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Appendix B

The Aerospace Engineer’s Formula Sheet

## B.1 Cost Analysis

Quantity discount factor:

Number of engineering manhours:

Number of tooling manhours:

Number of manufacturing labor manhours:

Break-even analysis:

## B.2 Constraint Analysis

T/W for a level constant velocity turn:

T/W for a desired specific energy level:

T/W for a desired rate-of-climb:

T/W for a desired T-O distance:

T/W for a desired cruise airspeed:

T/W for a service ceiling:

CLmax for a desired stalling speed:

## B.3 Weight Analysis

Design gross weight:

W0 consists of:

Fuel weight ratio:

Empty weight ratio:

This can be solved for W0:

Sailplanes:

Powered sailplanes:

Light Sport Aircraft (land):

Light Sport Aircraft (amphib):

GA single engine:

GA twin piston:

GA twin turboprop:

Agricultural:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Raymer:

Nicolai:

#### Furnishings

Raymer:

Nicolai:

Center of gravity:

CG in terms of %MGC:

## B.4 Power Plant

The Basics of Energy, Work, and Power

UK system (T in lbf, V in ft/s):

SI system (T in N, V in m/s):

To convert torque and RPM to SHP:

Gagg and Ferrar model:

Use the Mattingly method to estimate the effect of airspeed and altitude on the thrust of gas turbine engines.

## B.5 Wing Planform

General lift curve slope:

The Law of Effectiveness:

METHOD 1: Empirical estimation for straight wings:

METHOD 2: Empirical estimation for swept wings:

Raymer:

Brandt:

METHOD 3: Douglas method:

## B.6 Tail Sizing

Horizontal tail volume:

Vertical tail volume:

HT dependent tail arm:

VT dependent tail arm:

HT and VT dependent tail arm:

## B.8 The Propeller

Power coefficient:

Thrust coefficient:

Torque coefficient:

Power-torque relation:

Propeller efficiency:

Propeller thrust:

Ideal efficiency:

Static thrust, TSTATIC:

Corrected static thrust:

## B.10 Airspeeds

Calibrated airspeed:

Equivalent airspeed

True airspeed:

Mach number:

Speed of sound:

## B.11 Take-off

Torenbeek’s balanced field length:

Acceleration on a flat runway:

Acceleration on an uphill slope γ:

Lift-off speed:

Time to lift-off:

Ground run:

Ground run for piston props:

Rotation distance:

Climb angle:

Transition distance:

Transition height:

## B.12 Climb, Cruise, and Maneuvering Flight

Jets in climb:

Propellers in climb:

Rate-of-climb:

General angle-of-climb (AOC):

Min/max airspeed:

Stalling speed:

Level stalling speed at load factor n:

Stalling speed at angle of bank ϕ:

Minimum thrust required, VTRmin, or best glide speed, VBG, VLDmax:

Max L/D:

Carson’s airspeed:

Power required:

Bank angle:

Time to turn ψ degrees:

Thrust required at a load factor n:

Load factor that can be sustained at a given thrust T and airspeed V:

Airspeed for a given CL:

Maximum sustainable turn rate, :

Maximum level bank angle:

Specific excess power:

Specific energy and height:

## B.13 Range and Endurance

Range profile 1:

Range profile 2:

Range profile 3:

Endurance profile 1:

Endurance profile 2:

Endurance profile 3:

TSFC for a jet:

where cjet = SFC for a jet

TSFC for a piston engine:

where cbhp = SFC for a piston

Specific range:

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