Index

absenteeism 32

accountancy, and functional competence 97-8

affect-based trust 190-1, 193, 194, 195, 203, 207

and motives 191-2

and social interaction 192

Aslund, A 33, 169

attitudes, and functional competence 95-6, 100-1

Bachmann, R 181

bad faith, and trust 10

banking system, and western investment 25,62

Barber, B, on trust 5

Barnes, J W 9

Baruch, G 46

blat, see networks

Blumer, H 38

bribery and corruption 217

attitudes towards 88-90, 143

and bureaucracy 84-90

cultural aspect of 85-7

and customs 125

and exit 143

western attitudes 87-8

see also mafia

Bryman, A 37, 38, 48

Bunker, B B 193, 194, 195

bureaucracy

and bribery and corruption 84-90

burden of 71, 73-7

and decision-making 66, 73, 77

development of 8

and hierarchy 160

as investment obstacle 82-4, 178-9,

217, 219

and local competence 83-4, 142-3

Butler, J K 6, 10-11, 16, 157, 204

calculus-based trust 193, 194, 205, 207, 209

Cantrell, R S 16

characteristic-based trust 190, 195, 205

Child, J 6, 183, 184, 193, 194

on trust and international strategic

alliances 4-5, 182

and trust guardians 185-6, 205

cognition-based trust 190, 194, 203

Coleman, J 7

collectivism 31-3, 171, 222

command economy 28-9

assumptions of 32

and informal networks 9, 29-30, 33

nature of 54

work culture 98-9

communication skills

and low trust 188

and Russian culture 170

contracts

and negotiations 113-14

role of 171, 178, 184

corruption, see bribery and corruption

credible deterrent 13, 14-15, 157

credit, and east-west business ventures 62-3

Culpan, R 24

cultural difference

and communication skills 170

and expectations 157

and management style 161-2

as obstacle 65

and trust 4, 7, 183, 223-4

western experience of 137-8

work-related differences 22-3, 58-9, 64, 98-9, 159-60

cultural embeddedness

and networks 8-10

and trust 12

customs

and bribery 125

problems with 61, 71-3, 76-7, 151, 158

Dasgupta, P 10, 12

and credible deterrent 14

data collection and analysis, see research

methodology

decision-making 83

and bureaucracy 66, 73, 77

changes in process 117-18

and hierarchy 30-1, 116-17, 160-2

and local competence 91-4, 144, 145

and management style 114-15, 183

and negotiations 174

devaluation 215

drinking

and negotiations 110, 174

and relationship building 111, 115

east-west business ventures

application of trust determinants

196-9, 205-7, 212

and common values 195-6

context of 23-4, 207

contributions of partners 56

and cultural differences 22-3, 58-9

developing trust 10-11

evaluation 214

expatriate staff 57-9

expectations 53, 173, 181, 219

external challenges 61-3, 70-1, 158-9, 183-4, 219, 223

handover periods 98, 107, 147

high failure rate 24

hostility to 75, 77

partner choice 14, 15, 157, 167

and personal trust 25, 156, 157

requirements for 25-6, 156-7

risks of 62-3, 157, 158-9, 177, 219, 221

Russian motives for 53-5, 63

and skills transfer 95, 145-6, 147, 205

and Soviet legacy 28-34

and 'sovietization' 199-200, 207-8

trust development model 209-13

and trust guardians 185-6, 205

western motives for 55-6, 63-4

and work ethic 163-4

workplace challenges 58-61, 159-60

economics, and trust 7, 8

emotional trust 189-90

see also affect-based trust

exit 13, 157

and mafia 143

expatriate staff

frustrations of 129

and interpersonal competence 149

performance of 199-200

pressures on 64

problems facing 57-9

and relationship building 111, 150

as trust guardians 185-6, 205

workplace challenges 59-61

expectations

and east-west business ventures 53, 173, 181, 219

and functional competence 96-7, 1034, 105, 146

and language 109

and trust 11, 12, 157

finance, and functional competence 97-8

financial institutions, and risk 62

Flores, F 6, 10, 11, 157, 204

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (USA) 86, 88, 143

foreign direct investment

changes in 215, 218

and international strategic alliances 4

and trust 10

fragile trust 17, 193-4

Fukuyama, Francis 171-2

and societal trust 7

