Index

A

A-Frame, 330

Accelerometers, 3436

Accessibility

multimodal, 8081, 163

in overall design, 160167

researching, 347348

Acronyms, extended reality, 4

Adaptive distance field, 216

Affordances, 6872, 145

Agency, user, 122, 141142, 153

Agile workflow, 331336

AirPods, 1617

Amazon Sumerian, 330

Ambisonic recordings, 308, 309

Anchored type, 263

Apple Watch, 137

Approachable design, 136150

Apps, stand-alone AR, 2830

Architecture, 120121

Attention, overt vs. covert, 125

Audience, 155159

Audio. See sound design

Augmented reality (AR)

AR Cloud, 352353

augmented audio, 313317

brainstorming, 50

defined, 4, 5

feature integration, 28

history of, 2223

HMDs for, 40, 4344

and MR, 56

real time examples, 12

rendering for, 6465

tagAR app, 8789

triggers for, 363365

typography for. See typography

Axes, coordinate, 54

Axonometric drawing, 119

B

Babylon.JS, 330

Background

figure-ground relationship, 230237

location of viewer, 237240

variables in, 224230, 243

Binaural recordings, 308

Binocular disparity, 205, 206

Bose AR glasses, 313317

Brainstorming, physical, 114128

Bugs, fixing, 337339

C

Cameras

to set perspective, 60, 61

smart, 3234

Capture-first experiences, 204

Cerebral hemispheres, 100

Closure, 207, 210

Cloud space, 8, 352353

Coding, 326331

Cohesion, 149150

Collaborative XR, 242243

Common fate, 207, 211

Composition, 237

Context, information in, 165166

Continuation, 207, 209210

Convergent thinking, 9799

Coordinate axes, 54

Covert attention, 125

Creativity, 220

Cueing, 125

Customization, type, 268270

D

Deadlines, 94

Debugging, 337

Design challenges

AR brainstorming, 50

eye chart, 272273

full design process, 358

game playing, 168

mind map, 106

for mobile technology, 8

on/off switches, 193

paper airplane, 133

paper cube, 221

sound localization, 324

3D icon, 244

3D models, 82

Design sprint, 334

The Design of Everyday Things (Norman), 6970

Developers, collaboration with, 328

Diegetic/non-diegetic elements, 139

Display evolution, 246250

Display type, 259, 365

Divergent thinking, 95

E

8th Wall, 31, 330, 331

Electricity, 19

Elements, position of, 214215

Emotional connection, 240243

Empathy, 200202

Environmental zone, 260, 261

Environments, 62

Ethics, 349357

Evolution of displays, 246250

Exits, 154

Experience

positive user, 139150

replicating physical, 23, 7379

sharing, 370

virtual, 15

wireframes, 130

Extended reality. See XR (extended reality)

