Notes

Preface

1. Joan C. Williams et al., Climate Control: Gender and Racial Bias in Engineering? Center for WorkLife Law and Society of Women Engineers, October 2016.

2. This study used the résumés of 80 higher-class and 78 lower-class men; the candidates were identically qualified. It found that 16.25 percent of the higher-class men received interview invitations, but only one lower-class man did. Lauren A. Rivera and András Tilcsik, “Class Advantage, Commitment Penalty: The Gendered Effect of Social Class Signals in an Elite Labor Market,” American Sociological Review 81, no. 6 (2016): 1097–1131.

3. Mark Lilla, The Once and Future Liberal: After Identity Politics (New York: Harper, 2017).

4. Economic Policy Institute, “The Productivity–Pay Gap,” August 2018, https://www.epi.org/productivity-pay-gap/.

5. Raj Chetty et al., The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility Since 1940, NBER Working Paper No. 22910, 2017.

6. The number of the crimes reported to the FBI increased by 17 percent from 2016 to 2017, FBI, “2017 Hate Crime Statistics Released,” November 13, 2018, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2017-hate-crime-statistics-released-111318. According to a survey by the Pew Research Center, 56 percent of Americans say President Trump has made race relations worse; 65 percent say it is more common for people to express racist or racially insensitive views, with 45 percent saying this has become more acceptable. Juliana Menasce Horowitz, Anna Brown, and Kiana Cox, “Race in America 2019,” Pew Research Center, April 9, 2019, https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2019/04/09/race-in-america-2019/.

7. Richard Feloni, “High-Profile Investors Like Jeff Bezos, Ray Dalio, and Meg Whitman Are Flocking to a $150 Million Fund Nurturing Startups in Overlooked American Cities,” Business Insider, February 6, 2018, https://www.businessinsider.com/rise-of-the-rest-steve-case-jd-vance-2018-1.

8. James Manyika et al., Jobs Lost, Jobs Gained: Workforce Transitions in a Time of Automation, McKinsey Global Institute, December 2017.

9. Emily Badger et al., “Extensive Data Shows Punishing Reach of Racism for Black Boys,” New York Times, March 19, 2018.

10. Kristi Berner, “Can Businesses Help Fix the Incarceration Crisis? Columbia Business School, April 30, 2018, https://www.8.gsb.columbia.edu/articles/columbia-business/can-businesses-help-fix-incarceration-crisis.

11. Michèle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2000): 116–128.

Chapter 1

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Married..._with_Children; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homer_Simpson.

2. Ruy Teixeira and Joel Rogers, America’s Forgotten Majority: Why the White Working Class Still Matters (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 11. Teixeira and Rogers call the white working class the “forgotten majority,” because “we haven’t heard much about them of late and . . . they are . . . about 55 percent of the voting population” (p. x).

3. Ann Case and Angus Deaton, “Rising Morbidity and Mortality in Midlife among White Non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st Century,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. 49 (2015): 15078–15083; J. D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis (New York: Harper, 2016), 51.

4. Noah Bierman and Lisa Mascaro, “Donald Trump Supporter in South Carolina: We’re Voting with Our Middle Finger,” Los Angeles Times, February 16, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-na-trump-south-carolina-20160216-story.html.

5. Olga Khazan, “Middle-Aged White Americans Are Dying of Despair,” The Atlantic, November 4, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/11/boomers-deaths-pnas/413971/.

6. Forsetti’s Justice, “An Insider’s View: The Dark Rigidity of Fundamentalist Rural America,” alternet.org, November 22, 2016, http://www.alternet.org/election-2016/rural-america-understanding-isnt-problem.

7. Richard Sennett and Jonathan Cobb, The Hidden Injuries of Class (New York: W.W. Norton, 1972).

8. Mark Lilla, “The End of Identity Liberalism,” New York Times, November 18, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/20/opinion/sunday/the-end-of-identity-liberalism.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0.

Chapter 2

9. Sam Grobart, “Everybody Thinks They’re Middle-Class,” BloombergBusinessweek, September 15, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-america-divided/middle-class/.

10. “How Close Are You to the Top 1%?” cnn.com, http://money.cnn.com/calculator/pf/income-rank/.

11. Joan C. Williams and Heather Boushey, “The Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict: The Poor, the Professionals, and the Missing Middle,” Center for American Progress (2010): 3, https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2010/01/pdf/threefaces.pdf.

12. For a description of the methodology used to calculate the income medians and ranges for the poor, the professional elite, and the working class, see Williams and Boushey, “The Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict” (data and method appendix), 74. Many thanks to Heather Boushey and Kavya Vaghul of the Washington Center for Equitable Growth for updating these figures with 2015 data obtained from the 2014 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (dollar values adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index Research Series available from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).

13. Rachel Zupek, “15 Jobs that Pay $70,000 per Year,” cnn.com, August 27, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/LIVING/worklife/08/27/cb.jobs.that.pay.70k/index.html?iref=nextin.

14. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Outlook Handbook: Police and Detectives,” U.S. Department of Labor, https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/police-and-detectives.htm.

15. Williams and Boushey, “The Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict,” 3 (figures updated with 2015 data). Many thanks to Heather Boushey and Kavya Vaghul of the Washington Center for Equitable Growth for updating these figures with 2015 data obtained from the 2014 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (dollar values adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index Research Series available from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). One note: I follow the convention of sometimes referring to the working class as “blue collar,” although many have pink-collar jobs (as dental hygienists or “the girl” in the front office of the tire shop) or low-level white-collar jobs (as postal worker, receiving clerk, salesperson of paper goods to restaurants). The low-level white-collar jobs are gleaned from Michèle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).

16. Willams and Boushey, “The Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict,” ii. Many thanks to Heather Boushey and Kavya Vaghul of the Washington Center for Equitable Growth for updating these figures with 2015 data obtained from the 2014 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (dollar values adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index Research Series available from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).

17. Nate Silver, “The Mythology of Trump’s ‘Working Class’ Support,” FiveThirtyEight, May 3, 2016, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-mythology-of-trumps-working-class-support/.

