Index

Numbers

2.4GHz ISM band

Bluetooth low energy using, 45

overview of, 54

at Physical Layer, 29

transmit power, 5657

3-Wire UART, HCI physical interface, 132134

24-bit CRC, Bluetooth low energy. see CRC (cyclic redundancy check)

32-bit MIC, Bluetooth low energy. see MIC (message integrity check)

128-bit UUIDs (Bluetooth Base UUIDs), 190191

10101010 packet sequence, transmitter tests, 6364

11110000 packet sequence, transmitter tests, 6364

A

Abstract state, 182183

Abstraction, service-oriented architecture, 23

Access address

Link Layer connections, 95

packet structure, 3031, 8081

test packet format, 63

Access permissions, attribute database, 194

Acknowledgement

of data packet, 101

optimizing for low power, 127

Action, requesting for command packets, 136

Active scanning

in device discovery procedure, 257, 283285

HCI, 152153

Link Layer state machine, 72

overview of, 72

receiving broadcast data, 93

Active state mode, 3-Wire UART, 6364, 133

Adaptive frequency hopping

Bluetooth low energy design, 8

channel map, 9798

data channels used with, 30

defined, 9

Link Layer connection process, 9394, 9798, 111112

Link Layer robustness, 120122

managed by master, 14

optimizations for low power, 127

overview of, 8889

ADV_DIRECT_IND advertising packets, 8182, 266267

ADV_IND advertising packets, 8182, 267

ADV_NONCONN_IND advertising packets, 82, 266

ADV_SCAN_IND advertising packets, 82, 266

Advanced Encryption System. see AES (Advanced Encryption System)

Advertisers, defined, 1415

Advertising

access address, packet structure, 8081

broadcasting data with, 4243

data, 273

events, 9092

formatting data when broadcasting, 263

Host/Controller Interface, 148150

initial discovery using devices for, 256257

interval, 90

presence detection using, 4142

Advertising channels

access addresses for, 8081

advertising packets as transmitted on, 76

in connection state, 74

finding devices with, 90

in Link Layer, 3031

overview of, 8487

reducing number to reduce power consumption, 70

in scanning state, 72

used by devices in broadcast mode, 263

Advertising packets

broadcasting data with, 93, 148150

finding devices, 9092

GAP connection modes, 266267

GAP connection procedures, 268269

HCI connections to white lists, 155

header contents, 8182

length field, 83

overview of, 76

peripheral connectability, 300301

Advertising state

entering connection state from, 73

entering slave substate from, 74

nonconnectable advertising device in, 92

optimizing peripherals for low power, 304306

overview of, 71

AES (Advanced Encryption System)

calculating MIC, 107109

HCI controller setup, 145146

overview of, 105106

security features, 244

starting encryption for connections, 114

AFH. see adaptive frequency hopping

Alert Level characteristic, 288290

Algorithms, scheduling, 75

Alternate MAC PHY (AMP), Bluetooth version 3.0, 3

AM (amplitude modulation) radio, 5051

AMP (Alternate MAC PHY), Bluetooth version 3.0, 3

Amplitude modulation (AM) radio, 5051

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK), digital modulation, 52

Analog modulation, 4951

Appearance characteristic, GAP Service, 276277, 284

Application data rate, radio systems, 51

Application Errors response, 231

Application layer architecture

characteristics, 3637

defined, 36

profiles, 3738

services, 37

three-chip solution, 3940

two-chip solution, 3940

Architectural paradigms, concepts, 2025

Architecture

application layer, 3638

Bluetooth, 2728

Bluetooth low energy design as, 9

controller, 2731

host, 3236

stack splits, 3840

ASK (amplitude-shift keying), digital modulation, 52

Assembly, by multiplexing layers, 170

Asymmetric design concept, 1415

ATM networks, as multiplexing layers, 170

Atomic operations and transactions, 197198

Atomic services, 34

Attribute database

accessing attributes, 196197

exposing services to peripherals, 301302

overview of, 192193

permissions, 194195

Attribute handles

Find By Type Value Request/response, 222223

Find Information Request/response, 221222

Invalid Handle error, 228229

overview of, 189190

Read By Type Request/response, 223

Read Request including, 224

Attribute Not Found error, 230

Attribute Not Long error, 230

Attribute Profile, 199

Attribute Protocol

attribute client using, 192

Bluetooth low memory using only, 14

channel identifier for, 172

control points, 183

creation of, 179

error responses, 228231

Exchange MTU Request, 221

exposing state with, 1617

Find By Type Value Request, 222223

Find Information Request, 221222

Generic Attribute Profile vs., 231

Handle Value Indication, 228

Handle Value Notification, 227228

host architecture, 3334

overview of, 217219

Prepare Write Request and Execute Write Request, 226227

protocol messages, 219220

Read Blob Request, 224

Read By Group Type Request, 225

Read By Type Request, 223

Read Multiple Request, 224

Read Request, 224

in service-oriented architecture, 25

Signed Write Command, 225226

state machines, 183185

Write Command, 225

Write Request, 225

Attribute Protocol Layer

asymmetric design at, 1415

security protection at, 16

Attribute types Find By Type Value Request/response, 222223

Find Information Request/response, 221222

fundamental, 192

overview of, 190191

Unsupported Group Type error, 231

Attribute value(s)

