Book Description

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Debug, Tweak and fine-tune your DIY electronics projects

This hands-on guide shows, step by step, how to build, debug, and troubleshoot a wide range of analog electronic circuits. Written by electronics guru Ronald Quan, Troubleshooting Electronic Circuits: A Guide to Learning Analog Circuits clearly explains proper debugging techniques as well as testing and modifying methods. In multiple chapters, poorly-conceived circuits are analyzed and improved. Inside, you will discover how to design or re-design high-quality circuits that are repeatable and manufacturable.

Coverage includes:

• An introduction to electronics troubleshooting
• Breadboards
• Power sources, batteries, battery holders, safety issues, and volt meters
• Basic electronic components
• Diodes, rectifiers, and Zener diodes
• Light emitting diodes (LEDs)
• Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
• Troubleshooting discrete circuits (simple transistor amplifiers)
• Analog integrated circuits, including amplifiers and voltage regulators
• Audio circuits
• Troubleshooting analog integrated circuits
• Ham radio circuits related to SDR
• Trimmer circuits, including the 555 chip and CMOS circuits

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. About the Author
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. 1 Introduction
    1. Goals of this Book
    2. Quick Notes: Replacing Electrolytic Capacitors and Soldering
    3. Soldering Problems (Cold Solder Connections)
    4. Summary
  9. 2 Basic Breadboards
    1. Solderless Breadboards
      1. Quality
      2. Power Buses on Solderless Breadboards . . . Look for Breaks in the Power Bus Lines
      3. And Now Some Words of Caution
    2. Other Breadboards
  10. 3 Power Sources: Batteries and Battery Holders, Safety Issues, and Voltmeters
    1. Batteries
      1. Again, a Word of Caution
      2. Expected Battery Capacity
      3. Safety Considerations
    2. Survey of Digital Voltmeters
  11. 4 Some Basic Electronic Components
    1. Capacitors
      1. Radial and Axial Electrolytic Capacitors
      2. Measure Twice, Install Once: Erroneously Marked Capacitors
    2. Resistors
      1. Using a DVM to Measure Resistance Values
      2. Measuring Low Resistance Values
  12. 5 Diodes, Rectifiers, and Zener Diodes
    1. Diodes and Rectifiers
    2. Forward Voltage Across Anode to Cathode and Reverse Voltage Effects
    3. Testing Diodes and Rectifiers with Digital and Analog Volt Meters
    4. Schottky Diodes
    5. A Brief Look at Zener Diodes
    6. Some General Rules About Diodes
  13. 6 Light-Emitting Diodes
    1. The LED’s Light Output
    2. LED “Minimum Turn On” Voltages
    3. Other Types of Green LEDs
    4. Problems with Paralleling Two LEDs with Different Turn-On Voltages
    5. Protecting LEDs from Damage Due to Reverse Voltage Across the Anode and Cathode
    6. Some Keys Points About Light Emitting Diodes
  14. 7 Bipolar Junction Transistors
    1. Bipolar Junction Transistors
    2. What Happens When a Transistor Is Damaged
    3. Schematic Symbol of NPN and PNP Transistors
      1. Applying a DC Voltage to the Base of the Transistor to Provide a Constant Current Source
    4. Improved Current Source Circuits
    5. What Happens When Things Go Wrong
    6. Insufficient “Headroom Voltage” for the Transistor
    7. Sometimes Even a Correct Circuit Goes Bad
    8. Summary
  15. 8 Troubleshooting Discrete Circuits (Simple Transistor Amplifiers)
    1. Important Practical Transistor Specifications
    2. Simple Transistor Amplifier Circuits
    3. First DC Analysis: Capacitors = Batteries with Self Adjusting Voltages
    4. Second DC Analysis: Take Out the Capacitors to Find the DC Currents and DC Voltages
    5. Finding the AC Signal Gain
    6. Limited Input Amplitude Range
    7. Output Swing Determined by IC and RL || R2
      1. Troubleshooting the One-Transistor Amplifier
    8. Using Negative Feedback to Build “Mass Production” Amplifiers
    9. DC Analysis of Self-Biasing Amplifier
    10. AC Analysis of a Self-Biased Amplifier
    11. Output Resistance Ro'
    12. Another Common Emitter Amplifier
      1. Troubleshooting the Amplifier in Figure 8-31
    13. Maximum Output Voltage Swing
      1. Amplifier’s Emitter AC Grounded via CE
      2. Amplifier’s Emitter Partially AC Grounded via Series RE2 and CE2
    14. Finding an Optimum Bias Point for Maximum Output Swing with Just an Emitter Resistor
    15. Summary
  16. 9 Analog Integrated Circuits Including Amplifiers and Voltage Regulators
    1. Operational Amplifiers