18. In fact, the median incomes of the Trump primary voters in swing states are close to the $64,000 median income we found for the missing middle in 2010: Michigan (Trump voters’ median income: $61,000), North Carolina ($62,000), Ohio ($64,000), and Wisconsin ($69,000). In the primary, relatively wealthier Republicans mostly voted for Marco Rubio ($88,000) or Dennis Kasich ($91,000). Trump voters’ medians were a little higher in Florida ($70,000) and Pennsylvania ($71,000). See Nate Silver, “The Mythology of Trump’s ‘Working Class’ Support,” FiveThirtyEight, May 3, 2016, https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-mythology-of-trumps-working-class-support/.

19. Nate Silver, “Education, Not Income, Predicted Who Would Vote for Trump,” FiveThirtyEight, November 22, 2016, http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/education-not-income-predicted-who-would-vote-for-trump/.

Chapter 3

20. For a complex answer to this complex topic, see Mark Pauly, Adam Leive, and Scott Harrington, “The Price of Responsibility: The Impact of Health Reform on Non-Poor Uninsureds,” NBER Working Paper 21565 (2015).

21. Joan C. Williams and Heather Boushey, “The Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict: The Poor, the Professionals, and the Missing Middle,” Center for American Progress (2010): 9, https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2010/01/pdf/threefaces.pdf.

22. Other books that get at this problem are Joseph T. Howell, Hard Living on Clay Street: Portraits of Blue Collar Families (Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 1972); and Maria J. Kefalas, Working-Class Heroes: Protecting Home, Community, and Nation in a Chicago Neighborhood (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2003).

23. J. D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis (New York: Harper, 2016).

24. Lillian B. Rubin, Families on the Fault Line: America’s Working Class Speaks About the Family, the Economy, Race, and Ethnicity (New York: HarperCollins, 1994), 94, 96–97.

25. Williams and Boushey, “The Three Faces of Work-Family Conflict,” 7, 9, 36.

26. Ellen E. Kossek, et al., “Family, Friend, and Neighbour Child Care Providers and Maternal Well-Being in Low-Income Systems: An Ecological Social Perspective,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 81 (2008): 370.

27. Michèle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 19–20. Andrew Cherlin argues that working-class guys now embrace self-actualization rather than self-discipline (Andrew Cherlin and Timothy Nelson, “The Would-Be Working Class Today,” in Labor’s Love Lost: The Rise and Fall of the Working-Class Family in America, ed. Andrew Cherlin [New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2014]). No doubt some do. As hard living has claimed a larger percentage of the white working class, more working-class whites may well eschew the self-discipline ideal documented by Michèle Lamont and many others. Yet I remain convinced that its aspirational hold remains strong for settled working-class families.

28. Alfred Lubrano, Limbo: Blue-Collar Roots, White-Collar Dreams (New York: Wiley, 2005), 16–17.

29. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 2000, 1.

30. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy, 75, 91, 92, 113, 123, 156.

31. Julie Bettie, Women Without Class: Girls, Race, and Identity (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2003), 15.

32. Howell, Hard Living on Clay Street, 257.

33. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 27.

34. Kefalas, Working-Class Heroes, 12.

35. Joan C. Williams, Reshaping the Work-Family Debate: Why Men and Class Matter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010), 165.

36. Jennifer Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t: Poverty, Morality, and Family in Rural America (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2009), 126.

37. John Tierney, “For Good Self-Control, Try Getting Religious About It,” New York Times, December 29, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/30/science/30tier.html.

38. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy, 92; Linda Gorman, “Is Religion Good for You?” National Bureau of Economic Research, http://www.nber.org/digest/oct05/w11377.html.

39. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy, 94.

40. Jonathan Gruber cited in Vance, Hillbilly Elegy, 92.

41. Suzanne Lebsock, “Snow Falling on Magnolias,” in Shapers of Southern History: Autobiographical Reflections, ed. John B. Boles (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2004), 291.

42. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 114.

43. Jonathan Rieder, Canarsie: The Jews and Italians of Brooklyn against Liberalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), 119.

44. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy, 139.

45. Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t, 57, 69, 70, 71, 73–74.

46. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 46–51.

47. U.S. Census Bureau, “Who’s Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Summer 2006, Table 4: Children in Self-Care, by Age of Child, Employment Status of Mother, and Selected Characteristics for Children Living with Mother: Summer 2006,” http://www2.census.gov/topics/childcare/sipp/2006-detail-tabs/tab04.xls.

Chapter 4

48. Tex Sample, Blue Collar Resistance and the Politics of Jesus: Doing Ministry with Working Class Whites (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2006), 61.

49. Barbara Ehrenreich, Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class (New York: HarperCollins, 1989), 137.

50. Annette Lareau, Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2003), 140, 217–220.

51. Bob Secter, “Walker’s Anti-Union Crusade Pivotal to White House Run, Damaging to Labor,” Chicago Tribune, July 28, 2015, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/ct-scott-walker-wisconsin-unions-met-20150727-story.html.

52. Michéle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 103.

53. Reeve Vanneman and Lynn Weber Cannon, The American Perception of Class (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1987), 86–87.

54. Julie Jargon, “Middle-Market Woes Inspire Starbucks’s Bet on Luxury Coffee,” Wall Street Journal, December 5, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/middle-market-woes-inspire-starbuckss-bet-on-luxury-coffee-1480966895.

55. Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (New York: Mariner Books, 2006).

56. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 182.

57. Lareau, Unequal Childhoods, 146–151.

58. Sample, Blue Collar Resistance and the Politics of Jesus, 27.

59. J. D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis (New York: Harper, 2016), 226.

60. Suzanne Lebsock, “Snow Falling on Magnolias,” in Shapers of Southern History: Autobiographical Reflections, ed. John B. Boles (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2004), 296.

61. Joan C. Williams, Reshaping the Work-Family Debate: Why Men and Class Matter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010), 169–171.

62. Lareau, Unequal Childhoods, 62–63.

63. Mark Granovetter, Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 19.

64. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 99, 108.