attribute permissions applying to, 194

Characteristic Descriptor, 192

Characteristic Type UUID, 192

Find By Type Value Request/response, 222223

Handle Value Indication, 228

Handle Value Notification, 227228

Invalid Attribute Value Length error, 230

overview of, 191

Prepare Write Request and Execute Write Request, 226227

Read Blob Request, 224

Read By Type Request/response, 223

Read Multiple Request, 224

service UUIDs, 191

units, 191

Attributes

accessing, 196197

atomic operations and transactions, 197198

attribute handle, 189190

Attribute Protocol. see Attribute Protocol

attribute type, 190191

attribute value, 191193

characteristics, 210217

grouping, 199

overview of, 179

peripheral design optimizing, 311312

permissions, 194195

structure of, 189

Attributes, background to

data, data, everywhere. and, 180181

data and state, 181182

kinds of state, 182183

protocol proliferation is wrong, 180

services and profiles, 185189

state machines, 183185

Attributes, services

combining services, 204205

extending services, 201203

including services, 209210

overview of, 199201

plug-and-play client applications, 207208

primary or secondary, 205207

reusing another service, 203204

service declaration, 208209

Authentication

attribute database permissions as, 194195

authorization vs., 195

Bluetooth low energy and, 115

in bonding process, 259

central devices initiating bonding via, 292293

concept of, 241242

data channel, 30

encrypted packet, 104

Insufficient Authentication error, 229

integrity via, 243

pairing procedure, 250251

resolving signatures for, 225226, 247

Authorization

Insufficient Authorization error, 229

security and, 242243

Authorization permissions, attribute database, 195

Auto-connection establishment procedure, GAP, 267268

Autonomy, service-oriented architecture, 24

Ax encryption blocks, encrypting payload data, 106

B

Bandwidth, classic Bluetooth and, 3

Basic Rate (BR), original Bluetooth, 3

Batteries

lowering cost with button-cell, 56

monitoring in connectionless model, 44

Behavior

application layer services and, 37

combining services, 204205

extending services, 201203

primary vs. secondary services and, 205207

profiles and, 3738, 185

reusing another service and, 203204

service characteristics and, 200201

services and, 3436

BER (bit error rate), receiver sensitivity, 58

B-frame format, 32

Binary FSK (frequency-shift keying), digital modulation, 52

Bit error rate (BER), receiver sensitivity, 58

Bit errors

CRC detecting odd numbers of, 84

protection against, 16

Bit order

access address and, 8081

packet structure and, 79

preamble and, 7980

Bit rate, optimizing for low power, 125126

Bits, defined, 51

Block counter, encrypting payload data, 106107

Bluetooth classic, fixed and connection-oriented channels, 170171

Bluetooth classic vs. low energy

compatibility with device types, 6

connectionless model, 4344

overview of, 34

power consumption, 8

services and profiles, 185189

Bluetooth low energy, overview

concepts. see concepts

design goals, 4, 78

device types, 6

low cost of, 45

single-mode devices, 34

terminology, 910

Bluetooth Qualification Administrator (BQA), 317

Bondable mode, GAP, 270

Bondable procedure, GAP, 270

Bonding

central devices using, 292293

controlling connectability of peripherals, 301

GAP defining device, 36

long-term relationships and, 259

modes and procedures for, 270

optimizing peripherals for low power, 304306

profile security, 296297

BQA (Bluetooth Qualification Administrator), 317

BR (Basic Rate), original Bluetooth, 3

BR/EDR Not Supported flag, advertising data, 274

Broadcast Flag, HCI data packets, 138139

Broadcaster role, GAP, 261

Broadcasting data

advertising state for, 71

HCI, 148153

new wireless model for, 4243

overview of, 9293

Server Characteristic Configuration Descriptor for, 214215

Broadcasting model

active scanning, 152153

advertising, 148150

defined, 148

passive scanning, 150152

peripherals that only broadcast, 299300

Brute-force checking, private addresses, 261

Buffer sizes, HCI controller setup, 142143

Bulk data USB packets, HCI, 134

Button-cell batteries

concept of, 1112

lowering cost of Bluetooth low energy, 56

short duration bursts of, 13

single-mode devices designed for, 6

Bytes, packet structure, 79

C

Calibration, of controller in Direct Test Mode, 62

Categories, of qualification tests, 318319

CCM (Counter with Cipher Block Chaining-Message Authentication Code Mode), 106

Cell phones

dual-mode controllers for, 6

marketing concept for, 19

two-chip solutions on, 3940

Central devices

background of, 283

bonding, 292293

building generic clients, 287288

changing services, 293294

connecting to devices, 285286

controlling connectability of peripherals, 301

discoverability of peripherals, 283285, 301

implementing profiles, 294297

interacting with services, 288292

understanding, 286

Central role, GAP, 262

Changed services, central devices, 293294

Channel identifiers, L2CAP, 172173

Channel map

HCI advertising, 150

HCI connection management, 159160

Link Layer, 85

Link Layer connection process, 9798

Channel map, adaptive frequency hopping

Link Layer connections, 94, 9798, 111112

Link Layer robustness, 120122

overview of, 8889

Channels

Bluetooth classic using narrow, 55

Bluetooth low energy using radio, 56

HCI interface, 135

L2CAP. see L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol)

UART transport, 132133

Channels, Link Layer

adaptive frequency hopping, 8889

determining advertising vs. data packets, 76

frequency hopping, 87

overview of, 3031, 8485

understanding, 8487

Characteristic Aggregation Format Descriptor, 217

Characteristic Descriptors, attribute value, 192

Characteristic Extended Properties Descriptor, 214

Characteristic Presentation Format Descriptor, 215217, 287

Characteristic Type UUID, 192

Characteristic User Description descriptor, 214

Characteristic Value Reliable Writes procedure, 237

Characteristic(s)

application layer, 3637

central device discovery, 286

central device interaction with services, 288289

combining services, 204205

declaration of, 211213

descriptors on, 214217

discovering with Read By Type Request, 223

discovery and configuration of services, 258259

discovery on initial connection, 258

exposing services to peripherals, 302303

extending services, 201203

GATT client-initiated procedures for, 235238

GATT discovery procedures for, 234235

grouping, 199

optimizing peripheral attributes, 310311

overview of, 210211

peripheral devices, 302303

primary vs. secondary services, 205207

profiles discovering and using, 296

reusing another service, 203204

services as grouping of, 37, 199200

value of, 213

Chips, defined, 51

Ciphertext, encryption text, 105

Classes, object-oriented programming, 199200

Clear to send (CTS), 5-wire UART transport, 132

Client Characteristic Configuration Descriptor

notifications and indications, 292

overview of, 214

profiles, 296

Client Preferred Connection Parameters characteristic, 285286

Client-initiated procedures, GATT

overview of, 235

reading characteristic values, 235236

reading/writing characteristic descriptors, 238

writing characteristic values, 236238

Clients, building generic, 287288

Client-server architecture

asymmetric design of, 1415

attribute database and, 192193

attribute permissions, 194195

Attribute Protocol messages, 33

concept of, 1718

data concept, 181182

as paradigm for Bluetooth low energy, 2021

profiles and services in, 186189

state-based model for, 17

Clock accuracy, Link Layer connection process, 98

CMAC algorithm, signing of data, 252

CMOS (Complimentary Metal on Silicon), 124125

Command Complete event, HCI

channel map update, 159

command flow control, 139140

encryption, 145146

event packets, 137138

reading device address, 141142

reading supported features, 143144

reading supported states, 144145

resetting controller to known state, 141

setting random address, 147

white lists, 147

Command flow control, HCI, 139140

Command not understood reason code, command reject command, 174175

Command packets, HCI, 135137

Command reject command, LE signaling channel, 174175

Command Status event

enabling command flow control, 139140

encrypting data packets while connected, 161162

HCI event packets, 138

HCI feature exchange, 160

Commands

Attribute Protocol, 218219

connection, 137

controller state, 136

Direct Test Mode, 6568

as exceptions to transaction rules, 197

requesting specific action, 136

Company identifier, version information, 118

Compliance folder, testing and qualification, 317318

Complimentary Metal on Silicon (CMOS), 124125

Component subsystem product type, 315316

Composability, service-oriented architecture, 24

Concepts

architectural paradigms, 2025

asymmetric design, 1415

button-cell batteries, 1112

client-server architecture, 1718

connectionless model, 1920

design for success, 1516

everything has state, 1617

memory is expensive, 1314

modular architecture, 1819

one billion is a small number, 19

targeting new market segments, 11

time is energy, 1213

Confidentiality

ensuring with encryption, 104

security concept of, 243

CONNECT_REQ, advertising packet, 82

Connectable advertising state, peripherals, 304307

Connectable directed advertising, 149

Connectable modes, GAP

direct-connectable, 266267

nonconnectable, 266

overview of, 266

undirected-connectable, 267

Connectable undirected advertising, 148

Connection events

determining instant by counting, 112

Link Layer connection process, 9697

optimizing for low power by subrating, 128130

optimizing for low power with

single-channel, 127128

sleep clock accuracy in connection process, 98

Connection handle

controlling connections with, 137

HCI interface, 135

labeling HCI data packets with, 138139

LE Connection Complete event, 155

Connection interval, optimizing peripherals, 308309

Connection management. see HCI connection management

Connection parameter update request command, LE signaling channel, 175177

Connection parameter updates, Link Layer, 109111

Connection Signature Resolving Key. see CSRK (Connection Signature Resolving Key)