Extrusion, 55

Eye chart, 272273

F

Face space, 136

Facial recognition, 355357

Feature integration, 28

Feedback, 144, 189, 307

Field of view, 43, 215

Figure-ground relationship, 230237

File formats, 6568

Filters, 14

1st & Ten graphics system, 1011

Flow, user, 122128

Focal length, 238239

Focal zone, 260, 261

Focus, 162163, 372

Fonts, 250

Functionality, 219

Future of XR

beyond rectangular displays, 365371

to expand our physical space, 376377

ideation for, 360363

need for a, 372375

triggering new users, 363365

G

Geometric type, 252

Geometry, generating, 56

Gestalt principles, 207211

Goals, 8491

Google Glass, 102104

GRASP taxonomy, 147

Greenwold, Simon, 45

Greetings, 136139

Grocery stores, 196197

Guides, 148149

Gyroscopes, 3436

H

Haptics, 7678

Head-mounted displays (HMD), 3944, 138

Head-up displays (HUDs), 11

Hierarchy in 3D, 212220

History

of displays, 246250

of XR, 2226

Holistic empathy, 200202

Holographic games, 368

Human factors

hierarchy in 3D, 212220

human-centered ideas, 102105

in overall design, 196204, 220

replicating the physical, 23, 7379

theories of perception, 205211

I

Ideation

identifying the why, 8491

innovation and practicality, 9294

inspiration for, 192

mind map for, 106

outside influence for, 94101

user-focused, 7, 102105

Immersive experiences

affordances, 6872

multimodal, 7281

to replicate the physical, 3

3D models, 5268

Immersive typography, 262

Imposter syndrome, 108

Innovation, 9294

Inspiration, 192

Interactions

as indicated by design, 70

micro, 188191

point of view of, 122

in positive UXs, 139, 146

triggers for, 363365

voice vs. visual, 318

K

Kinesthetic sense, 7879

L

Layout and composition, 237

Learning

benefit of XR to, 9, 16

to code, 326, 327

disabilities, AR for, 161, 162, 164, 166

prosthetic knowledge, 1820

user flow for children, 124

via projection mapping, 38

via UX research, 341

by voice-activated systems, 318, 321

Legibility/readability of type, 246258

LiDAR technology, 3234, 46

Light

for 3D scenes, 6062

for photogrammetry, 49

and type changes, 264

Lightform, 3637

Loudness, 304

M

Magic Leap 1 headset, 45, 46

Materials, choice of, 5860, 8587

Meetings, remote, 374375

Mental model, 152

Mesh, 5558

Microinteractions, 188191

Mind map, 106

Minimization of copy, 270

Minimum viable product, 333

Mistakes, 154

Mixed reality (MR)

defined, 4, 56

HMDs for, 4344

mobile, 78

rendering for, 6465

spatial computing, 45

workstation, 9

Mobile AR

future of, 367

gyroscopes and accelerometers for, 3436

technology for, 7

via smart cameras, 3234

via stand-alone apps, 2830

video vs. optical, 27

web-based, 3032

Motion parallax, 240

Motion tracking, 3435

Multimodal experiences, 7281, 163164

Multiple users, 242243

N

Names, remembering, 8789

Narrative-first experiences, 203

Needs, hierarchy of, 218220

NLP (natural language processing), 318

O

Observations

for future projects, 362363

in ideation phase, 99

in UX research, 341344

Ocular dominance, 205

Olfactory experience, 7576

On/off switches, 193

Onboarding tutorial, 138139

Open-ear audio, 313317

Optical see-through, 27

Orientation, 215

Outside influence, 94101

Overt attention, 125

P

Packaging, 197199

Paper airplane design, 133

Paper cube design, 221

Paradise case study, 310312

Paralax, 240

Passion projects, 361362

Perceived affordances, 7071

Perception, theories of, 205211

Perfection, 104105

Permissions, pop-up, 352

Personal devices, 137

Personal space, 140141

Personalization, 164165, 323

Personas, user, 156159

Perspective, 238, 267268

Photogrammetry, 4649

Physical brainstorming, 114128

Physical experience

personal space extensions, 376377

replicating, 23, 7379

Pitch, 304

Point of view. See viewpoint (presence)