65. Donna Langston, “Who Am I Now? The Politics of Class Identity,” in Working-Class Women in the Academy: Laborers in the Knowledge Factory, ed. Michelle M. Tokarczyk and Elizabeth A. Fay (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 72.

66. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 95.

67. Jennifer Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t: Poverty, Morality, and Family in Rural America (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2009), 107–108.

68. Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t, 110, 112.

69. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avant-garde.

70. Edmund Burke and Isaac Kramnick, The Portable Edmund Burke (London: Penguin Classics, 1999), 259.

71. Williams, Reshaping the Work-Family Debate, 205.

72. Confidential interview (Harvard-trained public-interest lawyer), Washington, D.C., 1999.

73. Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, trans. Richard Nice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984).

Chapter 5

74. Drawn from this list: http://unemployment-rates.careertrends.com/stories/21415/cities-with-highest-unemployment-rates#100-San-Luis-AZ.

75. Ronald S. Burt, Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), 143–144.

76. Alfred Lubrano, Limbo: Blue-Collar Roots, White-Collar Dreams (New York: Wiley, 2004), 108.

77. Mary Blair-Loy, Competing Devotions: Career and Family among Women Executives (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 1–2, 13, 34.

78. Blair-Loy, Competing Devotions, 34, quoting Vicki Orlando (corporate lawyer).

79. Michèle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 110.

80. Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, Carroll Seron, Bonnie Oglensky, and Robert Sauté, The Part-Time Paradox: Time Norms, Professional Life, Family and Gender (London: Routledge, 1999), 22.

81. Marianne Cooper, “Being the ‘Go-To Guy’: Fatherhood, Masculinity, and the Organization of Work in Silicon Valley,” in Families at Work: Expanding the Bounds 5, ed. Naomi Gerstel et al. (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2002), 26.

82. Cooper, “Being the ‘Go-To Guy,’” 9.

83. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 115–116.

84. Emily Gipple and Ben Gose, “America’s Generosity Divide,” Chronicle of Philanthropy, August 19, 2012, https://www.philanthropy.com/article/America-s-Generosity-Divide/156175.

85. Capitol Heights: median income $71,114: https://datausa.io/profile/geo/capitol-heights-md/. Suitland: median income $56,951: https://datausa.io/profile/geo/suitland-md/.

86. Maclean: median income $188,639: https://datausa.io/profile/geo/mclean-va/. Bethesda: income $145,288: https://datausa.io/profile/geo/bethesda-md/; https://www.philanthropy.com/article/America-s-Generosity-Divide/156175.

87. Jennifer Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t: Poverty, Morality, and Family in Rural America (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2009), 80, 113.

88. Annette Lareau, Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2003), 204.

89. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 106.

90. Naomi Cahn and June Carbone, Red Families v. Blue Families: Legal Polarization and the Creation of Culture (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010), 2.

91. Andrew Cherlin, Labor’s Love Lost: The Rise and Fall of the Working-Class Family in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2014), 146.

92. Kathryn Edin and Maria Kefalas, Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood before Marriage (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2005), 2.

93. Charles Murray, Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1984), 133, 159–162.

94. Gianpiero Petriglieri, “In Defense of Cosmopolitanism,” hbr.org, December 15, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/12/in-defense-of-cosmopolitanism.

Chapter 6

95. Pierre Bourdieu, The Logic of Practice (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 1980), 58.

96. Camille L. Ryan and Kurt Bauman, “Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015,” http://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2016/demo/p20-578.pdf.

97. John Schmitt and Heather Boushey, “The College Conundrum: Why the Benefits of a College Education May Not Be So Clear, Especially to Men,” Center for American Progress, December 2010, 1, https://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2010/12/pdf/college_conundrum.pdf.

98. Oliver Wright, “Don’t Wear Brown Shoes if You Want to Walk into City Job, The Times, September 1, 2016, http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/dont-wear-brown-shoes-if-you-want-to-walk-into-city-job-gfcvt2ql2.

99. J. D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis (New York: Harper, 2016), 212, 213.

100. Lauren Rivera and András Tilcsik, “Research: How Subtle Class Cues Can Backfire on Your Resume,” hbr.org, December 21, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/12/research-how-subtle-class-cues-can-backfire-on-your-resume.

101. “Some Colleges Have More Students from the Top 1 Percent than the Bottom 60. Find Yours,” New York Times, January 18, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/18/upshot/some-colleges-have-more-students-from-the-top-1-percent-than-the-bottom-60.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=second-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=2.

102. Suzanne Mettler, Degrees of Inequality: How the Politics of Higher Education Sabotaged the American Dream (New York: Basic Books, 2014), 5.

103. Lisa R. Pruitt, “The False Choice between Race and Class and Other Affirmative Action Myths,” Buffalo Law Review 63 (2015), 1038, citing Thomas J. Espenshade and Alexandria Walton Radford, No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009), 97–98.

104. Amanda L. Griffith and Donna S. Rothstein, “Can’t Get There from Here: The Decision to Apply to a Selective College,” Economics of Education Review 28 (2009): 623.

105. Nicholas Hillman and Taylor Weichman, “Education Deserts: The Continued Significance of ‘Place’ in the Twenty-First Century,” American Council on Education/Center for Policy Research and Strategy, 2016, 3–4, 6, http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/Education-Deserts-The-Continued-Significance-of-Place-in-the-Twenty-First-Century.pdf.

106. Griffith and Rothstein, “Can’t Get There from Here,” 627.

107. Schmitt and Boushey, “The College Conundrum,” 3, 8, 9.

108. Schmitt and Boushey, “The College Conundrum,” 5.

109. Jillian Berman, “Here’s How Much Student-Loan Debt Has Exploded Over the Past Decade,” MarketWatch, October 27, 2015, http://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-average-student-loan-debt-grew-56-over-the-past-10-years-2015-10-27.

110. Schmitt and Boushey, “The College Conundrum,” 4.

111. Rework America, America’s Moment: Creating Opportunity in the Connected Age (New York: W.W. Norton, 2015), 200.

112. Renny Christopher, “A Carpenter’s Daughter,” in This Fine Place So Far from Home: Voices of Academics from the Working Class, ed. C. L. Barney Dews and Carolyn Leste Law (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995), 143.

113. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 73.

114. Confidential interview, Washington, D.C., 1999.

115. John Sumer, “Working It Out,” in This Fine Place So Far from Home: Voices of Academics from the Working Class, ed. C. L. Barney Dews and Carolyn Leste Law (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995), 304.

116. Michèle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 20.

117. Nancy LaPaglia, “Working-Class Women as Academics,” in This Fine Place So Far from Home: Voices of Academics from the Working Class, ed. C. L. Barney Dews and Carolyn Leste Law (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995), 180, 181.

118. Stephen Garger, “Bronx Syndrome,” in This Fine Place So Far from Home: Voices of Academics from the Working Class, ed. C. L. Barney Dews and Carolyn Leste Law (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995), 46.

119. Hephzibah Roskelly, “Telling Tales in School: A Redneck Daughter in the Academy,” in Working-Class Women in the Academy, ed. Michelle M. Tokarczyk and Elizabeth A. Fay (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 293.

120. Garger, “Bronx Syndrome,” 46.

Chapter 7

121. Annette Lareau, Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2003), 238.

122. Joan C. Williams, Reshaping the Work-Family Debate: Why Men and Class Matter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010), 166–167.

123. bell hooks, “Keeping Close to Home: Class and Education,” in Working-Class Women in the Academy, ed. Michelle M. Tokarczyk and Elizabeth A. Fay (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 102.

124. Lareau, Unequal Childhoods, 2–3, 42, Table C4 on 282, Table C5 on 283, Table C6 on 284.

125. Referring to Frederick W. Taylor, the “Father of Scientific Management.” For more information, see Jill Lepore, “Not So Fast,” New Yorker, October 12, 2009, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/10/12/not-so-fast.

126. Laureau, Unequal Childhoods, 39, 62, 113.

127. Laureau, Unequal Childhoods, 48, 58.

128. “Return to Childhood 2008,” This American Life (Chicago Public Radio broadcast, March 7, 2008).

129. Laureau, Unequal Childhoods, 251.

130. Making Caring Common, “Turning the Tide: Inspiring Concern for Others and the Common Good through College Admissions,” 2016, 5, http://mcc.gse.harvard.edu/files/gse-mcc/files/20160120_mcc_ttt_report_interactive.pdf?m=1453303517.

131. Lauren Rivera and András Tilcsik, “Research: How Subtle Class Cues Can Backfire on Your Resume,” hbr.org, December 21, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/12/research-how-subtle-class-cues-can-backfire-on-your-resume.

132. Laureau, Unequal Childhoods, 45, 79, 80, 81.

133. Laureau, Unequal Childhoods, 45, 55–57, 76–77.

Chapter 8

134. C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877–1913 (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1951), 209–211.

135. David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 2007).

136. Reuel Schiller, Forging Rivals: Race, Class, Law, and the Collapse of Postwar Liberalism (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 240–244.

137. See “Poor People’s Campaign,” kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_poor_peoples_campaign.

138. Julie Bettie, Women Without Class: Girls, Race, and Identity (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2002), 173.

139. Rich Morin, “Exploring Racial Bias Among Biracial and Single-Race Adults: The IAT,” Pew Research Center, August 19, 2015, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/08/19/exploring-racial-bias-among-biracial-and-single-race-adults-the-iat/.

140. Chris Mooney, “The Science of Why Cops Shoot Young Black Men,” Mother Jones, December 1, 2014, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/11/science-of-racism-prejudice.

141. Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination,” American Economic Review 94, no. 4 (2004).

142. Joan C. Williams, Su Li, Roberta Rincon, and Peter Finn, “Climate Control: Gender and Racial Bias in Engineering?” 2016, 18–19, http://worklifelaw.org/pubs/Climate-Control-Gender-And-Racial-Bias-In-Engineering.pdf. (The comparison is with white men because white women experience prove-it-again bias triggered by gender; women of color experience it based on both race and gender.)

143. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know (New York: New York University Press, 2014), 311–313 (see studies cited in endnotes to Chapter 2).

144. Michèle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 73, citing Roel W. Meertiens and Thomas F. Pettigrew, “Is Subtle Prejudice Really Prejudice?” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1997): 54–71.

145. Jonathan Rieder, Canarsie: The Jews and Italians of Brooklyn against Liberalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), 59, 60, 63.

146. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 59.

147. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 1.

148. Peter Holley, “KKK’s Official Newspaper Supports Donald Trump for President,” Washington Post, November 2, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2016/11/01/the-kkks-official-newspaper-has-endorsed-donald-trump-for-president/?utm_term=.afd5f711ec41; Theodore Schleifer, “Trump: Judge with Mexican Heritage Has an ‘Inherent Conflict of Interest,’” CNN.com, June 2, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/02/politics/donald-trump-judge-mexican-heritage-conflict-of-interest/; Jeremy Diamond, “Donald Trump: Ban All Muslim Travel to U.S.,” CNN.com, December 8, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2015/12/07/politics/donald-trump-muslim-ban-immigration/; TIME Staff, “Here’s Donald Trump’s Presidential Announcement Speech,” TIME, June 16, 2015, http://time.com/3923128/donald-trump-announcement-speech/.

149. Gary Langer, Gregory Holyk, Chad Kiewiet De Jonge, Julie Phelan, Geoff Feinberg, and Sofi Sinozich, “Huge Margin Among Working-Class Whites Lifts Trump to a Stunning Election Upset,” abcnews.com, November 9, 2016, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/huge-margin-working-class-whites-lifts-trump-stunning/story?id=43411948; Aaron Blake, “Who Likes President Obama and Voted for Donald Trump? Lots of People,” Washington Post, November 16, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/11/16/meet-the-pro-obama-donald-trump-voters-there-are-plenty-of-them/?utm_term=.bfdc0ed42b05.

150. German Lopez, “Research Says There Are Ways to Reduce Racial Bias. Calling People Racist Isn’t One of Them,” vox.com, November 15, 2016, http://www.vox.com/identities/2016/11/15/13595508/racism-trump-research-study.