Connection state, Link Layer state machine, 7374

Connectionless model

achieving with L2CAP layer for. see L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol)

new wireless model enabling, 4344

overview of, 1920

Connection-oriented model

channel identifiers for, 172

connectionless model vs., 4344

Internet built around, 45

Connections

controlling, 137

establishing initial device, 258

initiating from central devices, 285286

peripheral devices, 301

reconnected, 260

Connections, creating at Link Layer

access address, 95

channel map, 9798

connection events, 9697

CRC initialization, 95

initiating state for, 72

overview of, 3031

sleep clock accuracy, 98

transmit window, 9596

understanding, 9394

Connections, initiating in HCI

canceling, 156157

HCI initiating connections to devices, 156

overview of, 153154

to white list, 154155

Connections, managing Link Layer

adaptive frequency hopping, 111112

connection parameter update, 109111

feature exchange, 118

offline encryption, 130

overview of, 109

restarting encryption, 115116

starting encryption, 112115

terminate procedure, 118119

version exchange, 117118

Connections, optimizing peripherals for low power

bonding, 306

connectable advertising, 306307

connected, 307309

directed advertising, 307

discoverable advertising, 305

overview of, 303305

stay connected or disconnect, 309310

Consistency check, starting new project, 316317

Continuation messages, LLID, 100101

Control endpoint, USB interface in HCI, 134

Control points, Attribute Protocol

central devices interacting with services, 289290

characteristics, 303

defined, 183

state machine, 183185, 290291

Controller

configuring state of, 136

device density design, 16

Direct Test Mode, 2930

dual-mode, 6

HCI. see HCI (Host/Controller Interface)

Link Layer. see Link Layer

overview of, 2728

Physical Layer. see Physical Layer

three-chip solution, 3940

two-chip solution, 3940

Controller subsystem product type, 315316

Correlation of access address, 8081

Cost

design goal of low, 78

designing Bluetooth low energy for low, 46

memory is expensive concept, 1314

one billion is a small number concept, 19

Counter with Cipher Block Chaining-Message Authentication Code Mode (CCM), 106

CR2032 button-cell batteries, 1112

CRC (cyclic redundancy check)

3-Wire UARTs in HCI, 133

bit errors and, 16

calculating MIC, 107109

Link Layer connection process, 95

Link Layer robustness with strong, 122123

overview of, 84

packet structure, 3031, 84

Prepare/Execute Writes and, 198

Prepare Write Request and, 227

short range wireless standards, 8

too weak to be security measure, 243

Create New Project page, bluetooth.org, 315

CSRK (Connection Signature Resolving Key)

key distribution during pairing, 251

long-term relationships, 259

message authentication code, 226

overview of, 247

private addresses, 261

signing of data, 252

CTS (clear to send), 5-wire UART transport, 132

Current time, peripherals that only broadcast, 300

D

Data

packet structure, 3031

state vs., 181182

text packets transmitting, 6364

types in Bluetooth low energy devices, 180181

Data access address, packet structure, 8081

Data channels

adaptive frequency hopping, 8889

frequency hopping over time, 87

Link Layer and, 3031

placing, 8487

Data flow control, HCI interface, 140

Data packets

HCI interface, 138139

header contents, 8283

length field, 83

overview of, 76

starting encryption when connected, 161162

Data packets, sending

acknowledgement, 101

example of, 101104

header, 99

logical link identifier, 100101

more data, 101

overview of, 9899

sequence numbers, 101

Data rates

in classic Bluetooth vs. low energy, 34

optimizing for low power, 125126

radio systems vs. application, 51

Data types, advertising, 273276

DBm

calculating range, 5860

measuring receiver sensitivity, 5758

Debugging

HCI version exchange, 160161

version information for, 117

Declaration, characteristic, 211213

Declaration of Compliance (DoC), 313, 320321

Description field, Characteristic Presentation Format Descriptor, 216217

Descriptors, characteristic

discovering all, 234235

discovery, central device, 286

overview of, 214217

reading/writing, 238

Design

asymmetric, 1415

compliance folder containing information on, 318

goals, 78

lowering cost, 46

service-oriented architecture goals, 2125

for success, 1516

Development tool product type, 315316

Device address

HCI advertising parameters, 149150

HCI controller setup, 141142

Device density, designing controller, 1516

Device Name characteristic, GAP Service, 276, 284

Device Under Test. see DUT (Device Under Test)

Devices

asymmetric design concept, 1415

Direct Test Mode requirements, 6162

finding, 9092

Generic Access Profile for, 36

given tolerance of, 57

initial connection to, 156, 258

initial discovery procedure, 256257

new usage models for. see new usage models

profiles describing two or more, 3738

time is energy concept, 1213

types of, 6

types of data in Bluetooth low energy, 180181

Digital modulation, 5154

Digital radio, phase modulation in, 51

Digital television, 51

Direct advertising, 9192

Direct Test Mode

background of, 6162

controller architecture, 2930

hardware interface, 6567

transceiver testing, 6265

using HCI, 6768

Direct-connectable mode, GAP, 266267

Direct-connection establishment procedure, GAP, 269

Directed advertising, optimizing peripherals, 307

Discoverability

advertising state used for, 71

central device, 283285

Generic Access Profile defining device, 36

initial discovery, 256257

modes, 264265

overview of, 263264

peripheral devices, 300301

procedures, 265266

in service-oriented architecture, 2425

Discoverable advertising events, 82, 93

Discoverable advertising state, peripherals, 304306

Discovery procedures, GATT, 232235

DoC (Declaration of Compliance), 313, 320321

Documentation, authorization via, 242243

Dual-mode devices, 6

DUT (Device Under Test)