trust and economic success 7, 8

functional competence 39, 95, 145-9

accountancy and finance 97-8

and attitudes 95-6, 100-1

employment of young people 99-101, 164-5

and expectations 96-7, 103-4, 105, 146

growth in 220

and handover 98, 107, 147

in legal system 151

and low-trust option 186

managerial competence 148, 162, 163, 167

and Moose joint venture 105

and handover 107

misunderstandings 106-7

Russian view of western 105,

130-1, 146-9, 162, 168, 169-70

western view of Russian 105-6, 149

and motives 147

and partner choice 167

and service culture 98-9, 100, 163-4

and skills transfer 95, 145-6, 147, 205, 206

technical competence 148, 162-3

and training 101-2, 166

and trust 102-5

as trust determinant 17-18

and trust development 208, 209

Gabarro, J J, and determinants of trust 16, 17-18

Gambetta, D 10, 14

Glassner, B 45

globalisation, and trust 4, 203

Good, D, definition of trust 11

Gorbachov, Mikhail 26, 27, 55

Gosplan 28, 71

Granovetter, M, and cultural

embeddedness 8-9

Hardy, C 182-3

Havel, Vaclav 8

Heath, P S 24, 156

and networks 9

Hertz, N 9-10, 15

and informal networks 29, 30

hierarchy

and decision-making 116-17, 160-2

tradition of 30-1

Hirschman, A O 10

Huberman, A M 35

Humphrey, J 8

Husted, B W 8, 18-19

identification-based trust 193, 195, 206

inflation 27, 215

informal networks 29, 30

and command economy 29-30, 33

and reputation 14

role of 171-3, 178, 184-5, 220, 223

international business, and trust 4

International Monetary Fund 216, 217

international strategic alliances (ISAs), and trust 4-5, 182, 203-4

see also east-west business ventures

interpersonal competence 149-51

changes in 220-1

importance of 108, 149, 173, 174,

188, 196-7, 221-2

and language 108-9, 137, 149

and management style 114-15, 150, 151, 173

and misunderstandings 149

and Moose joint venture 117-20, 150-1

and motives 162

and negotiations 109-10

and outgroup perceptions 155

and promise-keeping 114, 115-16,

170-1,178

relationship building 111, 150

requirements of 150-1

and ritual behaviour 115, 151

and social interaction 115

and staff recruitment 112-13

as trust determinant 18

and trust development 208, 209

and trust guardians 205

and workplace relationships 110-12

interpersonal relations

importance of 110-12, 174, 180, 205

and reputation 14

role of 184-5

and trust 24, 220-1

and trust development 194

intuition-based trust 190-1

investment, as commitment 57, 64

Jennings, E E, and determinants of trust 16, 18

Johnson, M 216-17

Kirienko, Sergei 215

knowledge-based trust 193, 194, 195, 204, 209

Koehn, D, on trust 5, 8

Kolb, D 49

Kotkin, S 29

Krueger, Anne 216

Lane, C 181, 203

on trust and globalisation 4

Lane, David 29

language

and interpersonal competence 108-9, 137, 149

and misunderstandings 109-10

and outgroup perceptions 137, 154

legal system 15

and accounting regimes 97-8

and contracts 113-14, 171, 178, 184

interpretation problems 73, 77

as investment obstacle 82,158

problems with 142, 151

reform of 217

and western investment 25, 63, 207

Lewicki, R J 193, 194, 195

Lewis, D 181, 188-9, 193

liberalisation, see market reform

local competence 39, 81, 104, 142-5, 220

acquisition of 143, 144, 187, 205

and bribery and corruption 84

attitudes towards 88-90, 143

cultural nature of 85-7

western attitudes 87-8

and bureaucracy 83-4, 142-3

and decision-making 91-4, 144, 145

and high-trust option 186-7

importance of 81, 172

and the mafia 90-1

and Moose joint venture 91-4, 144-5 difficulties with 145, 162, 172

and motive assessment 152

and partner choice 167

requirements of 145

tax and legal framework 82

as trust determinant 18

and trust development 208, 209

Luhmann, N 6

McAllister, D J 181, 190

McCarthy, D J 32-3, 33-4

mafia 90-1, 143, 158-9

Mammoth, see Moose joint venture

management style

and culture 161-2, 183

and decision-making 114-15, 183

and interpersonal competence 114-15, 150, 151, 173

and Moose joint venture 161

managerial competence 148