151. David Broockman and Joshua Kalla, “Durably Reducing Transphobia: A Field Experiment on Door-to-Door Canvassing,” Science 352 (2016): 220–224.

152. Dawn Michelle Baunach, “Decomposing Trends in Attitudes Toward Gay Marriage, 1988–2006,” Social Science Quarterly 92, no. 2 (2011): 346–363.

153. Rework America, America’s Moment: Creating Opportunity in the Connected Age (New York: W.W. Norton, 2015), 193.

154. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, “Immigration and the Rural Workforce,” https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/in-the-news/immigration-and-the-rural-workforce/.

155. Jennifer Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t: Poverty, Morality, and Family in Rural America (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2009), 129.

156. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 89–90.

157. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 92.

158. Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land, 93.

159. Andrew Cherlin, Labor’s Love Lost: The Rise and Fall of the Working-Class Family in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2014), 170.

160. Arlie Hochschild, “Feeling Rules,” The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 1983).

161. Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land, 137, 145, 221.

162. Amy Chozick, “Hillary Clinton Calls Many Trump Backers ‘Deplorables,’ and G.O.P. Pounces,” New York Times, September 10, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/11/us/politics/hillary-clinton-basket-of-deplorables.html?_r=0.

163. Thomas Haskell, Objectivity Is Not Neutrality: Explanatory Schemes in History (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).

164. Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land, 47, 124.

165. Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land, 118, 137, 145.

166. Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land, 218.

167. Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land, 22–23, 122.

168. Alexis C. Madrigal, “The Racist Housing Policy That Made Your Neighborhood,” The Atlantic, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/05/the-racist-housing-policy-that-made-your-neighborhood/371439/.

169. Kristin Luker, Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage Pregnancy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 134–174.

170. Forthcoming on www.biasinterrupters.org.

171. Martin Bennett, “Martin Luther King Jr. and the Struggle for Economic Justice,” California Labor Federation, January 18, 2015, http://calaborfed.org/martin_luther_king_jr-_and_the_struggle_for_economic_justice/.

Chapter 9

172. “Text of Clinton’s 2008 Concession Speech,” The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jun/07/hillaryclinton.uselections20081; Meghan Keneally, “Hillary Clinton’s Progress Trying to ‘Shatter That Highest, Hardest Glass Ceiling,’” abcnews.com, November 9, 2016, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/hillary-clintons-progress-shatter-highest-hardest-glass-ceiling/story?id=43420815.

173. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 147.

174. Rachel Martin and Alec MacGillis, “Feeling Left Behind, White Working-Class Voters Turned Out for Trump,” npr.org, November 13, 2016, http://www.npr.org/2016/11/13/501904167/feeling-left-behind-white-working-class-voters-turned-out-for-trump.

175. Susan Chira, “‘You Focus on the Good’: Women Who Voted for Trump, in Their Own Words,” New York Times, January 14, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/14/us/women-voters-trump.html?_r=0.

176. John Cassidy, “How Donald Trump Became President-Elect,” New Yorker, November 9, 2016, http://www.newyorker.com/news/john-cassidy/how-donald-trump-became-president-elect.

177. Joan Williams, Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000), 66.

178. Vicki Shultz, “Telling Stories About Women and Work,” Harvard Law Review 103, no. 8 (1990): footnote 332 on p. 1835.

179. Arlie Russell Hochschild, The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work (New York: Holt Paperbacks, 1997), 88.

180. Lillian B. Rubin, Families on the Fault Line: America’s Working Class Speaks About the Family, the Economy, Race, and Ethnicity (New York: HarperCollins, 1994), 93.

181. Beth Shulman, The Betrayal of Work: How Low Wage Jobs Fail 30 Million Americans and Their Families (New York: New Press, 2003), 19–20, 37.

182. Ruth H. Bloch, “American Feminine Ideals in Transition: The Rise of the Moral Mother 1785–1815,” Feminist Studies 44, no. 2 (1978): 101, 113, 114.

183. Williams, Unbending Gender, 153.

184. Ann Crittenden, The Price of Motherhood: Why the Most Important Job in the World Is Still the Least Valued (New York: Picador, 2001), 12.

185. Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family, from Slavery to the Present (New York: Basic Books, 1985); Riché Barnes, Raising the Race: Black Career Women Redefine Marriage, Motherhood, and Community (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2015).

186. Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land, 22.

187. Jessica Bennett, “A Master’s Degree in . . . Masculinity?” New York Times, August 8, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/09/fashion/masculinities-studies-stonybrook-michael-kimmel.html.

188. Steve Reilly, “Hundreds Allege Donald Trump Doesn’t Pay His Bills,” USA Today, June 9, 2016, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2016/06/09/donald-trump-unpaid-bills-republican-president-laswuits/85297274/.

189. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know (New York: New York University Press, 2014), Preface, citing Diana Burgess and Eugene Borgida, “Who Women Are, Who Women Should Be: Descriptive and Prescriptive Stereotyping in Sex Discrimination,” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 5, no. 3 (1999): 665–692.

190. Williams and Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work, 60.

191. Pamela J. Bettis and Natalie G. Adams, “Nice at Work in the Academy,” unpublished paper; Alice H. Eagly and Steven J. Karau, “Role Congruity Theory of Prejudice Toward Female Leaders,” Psychological Review 109, no. 3 (2002): 573–598; Susan T. Fiske, Amy J. C. Cuddy, Peter Glick, and Jun Xu, “A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow from Perceived Status and Competition,” Journal of Personal and Social Psychology 82, no. 6 (2002): 878–902.

192. Susan T. Fiske, Jun Xu, Amy J. C. Cuddy, and Peter Glick, “(Dis)respecting versus (Dis)liking: Status and Interdependence Predict Ambivalent Stereotypes of Competence and Warmth,” Journal of Social Issues 55, no. 3 (1999).

193. Chris Cillizza, “Hillary Clinton Has a Likability Problem. Donald Trump Has a Likability Epidemic,” Washington Post, May 16, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/05/16/hillary-clintons-long-lingering-likable-enough-problem/?utm_term=.47be8d000860.