Direct Test Mode, 6162

hardware interface, 6567

receiver tests, 6465

transceiver tests, 62

transmitter tests for, 6364

Duty cycle, short packets optimizing, 125

Dynamic refreshing, memory, 1314

E

EDR (Enhanced Data Rate), Bluetooth version 2.0, 3

Encapsulation of services, 34

Encryption

AES, 105106

authentication via, 242

central device bonding using, 292293

data channel, 30

ensuring confidentiality, 243

HCI controller setup, 145146

HCI restarting, 163164

HCI starting, 161162

Insufficient Encryption error, 230

Insufficient Encryption Key Size error, 230

Link Layer restarting, 115116

Link Layer starting, 112115

Long-Term Key, 246

lowering overhead with, 126

message integrity check, 107109

offline, 130

overview of, 104105

payload data, 106107

security design and, 16

Short-Term Key, 246

Encryption Change event, HCI, 161, 163

Encryption engine, security, 244

Encryption Key Refresh Complete, HCI, 163164

End product type, 315316

Energy

life of button-cell batteries, 12

memory is expensive concept, 1314

time is, 1213

Enhanced Data Rate (EDR), Bluetooth version 2.0, 3

Error Response, Attribute Protocol, 228231

Errors

bit, 16, 58, 84

SDIO interface with low rates of, 135

types of responses, 228231

Ethernet, technologies increasing speeds of, 4

Event masks, HCI controller setup, 142

Event packets, HCI interface, 137138

Events, Direct Test Mode, 6568

Everything has state concept, 1617

Exchange MTU procedure, GATT, 232

Exchange MTU Request and Response, Attribute Protocol, 221

Execute Write Request, Attribute Protocol

characteristic descriptors procedure, 238

characteristic values procedure, 236

as exception to transaction rules, 198

overview of, 226

reliable writes procedure, 237

Extending services, 201203

External state, 182

F

Features

consistency check for new product, 316317

HCI connection management, 160

HCI controller setup, 143144

Link Layer control, 118

selecting for new product, 316

Filter policy, HCI, 150, 152

Filters

Bluetooth low energy vs. classic, 29

determining device discoverability, 257

Find By Type Value Request, Attribute Protocol, 222223, 230, 233

Find Information Request, Attribute Protocol, 221222, 230, 234235

Find Requests, accessing attributes, 196

Finite state machines, Attribute Protocol, 184185

Fixed channels, Bluetooth low energy supporting only, 171

Flags

advertising data, 273274

HCI data packets, 138139

Flags AD information

advertising data, 273274

discoverable modes and, 264265

discoverable procedures and, 265266

Flow control wires, 5-wire UART transport, 132

FM (frequency modulation) radio, analog, 5152

Formal contracts, service-oriented architecture, 22

Format

Bluetooth low energy requiring one frame, 3233

characteristic specification, 3738

test packet, 63

Format field

Characteristic Aggregation Format Descriptor, 217

Characteristic Presentation Format Descriptor, 215216

Frame rate, 51

Frequency

device tolerance and accuracy of, 57

optimizing drift with short packets, 124125

peripherals that only broadcast, 300

radio signal at Physical Layer, 2829

Frequency bands

agreements on allocation of, 51

Bluetooth low energy using radio channels, 5556

overview of, 54

Frequency hopping

adaptive. see adaptive frequency hopping

Bluetooth classic using, 55

data channels at Link Layer, 30

defined, 9

Link Layer connection process, 9798

overview of, 87

spread spectrum radio regulations vs., 29

Frequency modulation (FM) radio, analog, 5152

FSK (frequency-shift keying)

Bluetooth low energy using GFSK, 5455

in digital modulation, 52

MSK variant of, 53

using whitener with, 7779

Future-proof design, 1819

G

GAP (Generic Access Profile)

advertising data, 273276

attribute database including, 193

background, 255256

bonding and pairing process, 252

defined, 255

establishing initial connection, 258

exposing services to peripherals, 301302

generating private addresses, 106

host architecture, 36

initial discovery procedure, 256257

long-term relationships, 259

private addresses, 260261

reconnections, 260

roles, 261262

security modes, 270273

service characterization, 258259

GAP (Generic Access Profile), modes and procedures

bonding, 270

broadcast mode and observation, 263

connectability, 266269

discoverability, 263266

overview of, 262263

GAP Service, 276279, 284

Gateways

client-server architecture, 1718

device interaction with Internet, 4446

modular service architecture and, 19

GATT (Generic Attribute Profile)

characteristic discovery, 234235

client-initiated procedures, 235239

creation of, 179

defining flat structure of attributes, 199

discovering services, 232233

discovery procedures, 232

ensuring future-proof design, 18

forms of grouping, 200

as GAP Service, 276279

host architecture, 3436

mapping ATT PDUs to, 239

overview of, 231232

Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK), 2829, 5455

General advertising, 91, 93

General-connection establishment procedure, GAP, 268269

General-discoverable mode, 256257, 265266

Generic Access Profile. see GAP (Generic Access Profile)

Generic Attribute Profile. see GATT (Generic Attribute Profile)

Generic clients

building for central devices, 287288

Characteristic Presentation Format Descriptor and, 215217

defined, 215

enabling with GATT, 215

GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying), 2829, 5455

Global operations, 78, 54

Ground, 3-Wire UART transport, 132

Grouping

Read By Group Type Request, 225

services and characteristics, 199

services using service declaration, 208209

Unsupported Group Type error, 231

H

Handle Value Indication, Attribute Protocol, 228, 239

Handle Value Notification, Attribute Protocol, 227228, 238

Hardware interface, Direct Test Mode, 6567

Hash values, Identity Resolving Key, 246247

HCI (Host/Controller Interface)

active scanning, 152153

advertising, 148150

defined, 131

Device Under Test requirements, 61

Direct Test Mode using, 6768

initiating connections, 153157

overview of, 31

passive scanning, 150152

segmentation and reassembly, 170

HCI connection management

channel map update, 159160

connection update, 158

feature exchange, 160

initiating connections, 153157

restarting encryption, 163164

starting encryption, 161163

termination, 164165

version exchange, 160161

HCI controller setup

encrypting data, 145146

overview of, 140141

random numbers, 145

reading buffer sizes, 142143

reading device address, 141142

reading supported features, 143144

reading supported states, 144145

resetting to known state, 141

setting event masks, 142143

setting random address, 146147

white lists, 147148

HCI Encrypt command, private addresses, 261

HCI logical interface

command flow control, 139140

command packets, 135136

data flow control, 140

data packets, 138139

defined, 135

event packets, 137

HCI channels, 135

HCI physical interfaces

3-Wire UART, 132134

overview of, 131

SDIO, 134135

UART, 132

USB, 134

Header

data packet, 99

framed packet, 133

L2CAP packet, 173

packet structure, 3031, 8183

Hop value, frequency hopping, 87

Host, enabling presence detection, 4142

Host architecture

Attribute Protocol, 3334

attributes. see attributes

Generic Access Profile. see GAP (Generic Access Profile)

Generic Attribute Profile. see GATT (Generic Attribute Profile)

L2CAP. see L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol)

Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol, 3233

overview of, 32

security. see security

Security Manager, 33

three-chip solution, 3940

two-chip solution, 3940

Host subsystem product type, 315316

Host/Controller Interface. see HCI (Host/Controller Interface)

I

ICS (Implementation Conformance Statements), 316317

Identifiers, L2CAP channel, 171172

Identity

central devices discovering other device, 284

Identity Resolving Key and, 246247

Identity Resolving Key. see IRK (Identity Resolving Key)

IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth version 3.0, 3

IETF RFC 3610, encrypting payload data, 106

Immediate Alert Service, central devices, 290

Immutability, 200

Immutable encapsulation of services, 34

Imperial units, SI, 191

Implementation Conformance Statements (ICS), 316317

Include attributes, services, 209210

Include declaration, 233

Included services

discovering, 233

overview of, 209210

Read By Type Request searching for, 223

Indications

accessing attributes, 196197

Attribute Protocol, 218219

central devices interacting with services, 291292

Client Characteristic Configuration Descriptor for, 214

Handle Value Indication, 228

optimizing peripheral attributes, 310311

server-initiated GATT procedure for, 239

in service characterization, 259

Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band. see 2.4GHz ISM band

Inheritance, enabling changes to interfaces, 200

Initial connection procedure, 258

Initial discovery procedure, GAP, 256257

Initialization vector (IV), encryption, 114

Initiating connections

from central devices, 285286

HCI, 153157

Initiating state, Link Layer state machine, 73

Instant parameter, connection updates, 110111

Insufficient Authentication error, 229

Insufficient Authorization error, 229

Insufficient Encryption error, 230

Insufficient Encryption Key Size error, 230

Insufficient Resources error, 231

Integrity, security concept of, 243

Interfaces, object-oriented programming, 199

Internal state, 182185

International System of Units (SI), 191

Internet

client-server architecture, 1718

gateways. see gateways

Interoperability

Bluetooth classic/Bluetooth low energy, 6

connection-oriented problems, 4344

profile/service architecture and, 185189

Interpacket gap, optimizing for low power, 125

Invalid Attribute Value Length error, 230

Invalid CID in request reason code, 175

Invalid Handle error, attributes, 228229

Invalid Offset error, 229

Invalid PDU error, 229

IP (Internet Protocol) license, 45

IPv6 (Internet Protocol), 46

IRK (Identity Resolving Key)

key distribution during pairing, 251

long-term relationships, 259

overview of, 246247

saving during bonding for private addresses, 260261

ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band. see 2.4GHz ISM band

IV (initialization vector), encryption, 114

J

Just Works mode, TK value in, 245

K

Key distribution

pairing procedure, 251

security architecture, 15

Security Manager protocol for, 33

Keys

Connection Signature Resolving Key, 247

encrypting text with, 105

Identity Resolving Key, 246247

Long-Term Key, 246

as shared secrets, 245

Short-Term Key, 246

Temporary Key, 245246

L

L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol)

background to, 169171

Bluetooth low energy using, 179180

channels, 171172

defined, 169

host architecture and, 3233

LE signaling channel, 173177

optimizing peripherals for low power, 307309

packet structure, 172173

solving connection-oriented problems, 4344

LANs (local area networks), 2.4GHz ISM band rules, 54

Latency, resolving low, 129130

Layers

defined, 9

low power as design goal for, 78

LE Add Device To White List command, HCI, 147148, 154156

LE Advertising Report event, HCI, 152

LE Clear White List Size command, HCI, 147148

LE Connection Complete event, HCI, 155157

LE Connection Update command, HCI, 158

LE Connection Update Complete event, HCI, 158

LE Create Connection Cancel command, HCI, 157

LE Create Connection command, HCI, 154157

LE Long Term Key Request event, 162163

LE Rand command, HCI, 147

LE Read Advertising Channel Tx Power command, HCI, 150

LE Read Buffer Size command, HCI, 142143

LE Read Channel Map command, HCI, 159

LE Read Remote Used Features command, HCI, 160

LE Read Remote Used Features Complete event, HCI, 160

LE Read Remote Version Information command, HCI, 160161

LE Read Supported Features command, HCI, 143144

LE Read Supported States command, HCI, 144145

LE Read White List Size command, HCI, 147148

LE Remove Device From White List command, HCI, 147148

LE Set Advertising Data command, HCI, 150

LE Set Advertising Enable command, HCI, 150

LE Set Advertising Parameters command, HCI, 148150

LE Set Host Channel Classification command, HCI, 159

LE Set Random Address command, HCI, 147

LE Set Scan Enable command, HCI, 152

LE Set Scan Parameters command, HCI, 150

LE Set Scan Response Data command, HCI, 150

LE signaling channel, L2CAP

command reject command, 174175

connection parameter update request

command, 175177

overview of, 173174

LE Start Encryption command, 161162

Leakage current, button-cell batteries, 12

Length field

advertising data, 273

packet structure, 3031, 8283

Licensing

2.4GHz ISM band free of, 54

Bluetooth low energy IP, 5

Bluetooth low energy ISM band, 45

Limited-discoverable mode, devices

discoverable procedures, 265266

initial discovery, 256

overview of, 264265

peripherals, 300301

Link budget, calculating range, 5860

Link establishment mode, 3-Wire UART, 133

Link Layer

advertising mode in, 41

asymmetric design at, 14

broadcasting, 9293

channels, 8489

controller architecture, 3031

creating connections, 9398

encryption, 104109

finding devices, 9092

function of, 69

HCI. see HCI (Host/Controller Interface)

low power as design goal for, 7

managing connections, 109119

optimizing for low power. see optimization for low power

packet structure, 7984

packets, 7679

robustness, 120123

sending data, 98104

Link Layer state machine

advertising, 71

connection, 7374

multiple state machines, 7475

overview of, 6970

scanning, 72

standby, 7071

Link Loss Service, 288289

Link Power Management, 134

LL_CHANNEL_MAP_REQ, 111112

LL_CONNECTION_UPDATE_REQ, 109111

LL_ENC_REQ, 112113, 116

LL_ENC_RSP, 112113

LL_FEATURE_REQ, 118

LL_FEATURE_RSP, 118

LL_PAUSE_ENC_REQ, 115

LL_PAUSE_ENC_RSP, 115116

LL_START_ENC_REQ, 114

LL_START_RSP, 114115

LL_TERMINATE_IND, 119

LLID (logical link identifier), data packet header, 100101

Load balancing, client-server architecture, 21

Local area networks (LANs), 2.4GHz ISM band rules, 54

Local name advertising data type, 275

Logical interface. see HCI logical interface

Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol. see L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol)

Logical Link Control protocol, 180

Logical link identifier (LLID), data packet

header, 100101

Long-term relationships, bonding, 259

Loose coupling, service-oriented architecture, 2223

Low power

button-cell batteries for, 1112

as design goal, 78

lowering cost of Bluetooth low energy with, 56

optimizing for. see optimization for low power

Low power state mode, 3-Wire UART, 133

Lower-host controller interface, 31

LT (Lower Tester)

Direct Test Mode, 6162

receiver tests, 6465

transceiver tests, 62

transmitter tests, 64

LTK (Long-Term Key)

key distribution during pairing, 251

long-term relationships, 259

overview of, 246

private addresses, 261

starting encryption for connections, 112114

M

Man-in-the-middle attacks, 245246, 249250

Manufacturer-specific advertising data type, 276

Mapping

ATT PDUs to GATT procedures, 239

data broadcasting helping with, 4243

profiles to services, 3738

Market segments

one billion is a small number concept, 19

targeted by Bluetooth low energy, 11

Master connection substate, 7374

Masters

asymmetric design concept of, 15

defined, 9

Link Layer connection process, 9598

multiple state machine restrictions, 7475

Maximum transmission unit (MTU), Attribute Protocol, 221

Mbps (million bits per second), Bluetooth low energy transmission, 5455

MD (more data) bit, 101104

Memory

Attribute Protocol requiring very little, 34

cost of, 1314

Prepare Queue Full error and, 229230

single-chip solutions and, 39

Message authentication code, authentication signature, 226

Message integrity check. see MIC (message integrity check)

Metric units, SI, 191

MIC (message integrity check)

AES calculating, 105

encrypted packets including, 107109

encrypting payload data, 106107

Prepare/Execute Writes and, 198, 227

Million bits per second (Mbps), Bluetooth low energy transmission, 5455

Minimum-shift keying (MSK), 53, 55

Modems, technologies increasing speeds of, 4

Modes, GAP

bonding, 270

broadcast, 263

connectable, 266267

discoverability, 263265

overview of, 262

security levels and, 270273

Modular architecture concept, 1819

Modular service architecture, 1819

Modulation

analog, 4951

digital, 5154

overview of, 5455

Modulation index

Bluetooth low energy, 5455

digital modulation, 5253

radio signal, 29

More data (MD) bit, 101104

MSK (minimum-shift keying), 53, 55

MTU (maximum transmission unit), Attribute Protocol, 221

Multiple state machines, 7475

Multiplexing layer. see L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol)

