock, Suzanne, 59–60

Lee, Richard, 61

LGBTQ community, 109–113

liberals

ambit of responsibility of, 69

on necessity of college, 84

patriotism among, 106

policy recommendations for, 114–119

strategies for connecting with working class, 109–119

on ubiquity of racism, 61

likeability, of women vs. men, 79

Limbaugh, Rush, 70, 77–78

loans, student, 49, 100, 105

loss, whites’ sense of, 67–70

low-income families. See poor, the

manliness. See masculinity

manufacturing jobs

decline of, 83–84, 88, 114

future of, 94

middle-level skills needed for, 84–85

return of, 89–90

Markle Foundation, 86, 93

marriage

children born outside of, 41

decline in, 41

gay, 32–33, 66

“Married . . . With Children” (television show), 2

masculinity

among professional elites, 38

among working class, 80, 91–92

McCorkell, Lisa, 22

McGovern, George, 123

means-tested government benefits, 21–22

media market, class in segmentation of, 27

Medicare, 97, 100, 102

men. See also masculinity

as breadwinners, 76, 78, 80, 91, 92

child care participation by, 80

on gender equality, 80–82

likeability as optional for, 79

in pink-collar jobs, 91–93

real vs. good, 78

work in identity of, 37–38

merit, 6

vs. morality, 16–17, 63

racism in assessments of, 61, 63

Mettler, Suzanne, 47, 104–105

The Submerged State, 98

Microsoft, 94

middle class

definitions and use of term, 9–10

income of, 9–10

self-identification as, 9

subsidies for, 100

middle-skill jobs, 84

migrants, class. See class migrants

military, U.S., 104, 118–119

minimum wage, 127

minorities. See people of color; specific groups

misogyny, 131

Mississippi, Golden Triangle Link in, 88

MIT Task Force on Production in the Innovation Economy, 85

mobility, geographic

for college, 47–49

for jobs, 35–41

morality. See also values

black working class on, 16–17, 18t, 111

vs. merit, 16–17, 63

racism in assessments of, 61, 63

white working class on, 16–17, 18t, 111

mortgage interest deduction, 100

Muslim registry, 116

“Mythology of Trump’s Working Class Support, The” (Silver), 11

National Electrical Contractors Association, 87

National Institutes of Health, 102

nationalism, authoritarian, 4

National Science Foundation, 102

natural growth, ideology of, 53–54

networked service jobs, 93–94

networks. See also social networks

clique, 35–36, 48

entrepreneurial, 29

New Deal, 122

New York Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute, 93

norms

antiracism, 61

avant-garde, 32

constitutional, 117, 119

sympathy, 67

novelty, elites’ embrace of, 27–28

nursing jobs, 93

Obama, Barack

approval ratings of, 64

and class culture gap, 121–122

educational level of supporters of, 12

health care under, 13, 100

stimulus program of, 98

student loans under, 105

trade policy of, 114

Obamacare (Affordable Care Act), 13, 100

Olson, Ted, 32–33

online college classes, 86

outsourcing, 89, 114

parenting, 53–57. See also families

elite approaches to, 54–57

tag-team, 15, 75–76

working-class approaches to, 53–57

patriotism, 102, 106

Paul, Joel, 114

People for the American Way, 2

people of color. See also specific groups

discrimination against (see racism)

false choice between white working class and, 71, 109–110, 130–131

in presidential election of 2016, 110

Phillips, Frank, 114

pink-collar workers

men as, 91–93

women as, 74

plumbers, 95

PME (professional-managerial elite), 10. See also professional elites

polarization, political, 3–4, 130

policing

at Democratic convention of 1968, 123

and race, 116–119

political correctness, opposition to, 4, 64, 71, 78, 110, 129

political parties. See Democratic Party; Republican Party

politicians

class cluelessness among, 12, 73, 121–122

likeability of, 79

politics

class culture gap in, 121–124

polarization of, 3–4, 130

poor, the

definition and use of term, 11

geographic mobility of, 37, 41

government benefits for, 21–23, 100, 101, 124

income of, 11

parenting approaches of, 53–54

“working class” as euphemism for, 11

working-class resentment of, 13–23

poverty rates

among children, 3, 102

among elderly, 102

pregnancy

outside marriage, 41

teenage, 40

presidential election of 1968, 123

presidential election of 1972, 123

presidential election of 2008, 121

presidential election of 2012, 110

presidential election of 2016. See also Clinton, Hillary; Trump, Donald

African-American voters in, 110

anger of white working class in, 3, 6

educational level of voters in, 12

Electoral College in, 125–126

Latino voters in, 110

median income of voters in, 11

poor voters in, 11

race baiting in, 59–60

racism among voters in, 63–65

sexism among voters in, 78–82

unions in, 126–127

working-class women voters in, 75, 77

primary elections of 2016

median income of voters in, 11

poor voters in, 11

privacy, 29, 116

professional elites

on college, necessity of, 43–45, 86

definition and use of term, 10

geographic mobility of, 36–38, 41

income of, 91

parenting approaches of, 54–57

racism among, 61–62, 63

social codes of, 45

stay-at-home motherhood among, 76–77

values of (see values)