and partner choice 167

market reform 4

impact of 54-5, 60

and networks 9, 12

post-Soviet 27-8

progress of 216, 217

Mayer, R C, on trust 6

meetings

nature of 44-5, 164

and negotiations 109-10

western view of Russian 165-6

methodology, see research methodology

Michailova, S 65, 157

and hierarchy 162

and national culture 7

and outgroup perceptions 163

and western management style 161

Miles, M B 35

Miller, J 45

misunderstandings

and functional competence 106-7, 146

and interpersonal competence 149

and language 109-10

and low trust 188

monitoring

changes in 221

characteristics of 153-4

and common values 196

effective 199

and low trust 187-8

and Moose joint venture 119-20,

153-4, 162, 187-8

and negotiations 109

as obstacle to trust 108, 153-4, 162, 184, 197-9, 222

as trust determinant 19

and trust development 208

Moose case study

data-gathering

impact of interviewer 45-6

reactivity 48-9

the researcher 47-8

technical language 46

research methodology 40-5

researcher's isolation 41

social interaction 42-3

western bias 42

Moose joint venture 44-5, 65

age of staff 165

bureaucratic burden 73-7

customs problems 71-3, 76-7

end of 218

external challenges 70-1

finance problems 68-70, 76

fire department audit 75-6, 172-3, 178

functional competence 105, 209

and handover 107

management styles 161

misunderstandings 106-7

Russian view of western 105,

130-1, 146-9, 162

western view of Russian 105-6, 149

history of 65-6

informal environment 43-4

interpersonal competence 117, 118-20, 150-1

and local competence 91-4, 144-5, 209

difficulties with 145, 162, 172

meetings 44-5

monitoring 119-20, 153-4, 162, 187-8

and motives 121-2

distrust of Russians 122-6, 152

western 127-8

outgroup 154-5

lack of integration 133-6

perceptions 130-1

and social habits 136-7

western experiences 132-3

role clash 66-8, 76, 91, 94, 119, 121

motives

and affect-based trust 191-2

changes in 221

distrust of Russian 143, 151

and east-west business ventures 53-6, 63-4

and functional competence 147

importance of 196-7

and interpersonal competence 162

and Moose joint venture 121-2

distrust of Russians 122-6, 152 western 127-8

negative 152

and partner choice 167

positive 152

as trust determinant 18-19

and trust determinants 151-2

and trust development 208, 209

negotiations

and contracts 113-14, 171

and interpersonal competence 109-10

western view of Russian 165-6, 173-4

networks 12, 13

in the command economy 29-30, 33

reliance on 142

and reputation 14

role of 171-3, 178, 184-5, 220, 223

and trust 8-10

outgroup 129, 154-5

causes of perceptions of 154

changes in 221

and ghetto mentality 186, 205

and interpersonal competence 155

and language 137, 154

and Moose joint venture 154-5

lack of integration 133-6

perceptions 130-1

and social habits 136-7

western experiences 132-3

and Russian perceptions 163

as trust determinant 19

and trust development 208, 209

and western frustrations 129

participant observation 37

partner choice 167

and trust 14, 15, 157

paternalism 162, 183

Peng, M W 24, 156

and networks 9

perestroika 26

personal relationships

importance of 84, 110-12, 113, 149, 174, 180, 205, 223

role of 184-5

and staff recruitment 112-13, 173

and trust development 194

politics, fluidity of 85

Powell, WW 10, 12, 181

prepayment 69-70, 76

privatisation 27, 216, 219

process-based trust 190, 195, 204, 209

productivity 32

promise-keeping, and interpersonal

competence 114, 115-16, 170-1, 178

Puffer, S M 25, 29, 32-4

Putin, Vladimir 215, 217

Putnam, R D 7

Raiser, M 29

recruitment, and personal relationships 112-13, 173

regulation, see bureaucracy

Reineke, R 164, 188

relationship building 111, 114, 115-16, 150, 194

relationships

cross-cultural 24

and trust 11-12

workplace 110-12

see also personal relationships

reputation

and informal networks 14

and trust relationship 13-14, 157

research methodology

data analysis 37-9

data collection 36-7

Moose case study 40-5