      1. Maximum Safe Power Supply Voltage
      2. Minimum Power Supply Voltage
      3. Caution on Providing Supply Voltages
      4. Maximum Output Current
      5. Output Voltage Range
      6. Input Signal Range
      7. Non-Inverting Gain Amplifiers
      8. Inverting Gain Amplifiers
      9. A Short Look at Linear Voltage Regulators
      10. Drop-Out Voltage Summary
      11. Voltage Selections, Packages, Pin Outs and Schematics
      12. Knowing the Pin Out Sequence Is Important
      13. Low–Drop-Out Voltage Regulators
  17. 10 Audio Circuits
    1. Preamps and Power Amps
    2. A Basic Difference Amplifier
      1. Dynaco PAT-5 Low-Level Preamp Section and Power Supply
    3. Preamp’s DC Bias Point Estimates
    4. AC Analysis
    5. A High-Fidelity Audio Power Amplifier
    6. DC Biasing Conditions in Figure 10-9
    7. AC Signal Conditions
  18. 11 Troubleshooting Analog Integrated Circuits
    1. Circuits That Need Fixing or Redesigning
    2. Photodiode Circuits
    3. Trans-resistance Amplifiers
    4. Summary
      1. Reference Books
  19. 12 Some Ham Radio Circuits Related to SDR
    1. Software Defined Radio Circuits
      1. Some Troubleshooting Tips Concerning Figure 12-5 and Figure 12-7
    2. A Common Sample-and-Hold RF Mixer Circuit
    3. A Preferred Implementation with Sample-and-Hold Circuits
    4. A Cool Four-Phase Commutating Mixer
    5. DC Bias Conditions
    6. Testing Circuit with an RF or Function Generator
    7. Improving the “Original Design”
    8. Another View of Op Amp Circuits (Where the Inverting Input Drives a Load)
    9. Suggested System Approach
    10. Crystal Oscillators
    11. Types of Crystals
    12. Low-Frequency Cylindrical Crystals, “Standard” Crystals, and Ceramic Resonators
    13. Standard HC-49 and High-Frequency Cylindrical Crystals
    14. Ceramic Resonators
      1. Be Aware of Overtone Crystals
    15. Gain Bandwidth Product Revisited
    16. Summary
  20. 13 Timer, CMOS, and Motor Drive Circuits
    1. Types of 555 Timer Chips
    2. Basic Modes of the 555 Timer Chip and Pin Outs
    3. The 555 Pulse Generator (a.k.a., One-Shot or Monostable Mode)
      1. Troubleshooting the 555 One-Shot Monostable Timer
    4. When You Want to AC Couple a Signal to Trigger a Pulse Output Signal
    5. “Strange” Output Signals Observed via an Oscilloscope
    6. Troubleshooting the 555 Oscillator (a.k.a. Astable Mode)
    7. One More Example on Driving Speakers with the 555
    8. Why Again an Output Coupling Capacitor Is Preferable
    9. Using a 555 to Drive Motors via Pulse-Width Modulation
    10. Summary of Troubleshooting Techniques
  21. 14 Troubleshooting Other Circuits, Including Kits and Projects
    1. Component Kits and Test Equipment
    2. LED and Sensor Kits
    3. A Quick Detour with the LM386 Audio Power Amplifier IC
    4. Photonics: A Light Transceiver System
    5. Thermal Sensing Circuit via Thermistor (Temperature-Dependent Resistor)
    6. A Circuit Using an Electrolytic Capacitor Incorrectly
    7. Identifying and Fixing “Bad” Circuit Designs
    8. An Example of the Missing Ground Connection
    9. Ferrite Beads to Tame Parasitic Oscillations
    10. Summary
  22. 15 More Tips and Final Thoughts
    1. Deciphering Schematics with Too Many Connection Flags
    2. Troubleshooting with Minimal Test Equipment
      1. Analog Meter Driving Circuits for AC Signals
      2. Troubleshooting an Older Push Pull Audio Amplifier in a 1950s Transistor Radio
      3. Reducing Noise on the Power Supply Bus with Multiple Circuits
      4. Bad Connections from Some IC Sockets
    3. Summary and Final Thoughts
  23. A Choosing Test Equipment
    1. Lab Power Supplies (Adjustable)
    2. Signal Generators
    3. Oscilloscopes
    4. Examples of Display Resolution and Number of Memory Points
    5. Oscilloscope Probes
    6. An Inexpensive Lab
  24. B Online Learning Resources
  25. C Components and Parts Suppliers
    1. General Electronic Components
      1. Transistors, FETs, Diodes, LEDs, Photodiodes, and ICs
      2. Low-Noise Transistors and JFETs, Including Matched Pairs
      3. Passive Components, Resistors, Capacitors, Fixed Valued Inductors, Transformers, Tools, Soldering Irons, Breadboards, and Solder
      4. Kit Parts for Transistors, Diodes, Capacitors, Resistors, LEDs, and More
    2. Ham Radio Parts
      1. Crystals, Inductors, Capacitors, Transistors, RF Transistors, Transformers, and ICs
      2. Oscillator Coils, IF Transformers, and Audio Transformers
      3. Antenna Coils
      4. Variable Capacitors
    3. Science Kits, Cool Things, and Everything Else
  26. Index