194. Robb Willer, Christabel L. Rogalin, Bridget Conlon, and Michael T. Wojnowicz, “Overdoing Gender: A Test of the Masculine Overcompensation Thesis,” American Journal of Sociology 118 (2013): Table 5.

195. Francine M. Deutsch, Halving It All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 193.

196. Carla Shows and Naomi Gerstel, “Fathering, Class and Gender,” Gender & Society 23 (2009): 179.

197. Jennifer Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t: Poverty, Morality, and Family in Rural America (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2009), 123.

198. Robin J. Ely, Pamela Stone, and Colleen Ammerman, “Rethink What You ‘Know’ About High-Achieving Women,” Harvard Business Review, December 2014, 100–109.

Chapter 10

199. “Wolfgang Lehmacher, “Don’t Blame China for Taking U.S. Jobs,” fortune.com, November 8, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/11/08/china-automation-jobs/; Ben Casselman, “Manufacturing Jobs Are Never Coming Back,” FiveThirtyEight, March 18, 2016, http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/manufacturing-jobs-are-never-coming-back/; Mark Muro, “Manufacturing Jobs Aren’t Coming Back,” MIT Technology Review, November 18, 2016, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602869/manufacturing-jobs-arent-coming-back/.

200. Farhard Manjoo, “A Plan in Case Robots Take the Jobs: Give Everyone a Paycheck,” New York Times, March 2, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/03/technology/plan-to-fight-robot-invasion-at-work-give-everyone-a-paycheck.html.

201. Rework America, America’s Moment: Creating Opportunity in the Connected Age (New York: W.W. Norton, 2015), 201.

202. Rework America, America’s Moment, 203, quoting Suzanne Berger, with the MIT Task Force on Production in the Innovation Economy, Making in America: From Innovation to Market (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013), 188–189.

203. Nicholas Wyman, “Why We Desperately Need to Bring Back Vocational Training in Schools,” forbes.com, September 1, 2015, http://www.forbes.com/sites/nicholaswyman/2015/09/01/why-we-desperately-need-to-bring-back-vocational-training-in-schools/#6fab5521465c.

204. Rework America, America’s Moment, 200.

205. Michael M. Crow and Williams B. Dabars, Designing the New American University (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015), 274–275.

206. Rework America, America’s Moment, 222, 251.

207. Rework America, America’s Moment, 208, citing http://www.electricaltrainingalliance.org.

208. Rework America, America’s Moment, 209.

209. Rework America, America’s Moment, 165–167.

210. Rework America, America’s Moment, 42–45.

211. Rework America, America’s Moment, 44.

212. Rework America, America’s Moment, 50.

213. Rework America, America’s Moment, 51, citing James Manyika, Jeff Sinclair, Richard Dobbs, Gernot Strube, Louis Rassey, Jan Mishke, Jaana Remes, Charles Roxburgh, Katy George, David O’Halloran, and Sreenivas Ramaswamy, Manufacturing the Future: The Next Era of Global Growth and Innovation (McKinsey Global Institute, 2012), 80.

Chapter 11

214. “No Safe Place: Violence Against Women, Interview: Michael Kimmel, PhD,” pbs.org, http://www.pbs.org/kued/nosafeplace/interv/kimmel.html.

215. Michael Greenstone and Adam Looney, “The Problem with Men: A Look at Long-Term Employment Trends,” The Hamilton Project, December 3, 2010, http://www.hamiltonproject.org/assets/files/milken_reduced_earnings_for_men_america.pdf.

216. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 141; Phillip Longman, “Wealth and Generations,” Washington Monthly, June-July-August 2015, http://washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/junejulyaug-2015/wealth-and-generations/. (This describes prime-age men.)

217. Betsey Stevenson, “Manly Men Need to Do More Girly Jobs,” bloomberg.com, December 7, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2016-12-07/manly-men-need-to-do-more-girly-jobs.

218. Rework America, America’s Moment: Creating Opportunity in the Connected Age (New York: W.W. Norton, 2015), 125.

219. Rework America, America’s Moment, 114, 134.

220. Claire Cain Miller, “Why Men Don’t Want the Jobs Done Mostly by Women,” New York Times, January 4, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/04/upshot/why-men-dont-want-the-jobs-done-mostly-by-women.html?_r=0.

221. Rework America, America’s Moment, 154, 207.

222. Charles Purdy, “Surprising Jobs with $100K Salaries—After Only a Two-Year Degree,” New York Daily News, February 12, 2012, http://www.nydailynews.com/jobs/surprising-jobs-100k-salaries-two-year-degree-article-1.1026210; Frances Romero, “How Much Do Plumbers Really Make?” TIME, October 17, 2008, http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1851673,00.html.

Chapter 12

223. The Cash for Appliance stimulus program offers rebates for appliances up to $250 per appliance, as long as the appliances replace an existing appliance and bought during a specific time period. See Suzan Clarke, “Rebate Program Gives Up to $250 for Purchase of New, Energy-Saving Appliances,” abcnews.com, February 12, 2010, http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Home/cash-appliances-rebate-energy-saving-purchases/story?id=9814094.

224. Suzanne Mettler, The Submerged State: How Invisible Government Policies Undermine American Democracy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 37.

225. Chana Joffe-Walt, “Unfit for Work: The Startling Rise of Disability in America,” npr.org, http://apps.npr.org/unfit-for-work/.

226. Jennifer Sherman, Those Who Work, Those Who Don’t: Poverty, Morality, and Family in Rural America (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2009), 69.

227. Joffe-Walt, “Unfit for Work.”

228. Joffe-Walt, “Unfit for Work.”

229. Mettler, The Submerged State, 21.

230. Bob Cesca, “Keep Your Goddamn Government Hands Off My Medicare!,” Huffington Post, September 5, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bob-cesca/get-your-goddamn-governme_b_252326.html.

231. Hope Schreiber, “Trump Supporter Schooled on FB for Thinking Obamacare and ACA Are Different,” elitedaily.com, January 10, 2017, http://elitedaily.com/social-news/trump-supporter-schooled-facebook-obamacare-affordable-care-act/1746982/; Jason Linkins, “News Flash! Obamacare and the Affordable Care Act Are the Same Thing,” Huffington Post, January 17, 2017, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/obamacare-affordable-care-act_us_587ea7f6e4b0cf0ae880af9a.