N

Name, discovery of device, 257

NAT (network address translation), gateways, 45

NESN (next expected sequence number), 99, 101104

Network address translation (NAT), gateways, 45

New usage models

broadcasting data, 4243

connectionless model, 4344

gateways, 4446

presence detection, 4142

Next expected sequence number (NESN), 99, 101104

Next expected sequence numbers, 101104

NIST FIPS-197. see AES (Advanced Encryption System)

NIST Special Publication 800-38B, 247

Nokia, 5

Nonbondable mode, GAP, 270

Nonce, 106, 112113

Nonconnectable advertising events, 82, 93

Nonconnectable mode, GAP, 266

Nonconnectable undirected advertising, 149

Nondiscoverable mode, 264

Nonresolvable private addresses, 278

Notifications

accessing attributes, 196197

Attribute Protocol, 219

central devices interacting with services, 291292

Client Characteristic Configuration Descriptor for, 214

as exception to transaction rules, 197

Handle Value Notification, 227228

optimizing peripheral attributes, 310311

server-initiated GATT procedure for, 238

in service characterization, 259

Null modem, UART configuration, 132

Num HCI Command Packets parameter, command flow control, 139140

O

Object-oriented programming, 199

Objects, in object-oriented programming, 199

Observer role, GAP, 262

Offline encryption, 130

Offset, Invalid Offset error, 229

One billion is a small number concept, 19

Online resources, starting new project, 313

OOK (on-off keying), digital modulation, 5152

Optimization for low power

acknowledgement scheme, 127

high bit rate, 125126

low overhead, 126

overview of, 123124

peripheral design for attributes, 311312

peripheral devices, 303310

short packets, 124125

single-channel connection events, 127128

subrating connection events, 128130

Out Of Band algorithm, TK value in, 245

Overhead, optimizing for low power, 126

P

Packet Boundary Flag, HCI, 138139

Packet counter, encrypting payload data, 106

Packet overhead, application data rate and, 51

Packet reporting event, Direct Test Mode, 6768

Packet structure, Link Layer

access address, 8081

bit order and bytes, 7980

CRC, 84

header, 8183

length, 8283

overview of, 3031, 76

payload, 8384

preamble, 7980

Packets

advertising and data, 76

as building block of Link Layer, 76

CRC protecting against bit errors, 16

initiating, 73

optimizing with short, 124125

reducing memory requirements with small, 14

restricting devices to short, 13

structure of L2CAP, 172173

testing. see Direct Test Mode

whitening, 7779

Pairing

authentication of link, 242, 250251

and bonding, 252

central devices initiating bonding, 292293

exchange of information, 248250

key distribution, 251

overview of, 248

Security Manager protocol for, 33

Short-Term Key for encrypting during, 246

Temporary Key in, 245246

Pairing Failed message, 249, 251

Pairing Request message, 249250, 270

Pairing Response message, 249250

PAL (Protocol Adaptation Layer), Bluetooth low energy, 169170

PANs (personal area networks), 2.4GHz ISM band rules, 54

Parameters

configuring advertising, 148150

HCI connection management by updating, 158

HCI connections to white lists, 155

HCI passive scanning, 150152

initiating connections from central devices, 285286

Parity bit, UART, 132

Passive scanning

central devices discovering devices with, 283285

HCI, 150152

Link Layer state machine, 72

overview of, 72

receiving broadcast data, 93

Passkey Entry mode, TK value, 245

Pathloss

calculating link budget to determine range, 5860

central devices discovering devices, 284

Payload data

3-Wire UARTs in HCI, 133

AES encrypting, 105

encrypting, 106107

L2CAP packet structure, 172173

packet structure, 8384

PDUs, Attribute Protocol

Invalid PDU error, 229

mapping ATT PDUs to GATT procedures, 239

overview of, 219220

Peak current, button-cell batteries and, 12

Peripheral design

background of, 299

being connectable, 301

being discoverable, 300301

broadcast only, 299300

characteristics, 302303

exposing services, 301302

optimizing attributes, 311312

optimizing for low power, 303310

security, 303

Peripheral Preferred Connection Parameters characteristic, GAP Service, 279

Peripheral Privacy Flag, GAP Service, 277278

Peripheral role devices, GAP

connectable modes, 266269

discoverability in, 263264

discoverability modes, 264265

Permissions

attribute database, 194195

Attribute Protocol, 34

authorization via, 242243

profile security, 296

security for peripherals, 303

Personal area networks (PANs), 2.4GHz ISM band rules, 54

Phase modulation, 51

Physical bit rate, 51

Physical interfaces. see HCI physical interfaces

Physical Layer

asymmetric design at, 14

evolution of Bluetooth data rates, 3

low power design goal for, 7

Physical Layer, controller

analog modulation, 4951

architecture, 2829

background, 49

digital modulation, 5154

frequency band, 54

modulation, 5455

radio channels, 5556

range, 5860

receiver sensitivity, 5758

testing with Direct Test Mode, 2930

tolerance, 57

transmit power, 5657

Physical measurement, external state, 182

Piconet, 9

PIN (personal identification number), 104, 242, 244245

Plan, test, 317

Plug-and-play client applications, 207208

Power sensitivity, USB interface, 134

PRBS9 packet sequence, transmitter tests, 6364

PRD (Qualification Program Reference Document), compliance, 320

Preamble, packet structure, 3031, 7980

Prepare Queue Full error, 229230

Prepare Write Request, Attribute Protocol

overview of, 198

Prepare Queue Full error, 229230

reliable writes procedure, 237

working with, 226227

writing characteristic descriptors procedure, 238

writing characteristic values procedure, 236

Presence detection, new wireless model enabling, 4142

Primary services

defined, 37

discovering all, 232233

discovering with service UUID, 233

discovery, central device, 286

Find By Type Value Request, 223

grouping using service declaration, 208209

overview of, 3536

plug-and-play client applications, 207208

profile discovering for peer device, 295

secondary vs., 205207

Privacy

creating with resolvable private addresses, 36

Identity Resolving Key and, 246247

Peripheral Privacy Flag, 277278

primary goal of, 16

security concept of, 243244

Private addresses

AES generating, 105106

complications of advertising using, 260

defined, 260

GAP connection procedures, 268269

for privacy, 16

reconnection addresses as nonresolvable, 278

Procedures, GAP

bonding, 270

connectable, 267269

defined, 263

discoverable, 265266

observation, 263

types of, 263

Procedures, GATT

characteristic discovery, 234235

client-initiated, 235238

Exchange MTU, 232

mapping ATT PDUs to, 239

overview of, 231232

server-initiated, 238239

service discovery, 232233

Product information

compliance folder contents, 318

including in Declaration of Compliance, 320

Product types

combining components, 321

selecting features for new, 316

selecting for Bluetooth low energy projects, 315316

Profile subsystem product type, 315316

Profile Tuning Suite (PTS) testers, qualification testing, 318

Profiles

application layer, 3738

finding and using characteristics, 296

finding services, 295

generating test plan for, 317

modular service architecture for, 1819

security, 296297

selecting for new product, 316

understanding, 294295

Profile/service architecture

in Bluetooth classic, 185186

in Bluetooth low energy, 186189

Properties, characteristic, 211214

Protocol Adaptation Layer (PAL), Bluetooth low energy, 169170

Protocol messages, Attribute Protocol, 219220

Protocol testers, qualification testing, 318

Protocols

Bluetooth low energy, 179180

Bluetooth using Attribute Protocol. see Attribute Protocol

memory burdened with multiple, 14

PTS (Profile Tuning Suite) testers, qualification testing, 318

Q

QDID (Qualified Design Identifier)