work devotion among, 37–38, 57, 77

work ethic of, 20, 37–38

working-class resentment of, 25–34

work in identity of, 37–38

professional-managerial elite (PME), definition and use of term, 10. See also professional elites

progressive coalition, 111–113. See also liberals

Protestant work ethic, 37

prove-it-again bias, 62, 71, 79

public housing subsidies, 100

public opinion

on corporations, 102–103

on government benefits, gaps in, 97–101

on government benefits, how to improve, 101–107

on role of government, 100–102

public safety, government role in, 101

race baiting, 59–60

racism, 59–72

in assessments of morality and merit, 61

class differences in expressions of, 61–63

elite displacement of blame for, 60–61, 63

in elite hiring decisions, 61

in elite wages-of-whiteness strategy, 59–60

explicit, 62

false choice between white working class and, 71, 130–131

in policing, 116–119

among professional elites, 61–62, 63

in Trump’s rhetoric, 59–60, 63–64

among Trump supporters, 63–65

ubiquity of, 60–61

whites’ sense of loss and, 67–70

working-class embrace of as a way of expressing class anger, 64

rape, in military, 119

real men, 78

redneck stereotypes, 52

red states, 40, 78

regulation, government, 103–104

regulatory capture, 103

religion

elite approach to, 27–28, 38

work as, 38

working-class embrace of, reasons for, 20–21, 69

Republican Party

appeal to white working class, 124–125

class cluelessness in, 122

vs. Democratic Party, connection with working class, 121–127

on government role in poverty, 101

low-income supporters of, 11

resentment, working-class

of African-Americans, 67

of the poor, 13–23

of professional elites, 25–34

responsibility

changes to ambit of, 68–69, 71, 130

as working-class value, 17, 18t, 19

retraining programs, 99, 114

rich, the

tax cuts for, 124

working-class admiration for, 26

Richards, Ben, 64

Rieder, Jonathan, 21, 62

Rivera, Lauren, 46

rules, respect for, 66–67

rural areas

as education deserts, 48

in Electoral College, 125–126

health care in, 94

immigrants in, 66

traditional values in, 31

safety, government role in, 101–102

safety nets, social

of elites, 21

of working class, 20–21, 39–40

Schiller, Reuel, Forging Rivals, 59

Seattle, manufacturing in, 89

Section 8 public housing subsidies, 100

self-actualization, 18t, 30, 34, 115

self-development, 27, 36, 115

self-discipline, 14, 16–17, 20

self-employment, 26

self-interest, of working-class women, 74

self-worth, merit vs. morality in, 16–17

service jobs, networked, 93–94

Sessions, Jeff, 110

settled-living families, 17–19, 62, 63

sexism, 73–82

in blue-collar jobs, 75

elite displacement of blame for, 82

in elite jobs, 55

embrace of as a way of expressing class anger, 131

in glass ceiling, 73–74, 77

among working-class men, 78–82

sexual harassment, in blue-collar jobs, 75

sexualities, elite comfort with range of, 32–33

Sherman, Jennifer

on community ties, 39

on disability benefits, 98

on fears in rural areas, 66

on gender roles, 81

on government benefits, 22

on working-class moral values, 20, 31–32

sibling rivalry, 56–57

Silver, Nate, 11

“Simpsons, The” (television show), 2–3

sincerity, vs. irony, as class divide, 30

slavery, responsibility for ending, 68–69

small businesses

government regulation of, 103

and immigration policy, 115

social class. See class

social codes, of professional elites, 45

social conservatives, African-Americans as, 111, 112

social equality, 4, 71–72, 130

social history curriculum, 106

social honor

blue-color, loss of, 69–70

elite vs. working-class approach to, 28, 33, 39–40, 77

social networks

of elites, 29–30, 47

of working class, 35–36

social programs. See government benefits

social safety nets

of elites, 21

of working class, 20–21, 39–40

sophistication, elite displays of, 28–29

southern whites

in Democratic Party, 122–123

stereotypes of, 52

spirituality, 27

Springsteen, Bruce, 3

stability, as working-class value, 20, 28, 33, 36–37, 80

Starbucks, 27

Steinbeck, John, Grapes of Wrath, 2

stereotypes

of African-Americans, 63, 117

of southern whites, 52

of women, 79

of working class, 2–3

stimulus program, 98

Stone, Pamela, 81

Strangers in Their Own Land (Hochschild), 28

structural inequality, 23, 111

student loans, 49, 100, 105

Submerged State, The (Mettler), 98

subsidies

for child care, 14, 16

lack of public understanding of, 98

for middle class, 100

through tax expenditures, 100, 105

Supreme Court, U.S., on marriage equality, 32–33

sympathy, norms of, 67

Tablet Pilot, 93

tag-team parenting, 15, 75–76

TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), 22, 23, 98, 105

Task Force on Production in the Innovation Economy, MIT, 85

taxes

on the rich, cuts to, 124

social programs funded by, 13

subsidies through deductions and exemptions in, 100, 105

in trade policy, 114

taxi drivers vs. Uber drivers in San Francisco, 125

teachers

Trump support among, 126

working-class resentment of, 25–26

Tea Party

government benefits opposed by, 21

hostility to government in, 101

on importance of jobs, 124

on regulatory capture, 103

sense of loss in, 68–70

women in, 74

technology, in future of working-class jobs, 93–94

teenage pregnancy, 40

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 22, 23, 98, 105

tightrope bias, 79

Tilcsik, András, 46

trade policy, 114

traditional values, 18t. See also family values

gender in, 80

of immigrants, 66

meaning of, 31

role in in working-class resentment of elites, 31–33

“trailer trash,” 52

Trump, Donald

anger of supporters of, 3, 6

Clinton’s arguments against, 77, 78–79

educational level of supporters of, 12

on jailing Clinton, 106

Latino support for, 110–111

median income of supporters of, 11

and police violence, 118

racism among supporters of, 63–65

racist rhetoric of, 59–60, 63–64

sexism among supporters of, 78–82

union members’ support for, 126–127

working-class women supporting, 75, 77

truths, elite vs. working-class, 12, 34, 130

two-facedness, 30, 33

Uber drivers vs. taxi drivers in San Francisco, 125

unemployment benefits, 21–22

Unequal Childhoods (Lareau), 53

unions

decline of political impact of, 126–127

in education-to-employment system, 87

working-class distrust of, 2, 26, 124

universal basic income, 84

up-credentialing, 85–86

values. See also family values; traditional values

of immigrants, 66

of Latinos, 110–111

values, of elites

list of common, 18t

merit vs. morality as, 16–17, 63

range of sexualities in, 32–33

work ethic in, 20, 37–38

values, of working class, 16–20

list of common, 17, 18t

morality vs. merit as, 16–17, 63

in resentment of elites, 31–33

in resentment of the poor, 16–20

shared by blacks and whites, 16–17, 18t, 111

shared by immigrants, 66

traditional, 18t, 31–33

work ethic in, 17–20

values voters, Latinos as, 110–111

Vance, J. D., Hillbilly Elegy, 14, 17–21, 29, 45, 106

violence

domestic, 81

police, 116–119

vocational training, 85

wages. See income

wages-of-whiteness strategy, 59–60

wealthy elites

tax cuts for, 124

working-class admiration for, 26

welfare system

cheating in, 21

under Bill Clinton, 23

vs. disability, government spending on, 98

What’s the Matter with Kansas (Frank), 124

What Works for Women at Work (Williams and Dempsey), 79

white privilege, in white working class, 70

white supremacy, 63–64

“white trash,” 52, 59

white working class

admiration of the rich among, 26

Democratic vs. Republican connection with, 121–127

education of, 43–52

fictional depictions of, 2–3

income of, 3, 10, 11

mobility of (see geographic mobility)

moral traits valued by, 16–17, 18t, 111 (see also values)

parenting approaches of, 53–57

poverty among, 3

racism among (see racism)

resentment of the poor among, 13–23

resentment of professionals among, 25–34

sexism among (see sexism)

stereotypes of, 2–3

strategies for liberal connecting with, 109–119

women

discrimination against (see sexism)

false choice between white working class and, 71, 131

likeability as requirement for, 79

in military, 118–119

women, elite

abortion views among, 115

glass ceiling facing, 73–74, 77

parenting approaches of, 55–56

stay-at-home motherhood among, 76–77

women, working-class, 73–78

abortion views among, 115

on blue-collar jobs, 74–75

family in identity of, 75

on gender equality, 74, 76, 77

part- vs. full-time work by, 16

in pink-collar jobs, 74

stay-at-home motherhood as ideal of, 16, 74–77

Trump support among, 75, 77

work. See jobs; specific types

work devotion, 37–38, 57, 77

work ethic

of African-Americans, 62

of professional elites, 20, 37–38

of working class, 17–20

working class. See also black working class; blue-collar workers; white working class

challenges of jobs of, 14–15

definition and use of term, 10–11

education of, 43–52

elite approach to the poor vs., 4, 5

everyday life of, 14–16

income of, 3, 10, 11

as middle class, 10

mobility of (see geographic mobility)

parenting approaches of, 53–57

racism among (see racism)

resentment of the poor among, 13–23

resentment of professionals among, 25–34

sexism among (see sexism)

Workplace Experiences Survey, 61–62, 71

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