232. Pew Research Center, “Beyond Distrust: How Americans View Their Government,” November 23, 2015, http://www.people-press.org/2015/11/23/beyond-distrust-how-americans-view-their-government/.

233. Pew Research Center, “Beyond Distrust.”

234. Michèle Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 21.

235. For an example of how the FDA has protected us, see Michael Winerip, “The Death and Afterlife of Thalidomide,” New York Times, September 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/booming/the-death-and-afterlife-of-thalidomide.html.

236. Gary V. Engelhardt and Jonathan Gruber, “Social Security and the Evolution of Elderly Poverty,” NBER Working Paper 10466 (2004), http://www.nber.org/papers/w10466.

237. Health Care Financing Administration, “Medicare 2000: 35 Years of Improving Americans’ Health and Security,” July 2000, https://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/soc/medicare35.pdf.

238. “Medicare Part D: Prescription Drug Coverage for Seniors,” center-forward.org, http://center-forward.org/medicare-part-d-essential-coverage-for-seniors/.

239. “Who Is Poor?” Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison, http://www.irp.wisc.edu/faqs/faq3.htm.

240. Michael Neal, “A Cross-Country Comparison of Homeownership Rates,” Eye On Housing, June 19, 2015, http://eyeonhousing.org/2015/06/a-cross-country-comparison-of-homeownership-rates/; Daniel Goldstein, “Why the Federal Government Now Holds Nearly 50% of All Residential Mortgages,” MarketWatch, October 16, 2015, http://www.marketwatch.com/story/why-the-federal-government-now-holds-nearly-50-of-all-residential-mortgages-2015-10-16.

241. Pew Research Center, “Beyond Distrust: How Americans View Their Government,” November 23, 2015, http://www.people-press.org/2015/11/23/beyond-distrust-how-americans-view-their-government/.

242. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “CFPB Orders Citibank to Pay $700 Million in Consumer Relief for Illegal Credit Card Practices,” July 21, 2015, http://www.consumerfinance.gov/about-us/newsroom/cfpb-orders-citibank-to-pay-700-million-in-consumer-relief-for-illegal-credit-card-practices/.

243. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 43, 52, 108.

244. Kate Baldwin, “One Thing the US Military Gets Right: Childcare,” Quartz, March 26, 2015, https://qz.com/369740/one-thing-the-us-military-gets-right-childcare/.

245. Pew Research Center, “Public Trust in Government: 1958–2014,” November 13, 2014, http://www.people-press.org/2014/11/13/public-trust-in-government/.

246. Mettler, The Submerged State, 65, citing Benjamin I. Page and Lawrence R. Jacobs, Class War?: What Americans Really Think About Economic Inequality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), 144.

247. Mettler, The Submerged State, 70, 117.

248. The CFPB announced on January 18, 2017, that they are filing a lawsuit against Navient (the country’s largest student loan servicer) for cheating borrowers; see Maggie McGrath, “CFPB Sues Student Loan Servicer Navient for Failing Borrowers ‘At Every Stage,’” forbes.com, January 18, 2017, http://www.forbes.com/sites/maggiemcgrath/2017/01/18/cfpb-sues-student-loan-servicer-navient-for-failing-borrowers-at-every-stage/#5fa7094d477d.

249. Mettler, The Submerged State, 15.

250. http://www.itgetsbetter.org/. I recognize that different levels of government are involved in, for example, sewers. My goal is a civics lesson, not a lesson in the arcane details of public finance.

251. J. D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis (New York: Harper, 2016), 189.

252. Lamont, The Dignity of Working Men, 35.

253. Joan C. Williams, Reshaping the Work-Family Debate: Why Men and Class Matter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010), 197.

Chapter 13

254. Jonathan Martin and Alexander Burns, “Democrats at Crossroads: Win Back Working-Class Whites, or Let Them Go?” New York Times, December 15, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/15/us/politics/democrats-joe-biden-hillary-clinton.html?_r=0.

255. Jennifer Bendery, “Pick Any LGBTQ Rights Issue. Jeff Sessions Has Voted Against It,” Huffington Post, November 22, 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/jeff-sessions-lgbt-rights_us_58346cd9e4b030997bc1524f.

256. Peter Holley, “KKK’s Official Newspaper Supports Donald Trump for President,” Washington Post, November 2, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2016/11/01/the-kkks-official-newspaper-has-endorsed-donald-trump-for-president/?utm_term=.0999655a2360.

257. Tami Luhby and Jennifer Agiesta, “Exit Polls: Clinton Fails to Energize African-Americans, Latinos and the Young,” cnn.com, November 9, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/08/politics/first-exit-polls-2016/.

258. Jens Manuel Krogstad, Mark Hugo Lopez, Gustavo López, Jeffrey S. Passel, and Eileen Patten, “1. Looking Forward to 2016: The Changing Latino Electorate,” Pew Research Center, January 19, 2016, http://www.pewhispanic.org/2016/01/19/looking-forward-to-2016-the-changing-latino-electorate/.

259. Marcela Valdes, “‘We’re Looking at a New Divide Within the Hispanic Community,’New York Times Magazine, November 15, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/11/20/magazine/donald-trumps-america-florida-latino-vote.html?_r=0.

260. Philippe Sands, East West Street: On the Origins of “Genocide” and “Crimes Against Humanity” (New York: Knopf, 2016).

261. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 141, quoting Phillip Longman, “Wealth and Generations,” Washington Monthly, June-July-August 2015, http://washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/junejulyaug-2015/wealth-and-generations/.

262. Ben Casselman, “Inequality Is Killing the American Dream,” FiveThirtyEight, December 8, 2016, http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/inequality-is-killing-the-american-dream/.

263. Nick Timiraos, “5 Questions on Trade Adjustment Assistance,” Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2015, http://blogs.wsj.com/briefly/2015/06/15/5-questions-on-trade-adjustment-assistance/.