combining components, 321

declaring compliance, 320

listing product, 321

qualifying design, 319320

Quadrature amplitude modulation, 51

Qualification program. see testing and qualification

Qualification Program Reference Document (PRD), compliance, 320

R

Race conditions, HCI, 157

Radio Band, 910

Radio channels

overview of, 5556

starting receiver tests, 64

starting transmitter tests, 6364

Radio signals

analog modulation and, 5051

controllers transmitting and receiving, 27

enabling presence detection, 4142

high bit rate for low power, 125

measuring path loss in, 58

at Physical Layer, 2829

short range issues, 8

widening of low energy, 29, 41

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, 4

Random addresses

HCI advertising parameters, 149150

HCI controller setup, 146147

Identity Resolving Key and, 246247

private addresses as, 260

Random numbers

authentication during pairing, 250251

HCI controller setup, 145

Long-Term Key using, 246

Short-Term Key generated

with, 246

whiteners as, 7779

Range, calculating, 5860

Read BD_ADDR command, device address, 141142

Read Blob Request, Attribute Protocol

Attribute Not Long error, 230

characteristic descriptors procedure, 238

multiple characteristic values procedure, 235236

overview of, 224

Read Buffer Size command, HCI controller, 142143

Read By Group Type Request, Attribute Protocol, 225, 230, 232233

Read By Type Request, Attribute Protocol

Attribute Not Found error, 230

discovering all characteristics of service, 234

discovering included services, 233

multiple characteristic values procedure, 236

overview of, 223

Read Characteristic Value by UUID procedure, central devices, 284

Read Multiple Request, Attribute Protocol, 224, 236

Read Not Permitted error, 229

Read only memory (ROM), single-chip solutions, 39

Read Request, Attribute Protocol

accessing attributes, 196

characteristic descriptors procedure, 238

multiple characteristic values procedure, 235236

overview of, 224

Read Supported Features command, HCI controller, 143144

Readable, access permission, 194

Readable and Writable, access permission, 194

Readable characteristics, 288

Readable state, 1617

Reason codes, command reject command, 174175

Receive data (RXD), UART/3-Wire UART transport, 132

Received signal strength (RSSI), central devices, 284

Receiver sensitivity, 5758

Receiver test command, Direct Test Mode, 66, 68

Receivers

in advertising state, 71

analog modulation and, 4951

asymmetric design of, 14

calculating range, 5860

time is energy concept of, 1213

transceiver tests, 6265

using whitener with FSK, 7779

Reconnected connections, 260

Reconnection Address, GAP Service, 278

References

combining services, 204205

extending services, 201203

reusing another service, 203204

services referencing other services, 200201

Relationships

accommodating between services, 35

central device discovery of, 286

central devices initiating bonding, 292293

creating permanently with Generic Access Profile, 36

profile service, 3738

Remapping process, adaptive frequency hopping, 8889

Replay attack protection

authentication via signatures, 242

encrypted packets, 105

Request Not Supported error, 229

Request to send (RTS), 5-wire UART transport, 132

Requests

Attribute Protocol, 218219

error responses to, 228231

Reset command, Direct Test Mode, 66, 68

Reset command, HCI controller, 141

Resolvable private addresses, 260261, 268269

Restarting encryption, HCI connections, 163164

Reusability

behaviors limiting, 37

of characteristics, 3738

in service-oriented architecture, 23

RF testers, qualification testing, 318

RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) tags, 4

Robustness, Link Layer, 120123

Roles

GAP, 261262

profile, 294295

ROM (read only memory), single-chip solutions, 39

RSSI (received signal strength), central devices, 284

RTS (request to send), 5-wire UART transport, 132

Rules

2.4 GHz ISM band, 54

access address, 81

Attribute Protocol, 3334

RXD (receive data), UART/3-Wire UART transport, 132

S

Scale, client-server architecture, 21

Scan Parameters Service, peripheral optimization, 309310

SCAN_REQ, advertising packet, 82

SCAN_REQ packets, HCI active scanning, 152

SCAN_RSP, advertising packet, 82

SCAN_RSP packets, HCI active scanning, 152

Scannable undirected advertising, 149

Scanners

asymmetric design of, 1415

enabling presence detection, 4142

initial discovery process, 256257

at Link Layer, 3031

receiving advertising events via, 91

Scanning state, Link Layer state machine, 72

Scatternets, 75

SDIO interface, HCI, 134135

Secondary services

defined, 37

grouping using service declaration, 208209

including services, 209210

overview of, 3536

primary vs., 205207

Secure Simple Pairing feature, 248250

Security

asymmetric design of, 15

authentication, 241242

authorization, 242243

bonding, 252

client-server gateway model of, 18

confidentiality, 243

Connection Signature Resolving Key, 247

designing for success, 16

encryption engine, 244

Identity Resolving Key, 246247

integrity, 243

Long-Term Key, 246

overview of, 241

pairing, 248251

peripheral devices, 303

privacy, 243244

profile, 296297

shared secrets, 244245

Short-Term Key, 246

signing of data, 252253

Temporary Key, 245246

Security Manager

Bluetooth low energy using, 179180

channel identifier for, 172

host architecture, 33

signing of data, 106

Segmentation, by multiplexing layers, 170

Selective-connection establishment procedure, GAP, 269

Sequence numbers (SNs), 101104

Server Characteristic Configuration Descriptor, 214215

Server-initiated procedures, GATT, 238239

Service Changed characteristic, 294

Service data advertising data type, 276

Service solicitation advertising data type, 275

Service UUIDs

discovering primary service, 233

Include attributes, 209210

overview of, 191

service advertising data types and, 274275

service declaration, 209

Service-oriented architecture

abstraction, 23

autonomy, 24

composability, 24

discoverability, 2425

formal contract, 22

loose coupling, 2223

as paradigm for Bluetooth low energy, 2122

reusability, 23

statelessness, 2324

Services

advertising data types for, 274

application layer, 37

central device changing, 293294

central device interaction with, 288292

central device’s client remembering/caching between connections, 293294

combining, 204205

defining with profile roles, 294295

discovery at initial connect, 258

extending, 201203

filtering advertising data based on, 257

GATT characteristic discovery procedures for, 234235

GATT discovery procedures for, 232233

generating test plan for, 317

Generic Attribute Profile and, 3436

grouping, 199, 208209

mapping profiles to, 3738

modular architecture for, 1819

optimizing peripheral

attributes, 310311

peripheral design for exposing, 301302

plug-and-play client applications, 207208

primary or secondary, 205206

profiles discovering, 185189, 295296

reusing, 203204

security for peripherals, 303

selecting for new product, 316

Session based, connection-oriented model of Internet, 45

Session key diversifiers (SKD), 114

Session key (SK), 112115

Shared secrets

authentication via, 241242

in bonding process, 259

