Kit for Chapter 15

The dhttp kit (http://udell.roninhouse.com/examples/dhttp-v2.tar.gz) installs by unzipping into any subdirectory on a Unix or NT box equipped with Perl 5. You’ll need CPAN’s DBI and a DBD datasource driver if you want to run the apps I’ve included with dhttp or try your own database-oriented apps. You’ll also need CPAN’s Net::NNTP for the HelpDesk (hd) app described in Chapter 9.

The dhttp distribution divides into the following three parts.

1: dhttp Top-Level Scripts

./dhttp

The main driver; starts the engine and load the apps

./code_synch

Demonstrates code replication

./data_synch

Demonstrates data replication

2: Engine Components

./lib/dhttp/Engine/Server.pm

The miniature HTTP server

./lib/dhttp/Engine/PubUtils.pm

Methods visible both to web clients and internal methods

./lib/dhttp/Engine/PrivUtils.pm

Methods visible only to internal methods

./lib/dhttp/Engine/edit_ file.htm

A system-level template for the Engine::PubUtils::do_edit_ file( ) method

3: Application Components

sfa (a sample contact manager)
./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa.pm

The sfa module

./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa/bios/.

Subdirectory for bios of contacts

./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa/sfa_company.htm

Template for the company pane

./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa/sfa_contacts.htm

Template for the contacts pane

./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa/sfa_multi_history.htm

Template for the contact-history pane

./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa/sfa_ave_company.htm

Template for forms to add, edit, or view a company record

./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa/sfa_add_contact.htm

Template for add-contact form

./lib/dhttp/Apps/sfa/sfa_add_history.htm

Template for add-contact-history form

HelpDesk
./lib/dhttp/Apps/hd.pm

The hd module

./lib/dhttp/Apps/hd/ticknums/.

Subdirectory for ticket numbers

./lib/dhttp/Apps/hd/home.htm

Template for home page

./lib/dhttp/Apps/hd/trouble.htm

Template for trouble-ticket form

./lib/dhttp/Apps/hd/trouble.msg

Template for trouble ticket as NNTP message

./lib/dhttp/Apps/hd/close.htm

Template for ticket-closing form

Jobs, ./lib/dhttp/Apps/jobs.pm

The jobs module

./lib/dhttp/Apps/jobs/jobs_ave_ job.htm

Template forms to add, view, or edit job records

Enabling dhttp Applications

The driver script includes commented-out sections for each of the three applications mentioned above: sfa, hd, and jobs:

#$main::sfa_dbh = DBI->connect('DBI:ODBC:SFA','','')  
#    or die ("sfa_dbh: cannot connect"); 
#use Apps::sfa; 
 
#$main::jobs_dbh = DBI->connect('DBI:ODBC:JOBS','','')  
#    or die ("jobs_dbh: cannot connect"); 
#use Apps::jobs; 
 
#$main::hd_dbh = DBI->connect('DBI:ODBC:HD','','')  
#    or die ("hd_dbh: cannot connect"); 
#use Apps::hd;

You can enable any or all of these applications. In this example, to enable sfa, you’d uncomment the first three lines, assuming (on NT) that the ODBC system data-source name (DSN) SFA corresponds to a working data source, which might simply be a .MDB file on the local machine, or else an SQL server on the local or some other machine.

Starting dhttp and Running Plug-ins

After unzipping dhttp into a home directory, you start it (on port 9191) like this:

perl -Ilib/dhttp dhttp 9191

To create the tables needed for the sfa plug-in, use a browser to request the URL http://host:port/sfa_makedb. To start the sfa plug-in, request the URL http://host:port/sfa_home. Follow a similar procedure for the jobs plugin: first http://host:port/jobs_makedb, then http://host:port/jobs_home.

Testing Code Replication

The example in Chapter 15, showed how the code_synch script, which is the root directory of the dhttp distribution, uses the engine’s do_update_sub method to update a method in the sfa module. To try this, make sure sfa is running, then adjust the host and port variables in the script and run code_synch.

