Book Description

The Gold-Standard “Bible” for Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping: Extensively Updated for Working Teams’ Latest Advances

Long recognized as the most authoritative, practical, and comprehensive guide to structural mapping methods, Applied Three-Dimensional Subsurface Geological Mapping, Third Edition, has been thoroughly updated to reflect recent technical developments, with an emphasis on shale play basins, horizontal drilling, unconventional resources, and modern workflows.

The authors of this edition have more than a century of collective experience in hydrocarbon exploration and development, in major, large, independent companies throughout the world. In this long-awaited update, they present revised and new chapters on computer mapping, shale basin exploration, and prospect reserves and risk. They introduce key innovations related to shale reservoirs, hydraulic fracturing, and deviated, horizontal, and directional wells, along with expanded discussions of computer interpretations and mapping.

Throughout, the book links theory and practice based on fundamental geoscience principles. These principles will help you integrate all available geological, geophysical, and engineering data, to generate more reasonable and viable subsurface interpretations, and to construct maps that successfully identify reserves.

  • Master core principles and proven methods for accurate subsurface interpretations and mapping

  • Construct subsurface maps and cross-sections from well logs, seismic sections, and outcrop data

  • Work effectively with horizontal and directionally drilled wells and directional surveys

  • Use powerful well log-correlation techniques

  • Construct viable fault and horizon structure maps

  • Balance and interpret compressional, extensional, and strike-slip structures

  • Distinguish between the different structure styles and the characterization of growth structures

  • Understand isochore and isopach maps

This book is indispensable for every integrated working team, consisting of geologists, geophysicists, and engineers, that prepares subsurface geological interpretations and maps, as well as for every manager, executive, and investor who uses or evaluates prospects.