Connection Signature Resolving Key, 247

encrypting data packets while connected using, 161162

Identity Resolving Key, 246247

keys as, 245

Long-Term Key, 246

overview of, 244245

Security Manager for key distribution, 33

Short-Term Key, 246

Temporary Key, 245246

Shift register, 77

Short packets, for low power, 124125

Short range wireless standards, 8

Short-Term Key (ST), 245246

Short-wave radio, 51

SI (International System of Units), 191

SIG (Special Interest Group), Bluetooth

testing and qualification requirements, 313316

UnPlugFest testing events, 15

Signaling channel, channel identifier for, 172

Signaling MTU exceeded reason code, command reject command, 175

SignCounter

authentication signature, 226

Connection Signature Resolving Key, 247

signing of data, 252253

Signed Write Command, Attribute Protocol, 225226, 237238

Signing of data

AES, 105

authentication via, 242

Connection Signature Resolving Key, 247

security and, 252253

Silicon manufacturing processes, short packets optimizing, 124125

Simultaneous LE And BR/EDR To Same Device Capable, 274

Single-channel connection events, 127128

Single-chip solutions, stack split, 3839

Single-mode devices, 6

SK (session key), 112115

SKD (session key diversifiers), 114

Slave connection interval range, 275

Slave connection substate, 7374

Slave latency

connecting to devices, 285

connection events and, 9697, 129130

connection parameter update request and, 175176

connection update request, 111

controlling in peripherals, 308309

defined, 129

optimizing peripherals for low power, 308309

Slaves

in asymmetric design, 1415

connection parameter update request and, 109111

defined, 10

Link Layer connection process, 9598

multiple state machine restrictions, 7475

Sleep clock accuracy, Link Layer connection process, 98

Sleep message, 3-Wire UARTs in HCI, 133134

SLIP, framing packets in 3-Wire UART, 133

SNs (sequence numbers), 101104

Spark-gap radios, 4950, 51

Special Interest Group. see SIG (Special Interest Group), Bluetooth

Speeds, technology almost always increasing, 34

Spread spectrum radio regulations, 29

ST (Short-Term Key), 245246

Stack splits architecture, 3840

Standby state, Link Layer, 7071

Start messages, LLID, 100

Starting encryption, HCI connection management, 161163

Starting new project, qualification program, 313316

State

configuring controller, 136

in connectionless model, 44

in connection-oriented systems, 4344

data vs., 181182

HCI advertising filter policy, 150

HCI controller setup, 141, 144145

kinds of, 182

Link Layer. see Link Layer state machine

optimizing peripherals for low power, 304305

State machines

Attribute Protocol, 183185

central devices interacting with services, 290291

Link Layer. see Link Layer state machine

representing current internal state, 182

Statelessness

of Attribute Protocol, 34

in service-oriented architecture, 2324

Stop bit, UART, 132

Subrated connection events, 128130

Sub-version number, version information, 118

Symbols, 51

T

TCP connection, as session-based, 45

Temperature, button-cell batteries, 12

Temporary Key (TK), 245246, 250

Termination

error response resulting in request, 231

HCI connections, 164165

Link Layer connections, 118119

Test end command, Direct Test Mode, 66, 68

Test equipment product type, 315316

Test Plan Generator (TPG) project, 313315, 317

Test status event, Direct Test Mode, 6768

Testing and qualification

Bluetooth process for, 314

combining components, 321

consistency check, 316317

creating compliance folder, 317318

declaring compliance, 320

generating test plan, 317

listing, 321

overview of, 313

qualification testing, 318319

qualify your design, 319320

selecting features, 316

standardizing. see Direct Test Mode

starting project, 313316

Testing information, compliance folder contents, 318

Text strings, associating with characteristics, 214

Third-party attackers, compromising integrity, 243

Three-chip solutions, stack split, 40

Three-way handshake, encryption for connections, 113, 115

Time is energy concept, 1213

TK (Temporary Key), 245246, 250

Toggle command, state machines, 184185

Tolerance, 57

TPG (Test Plan Generator) project, 313315, 317

Transactions, atomic operations and, 197198

Transceiver testing, Direct Test Mode, 6265

Transmit (TX) power level advertising data type, 275, 284

Transmit power, 5657

Transmit window, Link Layer connections, 9596, 110111

Transmitter test command, Direct Test Mode, 66, 68

Transmitters

in advertising state, 71

analog modulation and, 4951

asymmetric design of, 14

calculating range, 5860

time is energy concept of, 1213

transceiver tests, 6265

Two-chip solutions, stack split, 3940

TX (transmit) power level advertising data type, 275, 284

TXD (transmit data), UART/3-Wire UART transport, 132

U

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter), HCI

3-Wire, 132134

Direct Test Mode, 61, 65

physical interface, 132

Undirected-connectable mode, GAP, 267

Unit UUIDs, 191

Units

Characteristic Presentation Format Descriptor, 216217

generic client, 287

Unlikely Error response, 230

UnPlugFest testing events, 15

Unsupported Group Type error, 231

Updates

adaptive frequency hopping, 111112

connection parameter, 109111

Upper-host controller interface, 31

URLs, client-server architecture, 2021

Usage models. see new usage models

USB physical interface, HCI, 134

UT (Upper Tester)

Direct Test Mode, 6162

receiver tests, 6465

transceiver tests, 62

UUIDs (Universally Unique Identifiers)

attribute types, 192

Bluetooth Base, 190191

characteristic, 212213, 236

characteristics at application layer labeled with, 3738

discovering all primary services, 233

Find Information Response and, 222

generic clients and, 287

identifying attribute type, 190

service declaration, 209

service UUIDs. see service UUIDs

unit UUIDs, 191

V

Validated testers, qualification testing, 318

Value handle, characteristic, 212

Values, characteristic

overview of, 213

reading, 235236

writing, 236238

Version exchange

HCI connection management, 160161

Link Layer connections, 117118

W

White lists

auto-connection establishment procedure, 267268

connectability of peripherals, 301

HCI advertising filter policy, 150

HCI controller setup, 147148

HCI initiating connection to device(s) in, 154156

HCI passive scanning filter policy, 152

Whitening, 7779, 81

Wibree technology, 5

Wi-Fi

adaptive frequency hopping remapping, 8889

defined, 10

Link Layer channels and, 8485

technologies increasing speeds of, 4

Window widening, 309

Wired infrastructure, problem of Internet design, 45

Wireless band, global operation design goals, 78

Woken message, 3-Wire UARTs in HCI, 134

Writable, access permission, 194

Writable characteristics, 288289

Writable state, 17

Write Command, Attribute Protocol

accessing attributes, 196

Signed Write Command, 225226

writing without response procedure, 237238

Write Request, Attribute Protocol

accessing attributes, 196

characteristic descriptors procedure, 238

characteristic values procedure, 236

overview of, 225

X

XML files

characteristic specifications, 302303

generic clients and, 287288

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