data-gathering 45-9

informal environment 43-4

meetings 44-5

social interaction 42-3

participant observation 37

qualitative approach 35

strengths and weaknesses 39-40

western bias 40, 42

resilient trust 17, 193-4, 195

responsibility, avoidance of 116-18

retailing, and service culture 99

Ring, P S, trust model 17

risk, and east-west business ventures 62-3, 157, 158-9, 177, 219, 221

ritual behaviour, and interpersonal

competence 115, 151

Russia

cultural differences 22-3

dual society 27-8

economic growth 215

economic recovery 215-16

financial crisis (1998) 27, 62, 214-15

institutional environment 15

investment in

advantages 22, 25

changes in 215, 218

and commitment 57

context of 23-4, 28-34

disadvantages 22

requirements for 25-6

and risk 62-3, 157,158-9, 177, 219, 221

western motives 55-6

market reform 27-8, 216, 217 impact of 54-5, 60

new entrepreneurs 216-17, 219, 220

and rejection of western methods 169-70

Soviet legacy

collectivism 31-3, 171, 222

command economy 28-9

hierarchy 30-1

networks 29-30

technocrats 28, 106

and United States 33-4

and xenophobia 33-4

Sako, M 6, 187-8

Salmi, A157

Sartre, Jean-Paul 10

Schmitz, H 8

service culture, and functional competence 98-9, 100, 163-4

Shekshnia, S V 32, 157, 164, 166, 168-9, 199-200, 207

skills transfer 95, 145-6, 147, 205, 206

social capital

increases with use 10

and lack of trust 171

social interaction

and interpersonal competence 115

and outgroup perceptions 136-7

and trust 183, 192

social norms, and trust 10, 12-13, 19, 181-2

society, and trust 7-8

Solomon, RC 6, 10, 11, 157, 204

Soviet Union

downfall of 27

networks in 9

and western investment 26-7

see also Russia, Soviet legacy

strategic alliances, see international strategic alliances (ISAs)

Sztompka, P, and civilisational incompetence 8

taxation system

as investment obstacle 82, 142, 158

reform of 217

and western investment 25

technical competence, see functional competence

technocrats 28, 106, 148, 160-1

telecommunications, and western investment 25-6

training, and functional competence 101-2, 166

transportation systems, and western investment 26

trust

and bad-faith 10

bases of 190, 193

concept of 4-5

and credible deterrent 14-15

and culture 4, 7

definition 5-6, 7, 11-15, 157, 182, 219

development model 209-13

dynamic nature of 11, 193-4, 219

and economic success 7, 8

and expectations 11, 12, 157

and external environment 61-3, 70-1, 158-9, 183-4, 219, 223

and globalisation 4, 203

high and low options 186-7

increases with use 10

and international business 4

and international strategic alliances 4-5, 182, 203-4

interpersonal 21, 220-1

iterative models 194-6

multidimensionality of 11, 39, 157, 204, 212

and networks 8-10

and partner choice 14, 15

personal 25, 156, 157, 171, 185

and reputation 13-14

research on 6-7, 156-8, 204

social constitution of 182-4

and social norms 10, 12-13, 19, 181-2

in society 7-8

sociological model of 188-9

'static' models of 191-3

and uncertainty 12, 182

see also research methodology

trust determinants 15-19, 157, 212

application of 196-9, 205-7, 212

dynamic nature of 142

multidimensionality of 141

multiple bases of 39

and trust development model 209-13

see also functional competence;

interpersonal competence; local

competence; monitoring; motives; outgroup

trust guardians 185-6, 205

trustworthiness, and relationship building 114, 115-16

Tullar, W L 24

uncertainty, and trust 12

see also risk

United States, Russian attitude towards 33-4, 130

Van de Ven, A H 19

Van Maanen, T 49

Vlachoutsicos, C 31, 222

Walker, G 19

weather, impact of 72

Weigert, A 181, 188-9, 193

work ethic 163-4

World Economic Forum 215

xenophobia 33-4

Yeltsin, Boris 217

youth

and changing attitudes 179

and functional competence 99-101, 164-5

Yugin, Oleg 216

Zakana, Y, on cultural explanations 4

Zucker, L G 190-1

on definition of trust 6

and expectations 12

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