Testing Data Replication

If you’re running two or more instances of the jobs plug-in, you can try the data replication example shown in Chapter 15. If, for example, dhttp is running on the hosts jon_linux and jon_nt, each with a live instance of jobs, then the $hosts structure in data_synch might look like this:

my $hosts =  
    { 
    jon_nt  =>  
        { 
        port    =>  9191, 
        conn    =>  'DBI:ODBC:JOBS', 
        dbuser  =>  '', 
        dbpw    =>  '', 
        datedelim => '#', 
        }, 
    jon_linux   =>  
        { 
        port    =>  9191, 
        conn    =>  $tc->escape('DBI:Solid:tcp 1313'), 
        dbuser  =>  'dba', 
        dbpw    =>  'dba', 
        datedelim => ''', 
        }, 
    };

When you run data_synch, it visits each of the hosts mentioned in $hosts and synchronizes the tables used by the jobs plug-in.

This mechanism depends on a special discipline observed by the jobs plug-in. Every URL generated by the module includes three elements: host, port, and user. We’ll see why host and port are needed in the next section on proxying and encryption. Here, let’s focus on why hd requires the user element.

Suppose you’re running dhttp on the host your_dhttp, and I’m running it on my_dhttp. That means that to edit my local database, I’ll do this:

http://my_dhttp:9191/jobs_home?host=my_dhttp&port=9191&user=jon

Likewise, to edit your local database, you’ll do this:

http://your_dhttp:9191/jobs_home?host=your_dhttp&port=9191&user=you

But suppose I need to work, remotely, in your database. In that case, I’ll do this:

http://your_dhttp:9191/jobs_home?host=your_dhttp&port=9191&user=jon

Because jobs threads user=jon through all subsequent interactions issuing from this URL, my edits in your database are stamped with my name and are distinct from your edits in your database, which are stamped with your name.

Testing Proxying and Encryption

Here’s an alternate way for me to edit your jobs database:

http://my_dhttp:9191/jobs_home?host=your_dhttp&port=9191&user=jon

In this case, I point my browser at my instance of dhttp, not yours. Noticing that the destination host (your_dhttp) differs from the source host (my_dhttp), the Engine::Server module switches into proxying and encryption mode. That is, my_dhttp uses web-client calls to relay the browser’s HTTP requests, in encrypted form, to your_dhttp, which decrypts the requests.

In this mode, the client instance of dhttp (proxying for my browser) includes the HTTP header Remote-Dhttp: my_dhttp:9191 with its requests. When the server instance notices this header, it encrypts its responses and sets the variable $main::other_hostname.

To support this mode, a dhttp plug-in application has to observe two rules. First, it has to thread the CGI variables host and port through all of its methods and HTML/JavaScript templates. Second, it has to call transmit( ) instead of print( ). Here is Engine::PrivUtils::transmit( ), which decides whether to send plain-text or encrypted responses:

sub transmit 
    { 
    my ($output) = @_; 
    if ($main::other_hostname ne '') 
        { 
        my $cipher = dhttp_encrypt($output,length($output)); 
        print escape("DHTTPCIPHER$cipher"); 
        } 
    else 
        { 
        print "$output"; 
        } 
    }

Basic Versus Advanced Encryption

The dhttp distribution includes only a basic, proof-of-concept form of encryption. It reverses strings, as in the following code.

sub dhttp_encrypt 
    { 
    my ($s) = @_; 
    my $rev = reverse($s); 
    return $rev; 
    } 
 
sub dhttp_decrypt 
    { 
    my ($s) = @_; 
    my $rev = reverse($s); 
    return $rev; 
    }

As mentioned in Chapter 15, you can instead use any symmetrical technique; for example, I have tested this scheme using Blowfish. Even so, the implementation was cryptographically naive. Because dhttp encrypts requests and responses a line at a time, it’s quite obvious which requests contain known strings like HTTP/1.0 and GET /sfa_home. And there are no provisions for secure key exchange.

The encrypting mode of dhttp is really intended only to suggest the possibilities inherent in a model of computing in which HTTP peers are pervasive and act simultaneously as servers and proxies.

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