264. Joel Paul, “The Cost of Free Trade,” Brown Journal of World Affairs 22 (2015).

265. Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 1984), supra note 12, at 194–195 (pro-choice women work), 195 (pro-life women less likely to work), cited in Joan Williams, Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000), 151.

266. Jennifer Medina, “California Farmers Short of Labor, and Patience,” New York Times, March 29, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/30/us/california-farmers-short-of-labor-and-patience.html.

267. Jennifer L. Eberhardt, Phillip Atiba Goff, Valerie J. Purdie, and Paul G. Davies, “Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87, no. 6 (2004): 876–893, http://fairandimpartialpolicing.com/docs/pob5.pdf.

268. Rachel Swan, Phil Matier, and Andy Ross, “Oakland Police Bombshells: Racist Texts, Latest Chief Steps Down,” sfgate.com, June 18, 2016, http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Latest-Oakland-police-chief-is-out-after-two-days-8310286.php.

269. U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, “Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department,” August 10, 2016, https://www.justice.gov/opa/file/883366/download.

270. Jane Harman, “Rapists in the Ranks,” Los Angeles Times, March 31, 2008, http://www.latimes.com/news/la-oe-harman31mar31-story.html.

271. James Pinkerton, “Hard to Charge: Bulletproof Part 3,” Houston Chronicle, http://www.houstonchronicle.com/local/investigations/item/Bulletproof-Part-3-Hard-to-charge-24421.php.

Chapter 14

272. John McCormick, “Obama Talks Arugula—Again—in Iowa,” The Swamp, https://archive.fo/I3RIU.

273. Bernard Weinraub, “Campaign Trail; For Quayle, a Search for Belgian Endive,” New York Times, September 20, 1988, http://www.nytimes.com/1988/09/20/us/campaign-trail-for-quayle-a-search-for-belgian-endive.html; Kate Zernike, “Who Among Us Does Not Love Windsurfing?,” New York Times, September 5, 2004, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/05/weekinreview/who-among-us-does-not-love-windsurfing.html; Sarah Pavlus, “Scarborough on Obama’s ‘Dainty’ Bowling Performance: ‘Americans Want Their President, If It’s a Man, to Be a Real Man,’” Media Matters for America, March 31, 2008, http://mediamatters.org/research/2008/03/31/scarborough-on-obamas-dainty-bowling-performanc/143050.

274. Jeroen van der Waal, Peter Achterberg, and Dick Houtman, “Class Is Not Dead—It Has Been Buried Alive: Class Voting and Cultural Voting in Postwar Western Societies (1956–1990),” Politics and Society 35 (2007): 415.

275. Zach Carter, “Mitt Romney Doubles Down on Cadillac Gaffe, Accuses Obama of Corruption,” Huffington Post, February 26, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/26/mitt-romney-cadillac_n_1302193.html.

276. Nick Anderson and Janet Hook, “Dean Is Targeted by Ad Campaign,” Los Angeles Times, January 7, 2004, http://articles.latimes.com/2004/jan/07/nation/na-media7.

277. Philip Bump, “When Did Black Americans Start Voting So Heavily Democratic?” Washington Post, July 7, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/07/07/when-did-black-americans-start-voting-so-heavily-democratic/; and “The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom: Immediate Impact of the Civil Rights Act,” Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/immediate-impact.html.

278. Mark Stricherz, Why The Democrats Are Blue: Secular Liberalism and the Decline of the People’s Party (New York: Encounter Books, 2007), 5–6; Geoffrey Layman and John Michael McTague, “Religion, Parties, and Voting Behavior: A Political Explanation of Religious Influence,” in The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics, ed. Corwin Smidt, Lyman Kellstedt, and James L. Guth (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009), 343.

279. Thomas B. Edsall, Building Red America: The New Conservative Coalition and the Drive for Permanent Power (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 16–18.

280. Stricherz, Why the Democrats Are Blue, 1.

281. Jane Mayer, Dark Money: The Hidden Story of the Billionaires behind the Rise of the Radical Right (New York: Anchor, 2016).

282. Arlie Russell Hochschild, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right (New York: New Press, 2016), 71–72, 179.

283. V. B. Dubal, “The Drive to Precarity: A Political History of Work, Regulation, & Labor Advocacy in San Francisco’s Taxi & Uber Economies,” Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 38 (2017): 73–130.

284. Amy Chozick, “Hillary Clinton’s Expectations, and Her Ultimate Campaign Missteps,” New York Times, November 9, 2016, http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/11/10/us/politics/hillary-clinton-campaign.html; T. Becket Adams, “Bill Clinton’s Lonely, One-Man Effort to Win White Working-Class Voters,” Washington Examiner, November 12, 2016, http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/bill-clintons-lonely-one-man-effort-to-win-white-working-class-voters/article/2607228; Annie Karni, “Clinton Aides Blame Loss on Everything but Themselves,” Politico, November 10, 2016, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/11/hillary-clinton-aides-loss-blame-231215.

285. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_elections_in_which_the_winner_lost_the_popular_vote.

286. Quoctrung Bui, “50 Years of Shrinking Union Membership, in One Map,” npr.org, February 23, 2015, http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2015/02/23/385843576/50-years-of-shrinking-union-membership-in-one-map; Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Economic News Release: Union Members Summary,” U.S. Department of Labor, January 26, 2017, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm.

287. Greg Toppo, “Teacher Unions Smarting after Many Members Vote for Trump,” USA Today, November 23, 2016, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2016/11/23/election-unions-teachers-clinton-trump/94242722/.

288. Patricia Murphy, “Why These Union Members and Lifelong Democrats Are Voting Trump,” The Daily Beast, July 26, 2016, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/07/26/why-these-union-members-and-lifelong-democrats-are-voting-trump.html.

Conclusion

289. Forsetti’s Justice, “An Insider’s View: The Dark Rigidity of Fundamentalist Rural America,” alternet.org, November 22, 2016, http://www.alternet.org/election-2016/rural-america-understanding-isnt-problem.

290. Joe Mont, “10 Things Still Made in America,” The Street, October 18, 2011, https://www.thestreet.com/story/11279838/4/10-things-still-made-in-america.html.

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