Polygons, 57, 58, 66

Practicality, innovation and, 9294

Prägnanz, 207, 210

Primitive shapes, 5255

Privacy, 349357

Problem solving, 8485

Processing power, 8, 57, 66

Product design, 199200

Proficiency, 220

Programming, 326331, 339

Projection mapping, 3639

Proprioceptic sense, 7879

Prosthetic knowledge, 1820

Prototypes

experimentation with, 108111

physical brainstorming, 114128

transparent sketches, 111114

using previous knowledge, 128131

Proximity, 207, 209

Purpose, 8491

Q

Qualitative/quantitative research, 340348

R

Random ideation, 9697

Rapid prototyping, 115, 118

Readability, type, 246258

Real affordances, 70

Real time, 12, 203204

Realism, 240

Reality

accessibility of, 160166

merging realities, 9091

sound ambience for, 306

Refresh, 154

Regularity, 207

Relationship of elements, 218

Reliability, 219

Rendering, 6465

Research, 94101, 339348

Responsive type, 263

Rotation, 215

S

Safety, 146148

Save feature, 154

Science fiction, 22

Screen evolution, 246250

Scrum, 334336

Sensory experience, 73

Shapes, primitive, 5255

Shared experiences, 242243, 370

Showrooms, virtual, 13

Sight. See visual ability

Similarity, 207, 209

Sketches, transparent, 111114

Smartphones

as AR stepping stones, 7, 1617

cameras on, 3234

photogrammetry via, 46, 48

Smell, 7576

Social signifiers, 143

Social XR, 368

Software for photogrammetry, 49

Somatosensory perception, 79

Sound design

augmented audio, 313317

cues from sound, 305306

file formats for recording, 305

loudness and pitch, 304

mapping sound, 302303

in multimodal experiences, 75

soundscape, 75

spatial sound, 307312

use in XR, 306307

voice experiences, 317323

Sound localization, 303, 324

Space

personal, 140141

prototyping, 115

scene creation, 6264

Spatial computing, 4449

Spatial sound, 307312

Spatial web, 368

Spatial zones, 260262

Splines, 55

Star Walk app, 12

Stories

for connected experiences, 202204

user personas, 158159

Symmetry, 207

T

Tactile sense, 7678

TagAR app, 8789, 265

Technology

AR to align, 372374

chain of advancement in, 2226

choice of, 8587, 9394

early XR, 1017

future of, 360365

learning new, 1820

mobile, 78, 2736

for projection mapping, 3639

for spatial computing, 4449

wearable, 3944, 350, 365, 369

Testing a design

early and often, 331

for usability, 340

vs. debugging, 338339

Text type, 259

Texture, 58

Theories of perception, 205211

3D interface metaphors, 176186

3D models

design challenge, 82

file formats, 6568

materials, 5860

mesh, 5558

rendering, 6465

scene creation, 6264

shapes for, 5255

via photogrammetry, 4649

viewpoint on, 60, 61

3D web frameworks, 329331

Three.JS, 330

Touch, sense of, 7678

Tracking for HMDs, 4142

Transparent sketches, 111114

Tutorials, 138139

Typefaces, 250256

Typography

controls over, 265271

efficient use of, 271

legibility and readability, 246258

typeface selection, 250254

visual contrast, 259265

U

Unit testing, 338

Usability, 219, 340

User experience (UX). See also human factors

accessibility, 160167

approachable design, 136150

challenge, 166167

know your audience for, 155159

prototypes for, 129

research on, 339348

seamless flow, 150155

via persona and story, 156159

User interface (UI)

flow and sequence for, 122128

prototypes for, 129

templates for, 18

3D interface metaphors, 176186

time and space considerations, 186188

type for, 262

Z-axis, 170174

zone, 260, 261

V

Variable fonts, 250

Vectary, 32

Vergence-accommodation conflict., 216217

Vertices, 57

Video options for XR, 366

Video pass-through, 27

Viewing distance, 215

Viewpoint (presence)

and background, 237

and human sight, 7475

interaction point, 122

in prototyping, 115

replicating physical, 3, 74

sound and, 309

Virtual reality (VR)

defined, 4, 5

experiences, 15

HMDs for, 40, 4243

immobility of, 8

release/share options, 370371

spatial computing for, 45

Visual ability

in the brain, 100101

designing for, 7475

eye tracking research, 346

and hierarchy of elements, 215216

and typography contrast, 259265

viewer/focal point relationship, 237240

visual pathway, 205206

Visual assets, 4649

Voice experiences, 316, 317323

VUI (voice user interface), 318

W

Walk-throughs, 116118

Waterfall workflow, 331332

Wearable technology, 350, 365, 369

WebAR, 3032, 371

Wireframes, 130

Workflow, 38, 331336

World wonders, natural, 2

X

X-height, 253

XR (extended reality)

architecture and, 120121

defining elements of, 45

expanding use of, 363365, 366368

extant technologies, 1017

future of, 360371

history of, 2226

need for, 372375

sensory experience in, 3, 73

sound in, 306307

technological familiarity for, 67

type made for, 255256

Z

Z-axis, 170174

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