Register your book for convenient access to downloads, updates, and/or corrections as they become available. See inside book for details.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. About This eBook
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication Page
  6. Contents
  7. Forewords
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowledgments
    1. Reviewers
    2. Contributors
    3. Drafting
    4. Support Personnel
    5. Contributing Authors
    6. Special Recognition and Thanks from Daniel J. Tearpock
    7. Special Recognition and Thanks from Richard E. Bischke
    8. Special Recognition and Thanks from David C. Metzner
    9. Special Recognition and Thanks from James C. Brenneke
  10. About the Authors
    1. In Memoriam Daniel J. Tearpock
    2. Richard E. Bischke
    3. James C. Brenneke
    4. David C. Metzner
  11. Chapter 1. Introduction to Subsurface Mapping
    1. Textbook Overview
    2. The Philosophical Doctrine of Accurate Subsurface Interpretation and Mapping
    3. Mentors and Mentoring
    4. Types of Subsurface Maps and Cross Sections
  12. Chapter 2. Contouring and Contouring Techniques
    1. Introduction
    2. Three-Dimensional Perspective
    3. Calculation of Bed Dip
    4. Rules of Contouring
    5. Methods of Contouring by Hand
    6. Computer-Based Contouring Concepts and Applications
  13. Chapter 3. Measuring Depth, Directionally Drilled Wells, and Directional Surveys
    1. Introduction
    2. Vertical Wells
    3. Directionally Drilled Wells
    4. Application of Directionally Drilled Wells
    5. Common Types of Directionally Drilled Wells
    6. Directional Well Plan
    7. Directional Tools Used for Measurements
    8. Directional Survey Calculations
    9. Directional Survey Uncertainties
    10. Directional Well Plots
    11. Wells Without Directional Surveys
  14. Chapter 4. Log Correlation Techniques
    1. Introduction
    2. Electric Log Correlation Procedures and Guidelines
    3. Correlation Type Log
    4. Electric Log Correlation—Vertical Wells
    5. Electric Log Correlation—Directionally Drilled Wells
    6. Correlation of Vertical and Directionally Drilled Wells
    8. Electric Log Correlation—Horizontal Wells
    9. Computer-Based Log Correlation
    10. Repeated Section
    11. Estimating Restored Tops
    12. Unconformities
    13. Annotation and Documentation
  15. Chapter 5. Integration of Geophysical Data in Subsurface Mapping
    1. Introduction and Philosophy
    2. The Process
    3. Data Validation and Interpretation
    4. Data Extraction
    5. Some Final Thoughts on Seismic Mapping
  16. Chapter 6. Cross Sections
    1. Introduction
    2. Planning a Cross Section
    3. Structural Cross Sections
    4. Stratigraphic Cross Sections
    5. Problem-Solving Cross Sections
    6. Finished Illustration (Show) Cross Sections
    7. Correlation Sections
    8. Cross-Section Design
    9. Vertical Exaggeration
    10. Projection of Wells
    11. Cross-Section Construction Across Faults
    12. Three-Dimensional Views
    13. Cross-Section Construction Using a Computer
    14. Fault-Seal Analysis
    15. Chronostratigraphic Sections
  17. Chapter 7. Fault Maps
    1. Introduction
    2. Fault Terminology
    3. Definition of Fault Displacement
    4. Mathematical Relationship of Throw to Vertical Separation
    5. Fault Data Determined From Well Logs
    6. Fault Surface Map Construction
    7. Types of Fault Patterns
    8. Fault Data Determined from Seismic Information
    9. Growth Faults
    10. Directional Surveys and Fault Surface Maps
    11. Vertical Separation—Correction Factor and Documentation
  18. Chapter 8. Structure Maps
    1. Introduction
    2. Guidelines to Contouring
    3. Summary of the Methods of Contouring by Hand
    4. Contouring Faulted Surfaces
    5. Manual Integration of Fault and Structure Maps
    6. Fault Traces and Gaps—Shortcuts and Pitfalls
    7. Structure Map—Generic Case Study
    8. The Additive Property of Faults
    9. Integration of Seismic and Well Data for Structure Mapping
    10. Other Mapping Techniques
    11. Application of Contour Compatibility Across Faults
    12. Mapping Techniques for Various Tectonic Habitats
    13. Requirements For a Reasonable Structural Interpretation and Completed Maps
    14. Perched Water
  19. Chapter 9. Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data
    1. Introduction and Philosophy
    2. Planning an Effective Three-Dimensional Interpretation Project
    3. Fault Interpretation
    4. Horizon Interpretation
    5. Structure Mapping
    6. Depth Conversion
    7. Conclusion
  20. Chapter 10. Compressional Structures: Balancing and Interpretation
    1. Introduction
    2. Structural Geology and Balancing
    3. Mechanical Stratigraphy
    4. Classical Balancing Techniques
    5. Computer-Aided Structural Modeling and Balancing
    6. Locating Thrust Faults on Dip and Strike Lines
    7. Cross-Section Consistency
    8. Cross-Section Construction
    9. Depth-To-Detachment Calculations
    10. Nonclassical Methods
  21. Chapter 11. Extensional Structures: Balancing and Interpretation
    1. Introduction
    2. Origin of Hanging Wall (Rollover) Anticlines
    3. A Graphical Dip Domain Technique for Projecting Large Growth Faults to Depth
    4. Origin of Synthetic and Antithetic Faults, Keystone Structures, and Downward Dying Growth Faults
    5. Three-Dimensional Effects and Cross Structures
    6. Strike-Ramp Pitfall
    7. Compaction Effects Along Growth Normal Faults
    8. Using Structural Relief and Throw to Predict the Downthrown Stratigraphic Section
  22. Chapter 12. Strike-Slip Faults and Associated Structures
    1. Introduction
    2. Mapping Strike-Slip Faults
    3. Criteria for Strike-Slip Faulting
    4. Analysis of Lateral Displacements
    5. Scaling Factors for Strike-Slip Displacements
    6. Balancing Strike-Slip Faults
    7. Summary for Section
    8. General Conclusions for Chapter 12
  23. Chapter 13. Growth Structures
    1. Introduction
    2. Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis and ∆d/d Methods
    3. Accuracy of Method
    4. Examples of the ∆d/d Method
    5. The Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis
    6. Vertical Separation Versus Depth Method
    7. Conclusions
  24. Chapter 14. Isochore and Isopach Maps
    1. Introduction
    2. Sand–Shale Distribution
    3. Basic Construction of Isochore Maps
    4. Methods of Contouring the Hydrocarbon Wedge
    5. Vertical Thickness Determinations
    6. Vertical Thickness and Fluid Contacts in Deviated Wells
    7. Mapping the Top of Structure Versus the Top of Porosity
    8. Fault Wedges
    9. Nonsealing Faults
    10. Volumetric Configuration of a Reservoir
    11. Reservoir Volume Determinations From Isochore Maps
    12. Tilted Hydrocarbon/Water Contacts
    13. Introductory Reservoir Engineering
    14. Interval Isopach Maps
  25. Appendix
  26. References
  27. Index
  28. Credits
  29. Where are the companion content files? - Register Page