## Appendix E. Themodynamic Properties

### E.1. Thermochemical Data

The heat capacity coefficients are used in the equation:

*C*_{P} = *A* + *BT* + *CT*^{2} + *DT*^{3}

where *T* is in K and *C*_{P} in J/mol-K The heat capacities tabulated on the back flap are only suitable for quick order of magnitude calculations. The full form of the heat capacity should be used when possible.

*Note that the value of the heat capacity at room temperature is not given by the first coefficient A when other coefficients are present. The polynomial should not be truncated.*

### E.2. Latent Heats

### E.3. Antoine Constants

The following constants are for the equation

where *P*^{sat} is in mmHg, and *T* is in Celsius. Additional Antoine constants are tabulated in Antoine.xls.

### E.4. Henry’s Constant with Water as Solvent

Selected from the compilation of Sander. *K*_{H}(*T*) = *K°*_{H} exp(d(ln(*K*_{H}))/d(1/*T*) ((1/T) – 1/(298.15 K))

### E.5. Dielectric Constant for Water

### E.6. Dissociation Constants of Polyprotic Acids

The constants are at 25°C and *I* = 0.

Triprotic: o-phosphoric acid, 2.148, 7.198, 12.375.

Tetraprotic: citric acid, 3.128, 4.761, 6.396, ~16?(hydroxyl)

### E.7. Standard Reduction Potentials

All species are at 298.15 K and 1 bar aqueous unless otherwise noted. Gases are at 1 bar partial pressure and pressure is measured in bar. The molal standard state is used for soluble species, with a molal activity coefficient of one at infinite dilution. For water the standard state composition is pure water. The temperature coefficients permit calculation of E°_{T} = E°_{298.15} + (dE°/dT)(T – 298.15). This small subset is representative.

### E.8. Biochemical Data

Standard state for soluble species is an ideal solution at 1 M except for water, which is relative to the Lewis-Randall standard state. The data are for the untransformed Gibbs energies and enthalpies.

### E.9. Properties of Water^{1}

I. Saturation Temperature

II. Saturation Pressure

III. Superheated Steam

IV. Compressed Liquid

### E.10. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Methane

(Source: NIST, Thermophysics Division, Boulder, CO, USA, used with permission.)

### E.11. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Propane

(Source: NIST, Thermophysics Division, Boulder, CO, USA, used with permission.)

### E.12. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for R134a (1,1,1,2-Tetraflouroethane)

(Source: NIST, Thermophysics Division, Boulder, CO, USA, used with permission.)

Properties of Saturated HFC-134*a*.

Abstracted from R. Tillner-Roth; H. D. Baehr, 1994. *J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data*, 23:657.